PERCHLOROETHYLENE (TETRACHLOROETHYLENE)†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 127-18-4
Formula

C₂Cl₄

Synonyms

tetrachloroethylene, carbon bichloride, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid with a mild, chloroform-like odor.
Boiling point 250°F Molecular weight 165.8
Freezing point/melting point -2°F Vapor pressure 14 mmHg
Flash point Vapor density 5.83
Specific gravity 1.62 Ionization potential 9.32 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) Upper explosive limit (UEL)
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 0
NFPA reactivity rating 0 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2020 2020
Sampling group OVSG-1
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) [SKC 226-01] SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler [SKC 575-002]
Sampling time*

240 min (≥1 min Peak; ≤5 min C)

 

<240 min TWA; >5min C, Peak

Sampling volume (TWA)*

12 L

 

 

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.05 L/min

 

 

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.05 L (Peak); 0.25 L (C)

 

 

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.05 L/min

 

 

Analytical method instruments GC-FID GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 5000 (fully validated) OSHA 1001 (fully validated)
Notes
 

To obtain sampling and analytical error similar to that available with active sampling, knowledge of the atmospheric pressure and temperature are required, and these should be obtained using NIST-traceable devices. If that is not possible, temperature is assumed to be 22.2 °C, and the atmospheric pressure is estimated based on the elevation of the sampling location.

When estimates are used in place of traceable measurements the sampling and analytical error associated with passive sampling is substantially increased, and this makes it more difficult to demonstrate overexposures after considering the 95% lower confidence limit.

Special requirements
 

 

 

 

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
 

 

Bulk Method
Bulk Method
 

 

On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device Detector tubes Detector tubes Detector tubes Detector tubes Detector tubes CMS Chip
Model/Type Dräger - Perchloroethylene 0.1/a, 8101551; 2/a, 8101501; 10/b, CH30701 Gastec 133HA Gastec 133L, 133LL Gastec 133D Matheson-Kitagawa 8014-135SA, 8014-243U, 8014-135SB, 8014-135SH Perchloroethylene, 5-150 ppm range
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
0.1/a: 3-9 strokes, 0.2-4 ppm range, uncertainty approx 33%. 2/a: 1-5 strokes, 2-300 ppm range, uncertainty approx 25%. 10/b: 3 strokes, 5-500 ppm range, uncertainty approx 25% 4 strokes, 0.05-50 ppm range, uncertainty 16% for 0.2-10 ppm, 8% for 10-50 ppm 0.5 - 2 strokes, 133L: 0.4-75 ppm range, uncertainty 16% for 2-5 ppm, 8% for 5-25 ppm. 133LL: 0.05-9 ppm range, uncertainty 16% for 0.2-1 ppm, 8% for 1-3 ppm 1-8 hours, 3-150 ppm range, uncertainty 25% for 25-50 ppm-h, 16% for 50-150 ppm-h follow mfr instructions. 8014-135SA: approx 5-300 ppm range, 8014-243U: approx 5-160 ppm range, 8014-135SB: approx 1-10 ppm, 8014-135SH: 0.05-2% range
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA
 

100 ppm

REL-TWA
 

 

TLV-TWA
 

25 ppm [1990]

PEL-TWA
 

25 ppm (170 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL
 

 

REL-STEL
 

 

TLV-STEL
 

100 ppm [1990]

PEL-STEL
 

100 ppm (685 mg/m³)

PEL-C
 

200 ppm; 300 ppm (Peak) [a single time up to 5 min for any 3 hrs]

REL-C
 

 

TLV-C
 

 

PEL-C
 

300 ppm

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Skin notation
 

N

Notes:
 

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-2. Construction and Maritime PEL is 100 ppm (670 mg/m³) as an 8 hr TWA. See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A and 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards.

Notes:
 

CARCINOGEN (Ca): REDUCE EXPOSURE TO LOWEST FEASIBLE CONCENTRATION (LOQ 0.4 ppm). See Appendix A

Notes:
 

BEI®

Notes:
 

 

Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH
 

150 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-2A, NIOSH-Ca, NTP-R, TLV-A3 Notes:
 

Ca

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
 

100 ppm/200 ppm/1000 ppm

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Perchloroethylene

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Tetrachloroethylene

Literature References

 
  • EPA: Hazard Summary - Tetrachloroethylene
  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Tetrachloroethylene. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • ANSI: USA Standard Acceptable Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene. 1967.
  • EPA IRIS Tetrachloroethylene, 2012
  • IARC, Lancet Oncology, 13:1192-1193, 2011
  • NIOSH: Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene. 1976.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Health Guideline for Tetrachloroethylene. 1978.
  • Gobba, F., Righi, E., Fantuzzi, G., Roccatto, L., Predieri, G., and Aggazzotti, G.: Perchloroethylene in alveolar air, blood, and urine as biologic indices of low-level exposure. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 45(11): 1152-1157, 2003.
  • Gobba, F., Righi, E., Fantuzzi, G., Predieri, G., Cavazzuti, L. and Aggazzotti, G.: Two-year evolution of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision loss. Arch. Environ. Health 53(3): 196-198, 1998.
  • Lash, L.H. and Parker, J.C.: Hepatic and renal toxicities associated with perchlorethylene. Pharmacol. Rev. 53(2): 177-208, 2001.
  • Lynge E. et al.: Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries. Environ Health Perspect. 114(2):213-9, February 2006.
  • Ruder, A.M., Ward, E.M. and Brown, D.P.: Mortality in dry-cleaning workers: an update. Am. J. Ind. Med. 39(2): 121-132, 2001.

Last Updated Date : 04/14/2021