DIOXANE (DIETHYLENE DIOXIDE) (1,4-DIOXANE)†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 123-91-1
Formula

C₄H₈O₂

Synonyms

diethylene ether; dioxan; p-dioxane; 1,4-diethyleneoxide

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid or solid (below 53°F) with a mild, ether-like odor.
Boiling point 214°F Molecular weight 88.1
Freezing point/melting point 53°F Vapor pressure 29 mmHg
Flash point 55°F Vapor density 3.03
Specific gravity 1.03 Ionization potential 9.13 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 2% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 22%
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 3
NFPA reactivity rating 1 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 1010
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) [SKC 226-01]
Sampling time*
Sampling volume (TWA)*

0.5-15 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.01-0.2 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*
Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*
Analytical method instruments GC-FID
Method reference NIOSH 1602 (fully validated)
Notes
Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media

Wipe with charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment. [3M 3500]

Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device
Model/Type
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA

100 ppm (360 mg/m³)

REL-TWA TLV-TWA

20 ppm [1996]

PEL-TWA

0.28 ppm (1 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL REL-STEL TLV-STEL PEL-STEL
PEL-C REL-C

1 ppm (3.6 mg/m³) [30 minutes]

TLV-C PEL-C
Skin notation

Y

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

Y

Skin notation

Y

Notes:

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

Notes:

CARCINOGEN (Ca): REDUCE EXPOSURE TO LOWEST FEASIBLE CONCENTRATION. See Appendix A

Notes: Notes:
Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH

500 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-2B, NIOSH-Ca, NTP-R, TLV-A3, EPA-L Notes:

Ca

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:
Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Dioxane

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Dioxane

Literature References

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - 1,4-Dioxane. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • California Department of Health Services-Drinking Water Program: Information for Public Drinking Water Systems.
  • Nannelli, A., De Rubertis, A., Longo, V. and Gervasi, P.G.: Effects of dioxane on cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver, kidney, lung and nasal mucosa of rat. Arch. Toxicol. 79(2): 74-82, 2005.
  • No Author: 1,4-Dioxane. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dioxane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 965-967.
  • Stickney, J.A., et al.: An updated evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of 1,4-dioxane. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(2): 183-195, 2003.

Last Updated Date : 12/28/2020