STYRENE (VINYL BENZENE; PHENYLETHYLENE)†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 100-42-5
Formula

C₈H₈

Synonyms

ethenyl benzene; phylethylen; styrene monomer; styrene monomer inhibited; styrol; vinyl benzene; cinnamene

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless to yellow, oily liquid with a sweet, floral odor.
Boiling point 293°F Molecular weight 104.2
Freezing point/melting point -23°F Vapor pressure 5 mmHg
Flash point 88°F Vapor density
Specific gravity 0.91 Ionization potential 8.40 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 0.9% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 6.8%
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 3
NFPA reactivity rating 2 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2280 2280
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) coated with 10% t-butylcatechol [SKC 226-73] SKC 575-006 Passive Sampler [SKC 575-006]
Sampling time*

240 min

240 min TWA; 15 min C

Sampling volume (TWA)*

12 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.05 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.75 L

Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*

0.05 L/min

Analytical method instruments GC-FID GC-FID
Method reference OSHA 89 (fully validated) OSHA 1014 (fully validated)
Notes

To obtain sampling and analytical error similar to that available with active sampling, knowledge of the atmospheric pressure and temperature are required, and these should be obtained using NIST-traceable devices. If that is not possible, temperature is assumed to be 22.2 °C, and the atmospheric pressure is estimated based on the elevation of the sampling location.

When estimates are used in place of traceable measurements the sampling and analytical error associated with passive sampling is substantially increased, and this makes it more difficult to demonstrate overexposures after considering the 95% lower confidence limit.

Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device Detector tube Detector tube Detector Tube Detector Tube Detector Tube CMS Chip
Model/Type Dräger - Styrene 10/a, 6723301 Dräger - Styrene 10/a, 6733141 Dräger - Styrene 50/a, CH27601 Gastec 124, 124 L Matheson-Kitagawa 8014-158S Styrene, 2-40 ppm range
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
2 to 15 strokes, approx 5-200 ppm range, uncertainty approx 33% 20 strokes, approx 5-250 ppm range, uncertainty approx 33% 2 to 11 strokes, approx 25-400 ppm range, uncertainty approx 33% 0.5 to 2 strokes (124), 1 or 4 strokes (124L); 1-1500 ppm range (124), 0.5-100 ppm range (124L); 25% for 20 to 100 ppm, 16% for 100 to 500 ppm (124), 16% for 2 to 5 ppm, 8% for 5 to 25 ppm (124L) 1 or 2 strokes, approx 1-300 ppm range
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA

100 ppm

REL-TWA

50 ppm (215 mg/m³)

TLV-TWA

20 ppm [1996]

PEL-TWA

50 ppm (215 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL REL-STEL

100 ppm (425 mg/m³)

TLV-STEL

40 ppm [1996]

PEL-STEL

100 ppm (425 mg/m³)

PEL-C

200 ppm; 600 ppm (Peak) for a single time period up to 5 min in any 3 hours

REL-C TLV-C PEL-C

500 ppm

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

Y

Notes:

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-2. OSHA Construction PEL is C-100 ppm (420 mg/m³) and OSHA Maritime PEL is 100 ppm (420 mg/m³) as an 8 hr TWA. See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A and 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards.

Notes: Notes:

BEI®

Notes:
Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH

700 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: IARC-2B, TLV-A4 Notes:
AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:

50 ppm/250 ppm/1000 ppm

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Styrene monomer, stabilized

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Styrene

Literature References

  • EPA: Hazard Summary - Styrene.
  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Styrene, monomer. 2017.
  • ANSI: American National Standard Acceptable Concentrations of Styrene. September 5, 1969.
  • EPA IRIS Styrene, 1993
  • IARC Monograph for Classification of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans, Volume 82, Styrene, 2002
  • Manini, P. et al.: Assessment of biotransformation of the arene moiety of styrene in volunteers and occupationally exposed workers. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 189(3): 160-169, 2003.
  • Morata, T.C. et al.: Audiometric findings in workers exposed to low levels of styrene and noise. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 44(9): 806-814, 2002.
  • Mutti, A., A. Mazzucchi, P. Rusticelli, G. Frigeri, G. Arfini, and I. Franchini. 1984. Exposure-effect and exposure-response relationships between occupational exposure to styrene and neuropsychological functions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 5: 275-286.
  • NTP Report on Carcinogens Styrene
  • NIOSH: Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Styrene. 1983.
  • Zamyslowska-Szmytke E. et al.: Temporal processing disorder associated with styrene exposure. Audiol Neurootol. 14(5):296-302, 2009.

Last Updated Date : 01/12/2021