TETRAHYDROFURAN†

Chemical Identification
Chemical Identification
CAS # 109-99-9
Formula

C₄H₈O

Synonyms

diethylene oxide; 1,4-epoxybutane; tetramethylene oxide; THF

Physical Properties
Physical Properties
Physical description Colorless liquid with an ether-like odor.
Boiling point 151°F Molecular weight 72.11
Freezing point/melting point -163.3°F Vapor pressure 132 mmHg
Flash point 6°F Vapor density 2.5
Specific gravity 0.89 Ionization potential 9.45 eV
Lower explosive limit (LEL) 2% Upper explosive limit (UEL) 11.8%
NFPA health rating 2 NFPA fire rating 3
NFPA reactivity rating 1 NFPA special instruction
Vapor hazard ratio (VHR)
Historical exceedance percentage
Target organs
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Monitoring Methods Used by OSHA
Analyte code (IMIS no.) 2390
Sampling group
Sampler/Sampling media CSC tube (100/50 mg) [SKC 226-01]
Sampling time*
Sampling volume (TWA)*

1-9 L

Sampling flow rate (TWA)*

0.01-0.2 L/min

Sampling volume (STEL/Peak/C)*
Sampling flow rate (STEL/Peak/C)*
Analytical method instruments GC-FID
Method reference NIOSH 1609 (partially validated)
Notes
Special requirements

* All sampling instructions above are recommended guidelines for OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHOs), please see the corresponding OSHA method reference for complete details.

Wipe Method
Wipe Method
Sampler/Sampling media
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
On-Site Screening Techniques
On-Site Screening Techniques
Device Detector tube Detector tube Detector tube Detector tube
Model/Type Gastec 159 Gastec 161 Matheson-Kitagawa 8014-102SA Matheson-Kitagawa 8014-162U
Sampling information
(see manufacturer instructions)
1 or 2 strokes; 2-800 ppm range; uncertainty 25% for 50-200 ppm, 16% for 200-800 ppm 1 stroke; approx 0.03-1.4% range; uncertainty 16% 0.5 or 1 stroke; approx 0.01-5% range 1 stroke; approx 5-400 ppm range
Exposure Limits
Exposure Limits
OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
NIOSH REL
Up to 10-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
ACGIH TLV©
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
CAL/OSHA PEL
8-hour TWA
(ST) STEL
(C) Ceiling
Peak
PEL-TWA

200 ppm (590 mg/m³)

REL-TWA

200 ppm (590 mg/m³)

TLV-TWA

50 ppm [2002]

PEL-TWA

200 ppm (590 mg/m³)

PEL-STEL REL-STEL

250 ppm (735 mg/m³)

TLV-STEL

100 ppm [2002]

PEL-STEL

250 ppm (735 mg/m³)

PEL-C REL-C TLV-C PEL-C
Skin notation

N

Skin notation

N

Skin notation

Y

Skin notation

N

Notes:

See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1.

Notes: Notes: Notes:
Health factors:  See NIH-NLM PubChem. IDLH

2000 ppm

Carcinogenic classifications: TLV-A3 Notes:

10% of LEL

AIHA emergency response planning guidelines - ERPG-1/ERPG-2/ERPG-3:

100 ppm/500 ppm/5000 ppm

Additional Resources and Literature References
Additional Resources and Literature References

NOAA: CAMEO Chemicals - Tetrahydrofuran

NIOSH: Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Tetrahydrofuran

Literature References

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Tetrahydrofuran. See annual publication for most recent information.
  • Chhabra R.S., Herbert, R.A., Roycroft, J.H., Chou, B., Miller, R.A. and Renne, R.A.: Carcinogenesis studies of tetrahydrofuran vapors in rats and mice. Toxicol. Sci. 41(2): 183-188, 1998.
  • Food and Drug Administration: International Conference on Harmonization: final recommendations on the revision of the permitted daily exposures for two solvents, n-methylpyrrolidone and tetrahydrofuran, according to the maintenance procedures for the guidance Q3C Impurities: Residual Solvents; Availability. Notice. Fed. Regist. 68(219): 64352-64353, 2003.
  • Garnier, R., Rosenberg, N., Puissant, J.M., Chauvet, J.P. and Efthymiou, M.L.: Tetrahydrofuran poisoning after occupational exposure. Br. J. Ind. Med. 46(9): 677-678, 1989.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Tetrahydrofuran. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2178-2180.

Last Updated Date : 01/13/2021