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Hazard Recognition

Many workers are unaware of the potential hazards in their work environment, which makes them more vulnerable to injury. Employers are responsible for informing employees of the hazards and the identities of workplace chemicals to which they are exposed. The following references aid in recognizing solvent hazards in the workplace.

  • OSHA Technical Manual (OTM). OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1.15], (1999, January 20).
  • Chemical Hazard Communication (PDF). OSHA Publication 3084, (Revised 1998). Gives an overview of chemical hazard communication.
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): NIOSH Chemical Listing and Documentation of Revised IDLH Values. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Documents the criteria and information sources that have been used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations (IDLHs).
  • Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123, (1981, January). Provides a table of contents of guidelines for many hazardous chemicals. The files provide technical chemical information, including chemical and physical properties, health effects, exposure limits, and recommendations for medical monitoring, personal protective equipment (PPE), and control procedures.
  • National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-130, (1999). Discusses five of the NORA priority areas categorized by work environment and workforce. Research has shown that physiologic interactions from some mixed exposures can lead to an increase in the severity of the harmful effect. For example, exposure to noise and toluene results in a two- to three-times-higher risk of hearing loss.
  • Mixed Exposures: A Report by the NORA Mixed Exposures Team. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-106, (2004, December).
  • ToxFAQs™. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Provides a series of summaries and answers to frequently asked questions about contaminants found at hazardous waste sites and hazardous substances excerpted from ATSDR's Toxicological Profiles and Public Health Statements. Each fact sheet serves as a quick and easy-to-understand guide.
  • Cleaning Solvents. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Provides links to several different fact sheets on solvent related topics.
Specific Solvents
  • Safety and Health Information Bulletins (SHIBs). OSHA. SHIBs are one tool OSHA uses to inform internal staff and the public of significant occupational safety and health issues concerning hazard recognition, evaluation, and control in the workplace and at emergency response sites. The scope of SHIB topics and the procedures for the development of SHIBs are outlined in the OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-065 [CPL 2.65A]. The following SHIBs relate to solvent hazards.
  • Health Hazard Alert -- 2-Nitropropane (2-NP). US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 80-142, (1980, October). Summarizes cancer studies for 2-Nitropropane. This alert has superseded the previous 1977 study:
    • 2-Nitropropane. Publication No. 78-127 (Current Intelligence Bulletin 17), (1977, April 25). Provides the results of this animal study along with other pertinent data, their implications for occupational healthy and precautions for handling 2-nitropropane in the workplace.
  • OSHA-NIOSH Hazard Alert: 1-Bromopropane. OSHA and US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013-150, (2013, July). Provides information on 1-Bromopropane concerning hazard awareness, controls, and resources for assistance.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.

**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.

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