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Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation

Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation are electromagnetic radiation in the frequency ranges 3 kilohertz (kHz) - 300 Megahertz (MHz), and 300 MHz - 300 gigahertz (GHz), respectively. Research continues on possible biological effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation from radios, cellular phones, the processing and cooking of foods, heat sealers, vinyl welders, high frequency welders, induction heaters, flow solder machines, communications transmitters, radar transmitters, ion implant equipment, microwave drying equipment, sputtering equipment and glue curing.

There are no specific standards for radiofrequency and microwave radiation issues.

Standards

This section highlights OSHA standards, standard interpretations (official interpretation of the standards), other federal, national consensus, and foreign national standards relevant to radiofrequency and microwave radiation.

OSHA

Note: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies.

General Industry (29 CFR 1910)

  • 1910 Subpart G, Occupational health and environmental control
    • 1910.97, Nonionizing radiation. The exposure limit in this standard (10 mW/sq. cm.) is expressed in voluntary language and has been ruled unenforceable for Federal OSHA enforcement. The standard does specify the design of an RF warning sign. Newer designs are also acceptable. [related topic page]
  • 1910 Subpart J, General environmental controls
  • 1910 Subpart R, Special industries

Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)

  • 1926 Subpart D, Occupational health and environmental controls
    • 1926.54, Nonionizing radiation
      • 1926.54(l), Construction. Limits worker exposure to 10 mW/sq.cm. for construction work (including the painting of towers).

Standard Interpretations

Other Federal

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • Radio Frequency Safety. Office of Engineering and Technology (OET). Evaluates the effect of emissions from FCC-regulated transmitters on the quality of the human environment. At the present time there is no federally-mandated radio frequency (RF) exposure standard.
    • The FCC's requirements dealing with RF exposure can be found in Part 1 of its rules at 47 CFR 1.1307(b). The exposure limits themselves are specified in 47 CFR 1.1310 in terms of frequency, field strength, power density and averaging time. Facilities and transmitters licensed and authorized by the FCC must either comply with these guidelines or else an applicant must file an Environmental Assessment (EA) with the FCC as specified in 47 CFR 1.1301 et seq.
  • Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture. (2005, January 6). Also available as a 142 KB PDF, 7 pages. Describes a violation of FCC rules resulting in a $10K fine. The case involves a worker climbing an FM broadcast tower.

National Consensus

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • ANSI publishes consensus standards on RF exposures and measurements. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES) sets safety standards across frequencies 0 to 300 GHz. Also the IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR) publishes position papers on human exposure to electromagnetic fields.
    • C95.1, Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz. (Revised 2005).
    • C95.2, Standard for Radio-Frequency Energy and Current Flow Symbols. (1999).
    • C95.3, Recommended Practice for Measurements and Computations of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields With Respect to Human Exposure to Such Fields, 100 kHz-300 GHz. (2002).
    • C95.4, Recommended Practice for Determining Safe Distances from Radio Frequency Transmitting Antennas When Using Electric Blasting Caps During Explosive Operations. (2002).
    • C95.6, Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, 0-3 kHz. (2002). Defines exposure levels to protect against adverse effects in humans from exposure to electric and magnetic fields at frequencies from 0 to 3 kHz. (2002).
    • C95.7-2005, Recommended Practice for Radio Frequency Safety Programs. (2006).
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
  • Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Physical Agents, 7th Edition. Provides consensus exposure limits from organization of governmental industrial hygienists for radiofrequency and microwave radiation.

Foreign National

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Standard (ARPANSA)

Public Health England

Health Effects

Electric and magnetic fields are complex physical agents whose potential health effects are the subject of much research. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source are noted in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

General Health Effects Reviews
  • Review of the Scientific Evidence for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (0-300 GHz) [2 MB PDF, 223 pages]. Volume 15, No. 3, (2004, April 30). Provides scientific basis and recommendation for implementation of the Board's statement.

  • The NCRP Releases Commentary No. 18, Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields. National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). Examines the literature on biological effects of exposure to modulated radiofrequency (RF) energy to determine whether present exposure standards and guidelines need to be modified further to take modulation into account. Modulation occurs in a wide variety of forms specialized for radar, wireless communications, broadcast communications, and industrial processes.

  • 2003 WHO research agenda for radio frequency fields. World Health Organization (WHO). The RF Research Agenda defines high priority research whose results would contribute to the WHO health risk assessment for RF exposures. Researchers are encouraged to use the Research Agenda as a guide to studies that have high value for WHO health risk assessments.

  • Heynick LN, Johnston HA, et al. "Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity." Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 6(2003):S74-100. Presents critiques of epidemiologic studies and experimental investigations, published mostly in peer-reviewed journals, on cancer and related effects from exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the nominal frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz of interest to Subcommittee 4 (SC4) of the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES). The preponderance of published epidemiologic and experimental findings do not support the supposition that in vivo or in vitro exposures to such fields are carcinogenic.

  • "Review of the Epidemiologic Literature on EMF and Health." International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Standing Committee on Epidemiology. Environmental Health Perspectives 109.6(2001, December):911-34. Concludes that overall, despite 20 years of extensive epidemiologic investigation of the relation of EMF to risk of chronic disease, there are still epidemiologic questions that need to be resolved.

  • Questions and Answers About the Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Radiation [169 KB PDF, 38 pages]. Federal Communication Commission, Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) Bulletin No. 56, (1999, August). Provides factual information to the public by answering some of the most commonly asked questions about this complex and often misunderstood topic.

  • Establishing a Dialogue on Risks from Electromagnetic Fields [2 MB PDF, 41 pages]. World Health Organization (WHO), (2002). Supports decision-makers faced with a combination of public controversy, scientific uncertainty, and the need to operate existing facilities and/or the requirement to site new facilities appropriately. Its goal is to improve the decision-making process by reducing misunderstandings and improving trust through better dialogue.

  • EPA Letter Accepting FCC Limits. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (1999). Provides a general EPA statement that people do not have to be concerned about RF radiation if they keep their exposures below the FCC standard.

  • Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation, Third Edition. American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), (2004). Provides a detailed look at the physical characteristics of radio-frequency and microwave radiation, its generation and sources, how it interacts with matter, and its biological effects. Existing standards and guidelines are discussed, as are instrumentation and controls. A handy glossary provides definitions of important terms, and an appendix presents a list of problems industrial hygienists and other health professionals might face.

  • Understanding Radiation. National Safety Council (NSC). Provides an overview of radiation and includes a section on non-ionizing radiation.

Health Effects by Exposure Source

Traffic Radar Devices

  • Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic Radar Devices. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), National Technical Information Service (NTIS) Publication No. PB95-261350, (1995, June). Includes exposure assessments and an analysis of existing record sources for possible epidemiological studies.

RF Heaters and Sealers

  • Radiofrequency (RF) Sealers and Heaters. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 80-107, (1979, December). Reports that workers near RF sealers may be unaware of their exposure to RF emissions, because the RF energy from sealers and heaters can penetrate deeply into the body without activating the heat sensors located in the skin. The results of a NIOSH study indicate that the majority of the workers surveyed were exposed to RF energy at levels exceeding values citable by OSHA. An extensive list of occupations involving the use of RF sealers and heaters is presented in Section II of the Appendix.

Wireless Communications including Cellular Phones

  • Telecommunications: Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues [2 MB PDF, 42 pages]. US General Accounting Office (GAO) Report to Congressional Requesters, (2001, May). Concludes that research to date does not show RF energy emitted from mobile phones to have adverse health effects but there is not enough information to conclude they pose no risk.

  • Mobile Phones and Health. Parliament of the United Kingdom (UK), House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee, (1999, September 22). Outlines the recommendations and conclusions of the committee regarding mobile phones and health.

  • FDA Letter Regarding Cellular Phones. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (1997, May 5). Letter to Congress from the Food and Drug Administration in response to questions regarding alleged health hazards associated with the use of cellular phones. The appendix includes brief summaries of six recent studies.

  • FDA Letter Regarding Wireless Communication. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (1998, January 14). Letter to Congress regarding the status of the Food and Drug Administration's oversight and investigation of wireless communication health effects.

  • Cell Phones. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Radio Transmission

  • Radiofrequency Radiation-caused Burns. OSHA Hazard Information Bulletin (HIB), (1990, September 5). Describes induced-current grasping hazards and burns caused by spark-discharges found in longshoremen working on a pier in close proximity to AM radio transmitting towers. Suggested control methods are included.

  • Schilling CJ. "Effects of exposure to very high frequency radiofrequency radiation on six antenna engineers in two separate incidents." Occupational Medicine (London) 50.1(2000, January):49-56. Describes the health effects on six men exposed to high levels of RF radiation (100 MHz) while working on transmission masts. Symptoms included headache, paresthesia, diarrhea, malaise and lassitude. The condition of the four men with the highest exposure has shown no significant improvement. The incidents occurred in 1995 and 1996.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Hazard Locations and Solutions

In recent years there has been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. Extensive research on this topic is underway in many countries. Natural low-frequency EM fields come from two main sources: the sun, and thunderstorm activity, but man-made fields at much higher frequencies have altered this natural EMF. At sufficiently high power densities, RF/MW energy can cause thermal effects that can cause blindness, and sterility. Non-thermal effects, such as alteration of the human body's circadian rhythms, immune system and the nature of the electrical and chemical signals communicated through the cell membrane have been demonstrated. However, none of the research has conclusively proven that low-level RF/MW radiation causes adverse health effects.

General

  • Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation, Third Edition. American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), (2004). Provides a detailed look at the physical characteristics of radio-frequency and microwave radiation, its generation and sources, how it interacts with matter, and its biological effects. Existing standards and guidelines are discussed, as are instrumentation and controls. A handy glossary provides definitions of important terms, and an appendix presents a list of problems industrial hygienists and other health professionals might face.

  • Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation in the Workplace. Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, (2009, June). Describes health effects, exposure limits and ways to control RF/MW radiation.

Interference with Medical Devices

  • Human Exposure to Radio Frequency and Microwave Radiation from Portable and Mobile Telephones and Other Wireless Communication Devices. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR), (2000, September). Reports that sufficiently high levels of RF energy can interfere with other electronic equipment. This problem is more likely to occur with pulsed energy, which characterizes digital cellular telephones. Studies have shown that handheld cellular phones can affect the operation of heart pacemakers or defibrillators if the phone is placed directly over the device, and there have been reports of interference between cell phones and hearing aids. Individuals with pacemakers, implantable defibrillators, or other body-mounted medical electronic devices, should consult with their physician and/or the phone manufacturer to determine what precautions, if any, should be taken. Some manufacturers recommend that cell phones be used on the other side of the body from the implanted pacemaker.
  • Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH).
    • Update on Cellular phone Interference with Cardiac Pacemakers. (1995, November 1). Reports interference with the pacemaker's normal delivery of pulses can occur when some cellular phones are placed very close to implanted cardiac pacemakers, The type of interference under study is called "electromagnetic interference", or "Emi". The CDRH concludes that interference issues are limited to TDMA-type digital technologies, and further, that a distance separation of ~6 inches (~15 cm) is sufficient to mitigate EMI.

Amateur Radio

  • American Radio Relay League (ARRL)
    • ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs. Newington CT: American Radio Relay League (ARRL), 1997.
      • RF Radiation and Electromagnetic Field Safety. Presents thermal and non-thermal effects, safe exposure levels, cardiac pacemakers, typical RF field strengths, and RF awareness guidelines developed by the ARRL RF Safety Committee, based on the FCC/EPA measurements and other data.
      • Amateur Radio RF Safety Calculator. Provides a main beam power density estimation program intended for use as part of a routine evaluation of RF safety compliance with FCC regulations. This is a World Wide Web front end for a public domain C program written by Ken Harker WM5R using the cgic library. This program has been derived directly from a public domain BASIC program written and published by Wayne Overbeck N6NB in the January, 1997 issue of CQ VHF, p. 33.

Cellular Phone Base Stations and Hand Held Cell Phones

  • "Use Of "Protective Devices" For Cellular Telephones Technical Information Statement." Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 21.3(2002):105-6. If a mobile-phone user wants to reduce his or her exposure to RF energy, for whatever reason, he or she can:
    • Limit the duration of calls
    • Use a digital handset instead of an older analog model. In most, but not all cases, digital handsets operate at lower power levels than analog models. (The actual power level, however, depends on local conditions and can vary greatly.)
    • Use "hands-free kits", which move the handset away from the body.
  • Human Exposure to Radio Frequency and Microwave Radiation from Portable and Mobile Telephones and Other Wireless Communication Devices. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR), (2000, September). Indicates that local SARs produced by hand-held, transportable, and mobile transceivers and cellular telephones normally do not exceed FCC and other safety limits. Present scientific evidence, as reviewed by standards setting organizations and other expert groups, does not demonstrate health or safety risks from cellular and other communications transceivers. A potential exists for interference between hand-held units and some medical devices that may be located in close proximity to them (within a few centimeters).

  • Physical Agents Data Sheets (PADS) - Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation. Alaska Department of Labor and Development. Requires employers who have people working around devices which produce radiofrequency/microwave radiation ensure that those devices are properly shielded to prevent leakage of radiation. The State of Alaska in its Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Standards has specified for incident electromagnetic energy frequencies from 10 MHz to 100 GHz, a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 10 mW/cm as averaged over any possible six-minute period.

Heating and Sealing Devices

  • Radiofrequency (RF) Sealers and Heaters. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 80-107, (1979, December). Reports that workers near RF sealers may be unaware of their exposure to RF emissions, because the RF energy from sealers and heaters can penetrate deeply into the body without activating the heat sensors located in the skin. The results of a NIOSH study indicate that the majority of the workers surveyed were exposed to RF energy at levels exceeding values citable by OSHA. The following controls are recommended:
    • Properly design and install shielding material.
    • Maximize the distance between the worker and the source of RF energy emission should be maximized. Examples of means to accomplish this include the use of automatic feeding devices, rotating tables, and remote materials handling.
    • Tune the equipment electronically to minimize the stray power emitted.
    • Whenever possible, equipment switch off equipment when it is not being used. Maintenance and adjustment of the equipment should be performed only while the equipment is not in operation.
    • After the performance of maintenance or repair, all machine parts, including cabinetry, should be reinstalled so that the equipment is intact and its configuration is unchanged.
    • Post warnings and information.
    • Develop a medical surveillance program tailored to the expected degree of employee use of RF equipment and potential for exposure to RF energy.
    • Take exposure measurements at regular intervals.
  • Physical Agents Data Sheets (PADS) - Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation - Safety and Health Precautions. Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Reports radiofrequency sealers and heaters have been among the major sources of employee exposure to radiofrequency/microwave radiation.
    • When these machines are used, employees should use mechanical or electrical devices that allow them to stay as far away form the source of radiation as possible.
    • Whenever possible, these sealers should be turned off when not being used. Maintenance and adjustment of this type of equipment should be performed only by trained technicians and only when the machines are turned off.
    • Warnings should be posted to keep everyone away from the source of radiation except for those workers who are absolutely essential to performing the job.

Microwave Ovens

  • Microwave Ovens and their Hazards. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Identifies old or faulty door seals as the most common causes of microwave radiation leakage. Mechanical abuse, a build-up of dirt, or simple wear and tear of continued use can cause door seals to be less effective. Theoretically, there will be small amounts of leakage through the viewing glass but measurements have shown this to be insignificant. Safety tips for installation and maintenance of microwave ovens include:
    • Take special care to ensure that no damage occurs to the part of the oven making contact with the door or door seals.
    • Ensure that the microwave is unplugged or disconnected from electrical power before reaching into any accessible openings or attempting any repairs.
    • Ensure that the adjustment of applied voltages, replacement of the microwave power generating component, dismantling of the oven components, and refitting of waveguides are undertaken only by persons who have been specially trained for such tasks. The services of a qualified repairman should be sought when any malfunction is suspected.
    • Do not by pass the door interlocks.
    • Do not test a microwave power generating component without an appropriate load connected to its output. The power generated must never be allowed to radiate freely into occupied areas.
  • Microwave Oven. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). Contains FAQs about microwave ovens, checking ovens for leakage, tips on safe microwave oven operation, and the erupted Hot Water Phenomena in Microwave Ovens.

Radio Broadcast Antennae

  • Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture [142 KB PDF, 7 pages]. Federal Communication Commission (FCC), (2005, January 6). Describes a violation of FCC rules resulting in a $10K fine. The case involves a worker climbing an FM broadcast tower.

Traffic Radar Devices

  • Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic Radar Devices. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), National Technical Information Service (NTIS) Publication No. PB95-261350, (1995, June). Recommends police officers take some simple steps which will sharply reduce their exposure to the low-level microwave radiation which these devices emit.
    • Always point the device away from the police officer's body, or his/her partner's body, while it is turned on.
    • Mount fixed radar antennas so that the beam is not pointed at any occupant of the patrol car.
    • Whenever possible, turn off a hand-held unit when it is not in use. If the police officer's unit has a "standby" mode, always use it when not measuring the speed of a vehicle. Never rest the unit against the officer's body when it is turned on.
    • When it is on, try to avoid pointing the device toward metal surfaces inside the police officer's car, such as the floor or a door, to avoid microwave reflection.

Evaluating RF and Microwave Exposure

RF energy includes frequencies ranging from about 3000 cycles per second (3 kHz) to 300 billion cycles per second (300 GHz). Microwaves are a subset of radio waves and includes frequencies ranging from around 300 million cycles per second (300 MHz) to 3 GHz. RF exposures are directly linked to absorption and distribution of RF energy in the body, and the absorption and distribution are strongly dependent on body size and orientation and on frequency and polarization of the incident radiation. A common measure of exposure is the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), the rate of energy absorption in tissue, measured in watts per kilogram of tissue.

  • C95.3, Recommended Practice for Measurements and Computations of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields With Respect to Human Exposure to Such Fields, 100 kHz-300 GHz, (2002). Revises and develops specifications for preferred methods for measuring and computing external radiofrequency electromagnetic fields to which persons may be exposed.

  • 2345, Evaluation and Control of Personnel Exposure to Radio Frequency Fields 3 kHz to 300 GHz. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG).

  • Field Service Memo - Electromagnetic Radiation and How It Affects Your Instruments. OSHA, (1990, May 20). Provides OSHA compliance officers with basic principles of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Discusses the effects of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the operation of industrial hygiene instruments, explains why special isotropic probes are used for making non-ionizing radiation surveys, and emphasizes the need for special attention in measuring radio frequency fields.

Radio and Television Broadcast Stations

Amateur Radio

  • Radiofrequency Safety FAQs. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
  • American Radio Relay League (ARRL)
    • The FCC's New RF-Exposure Regulations. Describes the FCC regulations which identify Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) derived from the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) at which tissue absorbs RF energy, expressed in watts per kilogram (W/kg). From a safe SAR, the Standards and regulations set MPEs that vary with frequency. Human-body resonances fall in the frequency range from 30 to 300 MHz and are the most strictly controlled. The regulations define two primary RF-exposure environments "controlled/occupational" and "uncontrolled/general public." In a "controlled" RF environment people know that RF is present and can take steps to control their exposure. This applies to areas where you control access. The limits for controlled environments are evaluated differently (less stringent) than those for uncontrolled environments.
    • FCC RF-Exposure Regulations -- the Station Evaluation. Provides the power-density and field-strength formulas and tables which give the compliance distance in the main beam of the antenna, at any angle. The tables based on antenna modeling have calculated the horizontal compliance distances at ground level, and at first and second story exposure levels.
    • Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields at Amateur Radio Stations. FCC/OET Report ASD-9601, (1996, January). Also available as a 145 KB PDF, 70 pages. Describes a joint measurement study of environmental radiofrequency (RF) fields in the vicinity of nine amateur radio stations that was conducted by the FCC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in southern California. Measurements of electric and magnetic field strength were made in areas near amateur antennas and equipment in order to determine typical and "worst case" exposure levels.

Cell Phones Stations

RF and Microwave Safety Programs

RF and Microwave Radiation safety programs are often a part of a larger radiation, or non-ionizing radiation, safety program.

  • Elements of a Comprehensive RF Protection Program: Role of RF Measurements. US Department of Labor (DOL), OSHA Health Response Team, (1995, April 12). Outlines the elements of a comprehensive RF Protection Program and the role of RF measurements in implementing the program.

  • Radio Frequency Safety. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Provides access to FCC rules and guidance documents related to RF safety.

  • 2345, Evaluation and Control of Personnel Exposure to Radio Frequency Fields - 3 kHz to 300 GHz. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG).

Additional Information

Related Safety and Health Topics Pages

Training

General

Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave (MW) Radiation

Laser Radiation

Other Resources

  • Electromagnetic Fields (EMF). World Health Organization (WHO). Contains numerous links to RF and microwave studies, publications and presentations.

  • EMF (Electric and Magnetic Fields). National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety & Health Topic.

  • Radiation. Public Health England. Advises UK government departments and others on standards of protection for exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, which includes electric and magnetic fields.
  • American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Serves the needs of occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in industry, government, labor, academic institutions, and independent organizations.

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