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Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills

The manufacture of pulp and paper is one of the world's oldest and largest industries. Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills in the United States are a world leader in the production of pulp and paper. According to the U.S. EPA, these mills produce 9 million tons of pulp annually and 26 billion newspapers, books, and magazines. They are one of the nation's largest industries made up of approximately 565 manufacturing facilities located in 42 states and employ over 200,000 people.

Pulp and paper manufacturing can also be very hazardous due to massive weights and falling, rolling, and/or sliding pulpwood loads. Workers may be struck or crushed by loads or suffer lacerations from the misuse of equipment, particularly when machines are used improperly or without proper safeguards.

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills are addressed in specific standards for the general industry.

OSHA Standards

This section highlights OSHA standards, directives (instructions for compliance officers), and standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

Note: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies.

Frequently Cited Standards

OSHA maintains a listing of the most frequently cited standards for specified 2-6-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes. Please refer to OSHA's Frequently Cited OSHA Standards page for additional information. For Paper Manufacturing use NAICS code 322 in the NAICS search box.

Other Highlighted Standards

General Industry (29 CFR 1910)


Standard Interpretations

Hazards and Solutions

The following references aid in recognizing hazards in the workplace and provide examples of possible solutions.


  • Fire Hazard From Carbon Adsorption Deodorizing Systems. OSHA Hazard Information Bulletin (HIB), (1997, July 30). Describes the hazards involved and provides recommendations for reducing these hazards.

  • Profile of the Pulp and Paper Industry, 2nd Edition [1 MB PDF, 135 pages]. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project, (2002, November). Contains detailed information on various pulp and paper topics of interest including an industrial process description, a comprehensive environmental profile, innovative control programs, contacts, and a list of bibliographic references.


Machine Guarding


Pressure Vessels

Additional Information

Related Safety and Health Topics Pages

Other Resources

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