- Safety and Health Topics
Evaluating Exposure and Controls
Evaluating Employee Exposure to Lead
Occupational exposure to lead can occur from inhalation of airborne particles containing lead and from contaminated skin, clothing, and surfaces. The following resources provide information on exposure assessment and analytical methods used to evaluate lead exposure. OSHA standards for general industry (1910.1025), shipyards (1915.1025), and construction (1926.62) require employers to assess potential employee exposure to lead.
- Chemical Sampling Information. OSHA. Presents, in concise form, data on a large number of chemical substances that may be encountered in industrial hygiene investigations.
- Blood Lead Laboratories. OSHA. OSHA administers a program for approval of laboratories submitting data as required by the OSHA Lead Standard for the general industry, 29 CFR 1910.1025. Employers who are required to perform biological monitoring for blood lead must use an OSHA-approved blood lead laboratory for analysis.
OSHA has developed and validated methods for use by the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC) laboratory. The following method has been adopted by many laboratories for the analysis of chemical compounds. Exposures should be evaluated with standard total dust sampling techniques for comparison to the OSHA permissible exposure limits (PEL).
- Metal & Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres (Atomic Absorption). Method ID-121, (Revised February 2002).
- Metal and Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres (ICP Analysis). Method ID-125G, (Revised September 2002).
- ICP Analysis of Metal/Metalloid Particulates from Solder Operations. Method ID-206, (May 1991).
- Lead Test Kits. (September 1994).
For additional information, see OSHA's Sampling and Analysis Safety and Health Topics Page.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
- NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM). NMAM is a collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air, and in the blood and urine of workers who are occupationally exposed. NMAM also includes chapters on quality assurance, sampling, portable instrumentation, etc.
- Lead by Flame AAS. Method No. 7082, (August 15, 1994).
- Lead by GFAAS. Method No. 7105, (August 15, 1994).
- Elements by ICP (Nitric/Perchloric Acid Ashing). Method No. 7300, (March 15, 2003).
- Lead in Air by Chemical Spot Test. Method No. 7700.
- Lead by Portable Ultrasonic Extraction/ASV. Method No. 7701, (March 15, 2003).
- Lead by Field Portable XRF. Method No. 7702.
- Lead in blood and urine. Method No. 8003, (August 15, 1994).
- Lead in Surface Wipe Samples. Method No. 9100, (August 15, 1994).
- CDC Announces Issuance of Patent for Detecting the Presence of Lead. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (October 17, 2002).
Workers are primarily exposed to lead by breathing in particles containing lead. Lead compounds can also get on the skin, contaminate clothing or food, and be ingested (see the DOD video on the routes of exposure). The most effective way to prevent exposure to a hazardous material such as lead is through elimination or substitution with viable, less toxic alternatives. The hierarchy of controls describes the order that should be followed when choosing among exposure-control options for a hazardous substance. Generally, elimination or substitution is the preferred choice (most protective) at the top of the hierarchy, followed by engineering controls, administrative controls, work-practice controls, and, finally, personal protective equipment (PPE). Engineering controls include isolating the exposure source or using other engineering methods, such as local exhaust ventilation, to minimize exposure to lead. Administrative controls usually involve logistic or workforce actions such as limiting the amount of time a worker performs work involving potential exposure to lead. When exposure to lead hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work, and when safe work practices and other forms of administrative controls cannot provide sufficient additional protection, a supplementary method of control is the use of protective clothing or equipment. This is collectively called personal protective equipment, or PPE. PPE may also be appropriate for controlling hazards while engineering and work practice controls are being installed. PPE includes wearing the proper respiratory protection and clothing. Good housekeeping practices to prevent surface contamination and hygiene facilities and practice to protect workers from ingesting and taking home lead are also necessary to prevent exposure to lead.
- Protecting Workers from Lead Hazards. OSHA Fact Sheet, (September 2005).
- Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123, (January 1981). Contains information on identification, physical and chemical properties, health hazards, exposure limits, exposure sources and control methods, monitoring, personal hygiene, storage, spills and leaks, and personal protective equipment.
- Protecting Workers Exposed to Lead-Based Paint Hazards: A Report to Congress. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 98-112, (January 1997). Provides extensive information on lead, including health effects, exposure criteria, sampling and analysis, control methods, and other NIOSH recommendations.
For additional information regarding controlling exposures to lead, see the following OSHA's Safety and Health Topics Pages on:
Resources for preventing lead exposure at outdoor and indoor firing ranges:
NIOSH workplace safety and health topics page on lead exposure at indoor firing ranges. Includes related NIOSH publications, peer reviewed publications, and NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations.