Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affect the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments and tendons. Workers in many different industries and occupations can be exposed to risk factors at work, such as lifting heavy items, bending, reaching overhead, pushing and pulling heavy loads, working in awkward body postures and performing the same or similar tasks repetitively. Exposure to these known risk factors for MSDs increases a worker's risk of injury.
Work-related MSDs can be prevented. Ergonomics --- fitting a job to a person --- helps lessen muscle fatigue, increases productivity and reduces the number and severity of work-related MSDs.
Examples of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Rotator cuff injuries (affects the shoulder)
- Epicondylitis (affects the elbow)
- Trigger finger
- Muscle strains and low back injuries
Impact of MSDs in the Workplace
- Work related MSDs are among the most frequently reported causes of lost or restricted work time.
- According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in 2013, MSD1 cases accounted for 33% of all worker injury and illness cases.
A Process for Protecting Workers
Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their workers. In the workplace, the number and severity of MSDs resulting from physical overexertion, and their associated costs, can be substantially reduced by applying ergonomic principles.
Implementing an ergonomic process is effective in reducing the risk of developing MSDs in high-risk industries as diverse as construction, food processing, firefighting, office jobs, healthcare, transportation and warehousing. The following are important elements of an ergonomic process:
- Provide Management Support - A strong commitment by management is critical to the overall success of an ergonomic process. Management should define clear goals and objectives for the ergonomic process, discuss them with their workers, assign responsibilities to designated staff members, and communicate clearly with the workforce.
- Involve Workers - A participatory ergonomic approach, where workers are directly involved in worksite assessments, solution development and implementation is the essence of a successful ergonomic process. Workers can:
- Identify and provide important information about hazards in their workplaces.
- Assist in the ergonomic process by voicing their concerns and suggestions for reducing exposure to risk factors and by evaluating the changes made as a result of an ergonomic assessment.
- Provide Training - Training is an important element in the ergonomic process. It ensures that workers are aware of ergonomics and its benefits, become informed about ergonomics related concerns in the workplace, and understand the importance of reporting early symptoms of MSDs.
- Identify Problems - An important step in the ergonomic process is to identify and assess ergonomic problems in the workplace before they result in MSDs.
- Encourage Early Reporting of MSD Symptoms - Early reporting can accelerate the job assessment and improvement process, helping to prevent or reduce the progression of symptoms, the development of serious injuries, and subsequent lost-time claims.
- Implement Solutions to Control Hazards - There are many possible solutions that can be implemented to reduce, control or eliminate workplace MSDs.
- Evaluate Progress - Established evaluation and corrective action procedures are required to periodically assess the effectiveness of the ergonomic process and to ensure its continuous improvement and long-term success. As an ergonomic process is first developing, assessments should include determining whether goals set for the ergonomic process have been met and determining the success of the implemented ergonomic solutions.
Note: An ergonomic process uses the principles of a safety and health program to address MSD hazards. Such a process should be viewed as an ongoing function that is incorporated into the daily operations, rather than as an individual project.
How do I find out about employer responsibilities and workers' rights?
Workers have a right to a safe workplace. The law requires employers to provide their employees with safe and healthful workplaces. The OSHA law also prohibits employers from retaliating against employees for exercising their rights under the law (including the right to raise a health and safety concern or report an injury). For more information see www.whistleblowers.gov or Workers' rights under the OSH Act.
OSHA can help answer questions or concerns from employers and workers. To reach your regional or area OSHA office, go to the OSHA Offices by State webpage or call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742).
Small business employers may contact OSHA's free and confidential On-site Consultation program to help determine whether there are hazards at their worksites and work with OSHA on correcting any identified hazards. Consultants in this program from state agencies or universities work with employers to identify workplace hazards, provide advice on compliance with OSHA standards, and assist in establishing injury and illness prevention programs. On-site Consultation services are separate from enforcement activities and do not result in penalties or citations. To contact OSHA's free consultation service, go to OSHA's On-site Consultation web page or call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742) and press number 4.
Workers may file a complaint to have OSHA inspect their workplace if they believe that their employer is not following OSHA standards or that there are serious hazards. Workers can file a complaint with OSHA by calling 1-800-321-OSHA (6742), online via eComplaint Form, or by printing the complaint form and mailing or faxing it to the local OSHA area office. Complaints that are signed by a worker are more likely to result in an inspection.
If you think your job is unsafe or if you have questions, contact OSHA at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742). Your contact will be kept confidential. We can help. For other valuable worker protection information, such as Workers' Rights, Employer Responsibilities, and other services OSHA offers, visit OSHA's Workers' page.
1 BLS defines musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) to include cases where the nature of the injury or illness is pinched nerve; herniated disc; meniscus tear; sprains, strains, tears; hernia (traumatic and nontraumatic); pain, swelling, and numbness; carpal or tarsal tunnel syndrome; Raynaud's syndrome or phenomenon; musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases and disorders, when the event or exposure leading to the injury or illness is overexertion and bodily reaction, unspecified; overexertion involving outside sources; repetitive motion involving microtasks; other and multiple exertions or bodily reactions; and rubbed, abraded, or jarred by vibration.
- Prevention of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Poultry Processing (EPUB | MOBI). OSHA Publication 3213, (2013). Also available in Spanish (EPUB | MOBI).
- Ergonomics Program Management Guidelines for Meatpacking Plants. OSHA Publication 3123, (1993).
- Beverage Distribution Hazard Alert Letter. OSHA, (August 18, 2011).
- Solutions for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Foundries. OSHA Publication 3465, (2012).
- Guidelines for Nursing Homes: Ergonomics for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (PDF). OSHA Publication 3182, (2003, Revised March 2009).
- Guidelines for Shipyards: Ergonomics for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (PDF). OSHA Publication 3341, (2008).
- Guidelines for Retail Grocery Stores: Ergonomics for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (PDF). OSHA Publication 3192, (2004).
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
- Evaluation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Other Musculoskeletal Disorders at a Poultry Processing Plant. Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Report 2014-0040-3232 (March 2015, Revised June 2015).
- High Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Poultry Plant Workers. Science Blog, (April 6, 2015).
- Ergonomic Solutions for Retailers: Prevention of Material Handling Injuries in the Grocery Sector. Publication No. 2015-100, (October 2014).
- Ergonomic Guidelines for Manual Material Handling. Publication No. 2007-131, (April 2007). Recognize high-risk MMH work tasks and choose effective options for reducing their physical demands.
- A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools. Publication No. 2004-164, (2004). Presents an easy-to-use guideline for selecting or purchasing the best available ergonomically designed non-powered hand tools. Also available in Spanish.
- Elements of Ergonomics Programs: A Primer Based on Workplace Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders. Publication No. 97-117, (March 1997) Describes the basic elements of a workplace ergonomics program aimed at preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Includes a "toolbox," which is a collection of techniques, methods, reference materials and sources for other information that can help in program development.
High Risk Occupations for MSDs
- Registered nurses, nursing assistants and psychiatric aides
- Firefighters and prevention workers
- Laborers and freight, stock and material movers
- Janitors and cleaners
- Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers
- Refuse and recyclable material collectors
- Stock clerks and order fillers
- Maids and housekeeping cleanersLight truck or delivery services drivers
- Telecommunications line installers and repairers
- Bus drivers, transit and intercity
- Production workers
- Police and sheriff patrol officers
- Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers
- Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters
- Maintenance and repair workers, general