An important part of the ergonomic process is a periodic review of the facility, specific workstation designs and work practices, and the overall production process, from an ergonomics perspective. This includes identifying existing problems, which can be obtained from reviewing the company's OSHA 300 injury and illness logs, 301 reports, workers' compensation records, and worker reports of problems. However, a more forward looking approach, to be used in combination with reviewing injury and illness records, is to be proactive in identifying potential ergonomic issues that have gone unnoticed or resulted from facility changes, before they result in MSDs. Observations of workplace conditions and work processes, ergonomic job analyses, workplace surveys, and worker interviews are common proactive methods for identifying ergonomics related injury risks.
Looking at your injury and illness data will help identify ergonomic problems. These data can be obtained from reviewing the company's OSHA 300 Injury and Illness Logs, 301 reports, workers' compensation records, first aid logs, accident and near-miss investigation reports, insurance company reports and worker reports of problems.
By looking critically at your workplace operations, you can identify risk factors and eliminate or control them as early as possible.
The risk of MSD injury depends on work positions and postures, how often the task is performed, the level of required effort and how long the task lasts. Risk factors that may lead to the development of MSDs include:
Exerting excessive force. Examples include lifting heavy objects or people, pushing or pulling heavy loads, manually pouring materials, or maintaining control of equipment or tools.
Performing the same or similar tasks repetitively. Performing the same motion or series of motions continually or frequently for an extended period of time.
Working in awkward postures or being in the same posture for long periods of time. Using positions that place stress on the body, such as prolonged or repetitive reaching above shoulder height, kneeling, squatting, leaning over a counter, using a knife with wrists bent, or twisting the torso while lifting.
Localized pressure into the body part. Pressing the body or part of the body (such as the hand) against hard or sharp edges, or using the hand as a hammer.
Cold temperatures in combination with any one of the above risk factors may also increase the potential for MSDs to develop. For example, many of the operations in meatpacking and poultry processing occur with a chilled product or in a cold environment.
Combined exposure to several risk factors may place workers at a higher risk for MSDs than does exposure to any one risk factor.
In addition, observe whether workers are:
Modifying their tools, equipment or work area
Shaking their arms and hands
Rolling their shoulders
Bringing products such as back belts or wrist braces into the workplace
These behaviors can mean that workers are experiencing ergonomic issues. Talk with them and review their work to see if any risk factors for MSDs are present. Workers can identify and provide important information about hazards in their workplaces. Their opinions and suggestions for change also are valuable.
Once problem jobs are identified, conducting an in-depth ergonomic job analysis can help identify solutions to prevent MSDs. An ergonomic job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment.
Encouraging and Utilizing Early Reports of Injury
Comprehensive injury reporting is important to the success of an ergonomic process. The goal of this effort is to properly assess, diagnose, and treat MSDs. Early reporting, diagnosis, and intervention can limit injury severity, improve the effectiveness of treatment, minimize the likelihood of disability or permanent damage, and reduce workers compensation claims. This then allows the employer to correctly identify work areas or specific tasks where injuries frequently occur or are most severe. This information helps direct the activities of the ergonomic team as well as to guide healthcare providers in making return-to-work and light-duty work decisions. OSHA's injury and illness recording and reporting regulation (29 CFR Part 1904) require employers to record and report work-related fatalities, injuries and illnesses.
OSHA Recordkeeping Handbook. OSHA. (2005). Is a compendium of existing agency-approved recordkeeping materials, including the regulatory text from the 2001 final rule on Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements and relevant explanatory excerpts from the preamble to the rule; chapter 5 of the agency's Recordkeeping Policies and Procedures Manual; Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and OSHA letters of interpretation.
Encouraging and utilizing reports of symptoms of MSDs:
Reinforces worker training on recognizing MSD symptoms.
Encourages early reporting of MSD symptoms.
Allows for prompt medical evaluations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up care.
Reduces injury severity, the number of workers' compensation claims and associated costs and the likelihood of permanent disability.
Provides guidance on return-to-work and work placement restrictions during the healing process.
Guides job modifications.
Provides a mechanism to track and trend MSD injuries.
Enables assessment of the effectiveness of work changes.
Healthcare professionals are important ergonomic team members. They help injured workers recover more quickly and return to their jobs with appropriate restrictions and less risk for reinjury. It is necessary that these professionals are knowledgeable about the operations and work practices within the specific industry. Their knowledge will allow them to assist the injured worker during the healing process and in post-injury work placement.
Resources on Risk Factors
Easy Ergonomics - Section II (PDF). State of California. (1999). Provides descriptions and examples of common factors that contribute to the development of MSDs.
Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-141. (1997, July). Reviews the majority of the relevant studies available at the time and documents the relationship between MSDs and various workplace factors.
Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. (2001). Presents the latest information on the prevalence, incidence and costs of musculoskeletal disorders and identifies factors that influence injury reporting.
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Review of the Evidence. National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. (1998). Based on evidence presented and discussed at the two-day Workshop on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries: Examining the Research Base and on follow-up deliberations of the steering committee assembled by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council.
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Report, Workshop Summary and Workshop Papers. National Academy Press. (1999). Includes a steering committee report, workshop information and a review of interventions.
Resources on Job Analysis
Job Hazard Analysis (PDF*). OSHA. (2002). Explains what a job hazard analysis is and offers guidelines to help conduct your own step-by-step analysis.
Ergonomic Assessment Toolkit (PDF). American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). (2011). Provides a consolidated resource of commonly used ergonomic assessment tools with explanation of when, where and how each tool is applied. An electronic link is provided for each tool.
Assessment Tools. Department of Defense (DOD), Ergonomics Working Group. Provides links to assessment tools and prevention strategies developed by the DOD Ergonomics Working Group.
Manual Material Handling. Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Contains tools to help employers analyze lifting and moving (MAC tool), repetitive tasks like twisting, bending and repeated movements (ART tool) and push/pull.
Analysis Tools for Ergonomists. University of Southern Florida, College of Public Health. (2007, April 1). Provides a suite of advanced tools, which may require outside training or direction or use by an experienced practitioner.
Manual Materials Handling. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. (2012). These tables present information about the percentages of men and women capable of performing manual material handling tasks without overexertion.
Lessons for Lifting and Moving Materials (PDF). Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. (2000, February). Provides pertinent information on back anatomy, back injuries and methods to avoid the risks of back injury. A checklist, Lifting Hazard Assessment Worksheet, based on the 1991 NIOSH Revised Lifting Equation is included on pages 20 and 21.
Evaluation Tools. Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. Provides links for evaluation tools.
Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-110. (1994, January 1). Contains a complete description of all terms in NIOSH's lifting equation with several sample calculations.
Health Hazard Evaluations. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH conducts investigations of possible health hazards in the workplace. This page allows a search for all NIOSH evaluations concerning ergonomics.
Interpreters for the Deaf (PDF). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) HETA 92-0268-2477. (1994, December). An evaluation of the problem of MSDs among interpreters for the deaf.
Resources on Injury Rates
Worker Health eChartbook: Musculoskeletal Conditions - Magnitude and Trend Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009, September 9). Provides descriptive occupational morbidity and mortality data in the United States. It includes figures and tables describing the magnitude, distribution and trends of the nation's occupational injuries, illnesses and fatalities.
All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.
**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.
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