1,3-Butadiene is often referred to simply as butadiene. However, the general term butadiene includes both the common industrial chemical 1,3-butadiene and 1,2-butadiene, a contaminant in some industrial processes. Physical characteristics of 1,3-butadiene are shown below.
|Physical Characteristics of 1,3-Butadiene|
|Physical Description||Colorless gas that has a mild gasoline-like odor.|
|Boiling/Melting Point||24ºF / -164ºF|
|Vapor Pressurefirstname.lastname@example.orgºF: 1,840 mm Hg|
|Specific Gravity||@68ºF: 0.62|
|Solubility||Soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone, and benzene, not soluble in water.|
|Flammable||Extreme fire hazard.|
The health effects caused by exposure to 1,3-butadiene can be split into two categories: acute and chronic. Acute exposures can further be split into low and high doses. Acute low exposures may cause irritation to the eyes, throat, nose, and lungs. Frostbite may also occur with skin exposure. Acute high exposures may cause damage to the central nervous system or cause symptoms such as distorted blurred vision, vertigo, general tiredness, decreased blood pressure, headache, nausea, decreased pulse rate, and fainting. Chronic effects caused by exposure to 1,3-butadiene are controversial. Several human epidemiological studies have shown an increase in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, due to the small numbers of cancers and confounding factors such as smoking, and simultaneous exposure to benzene and styrene, a true causal relationship cannot be established. Experiments involving chronic exposures to mice and rats have shown a strong causal relationship between 1,3-butadiene exposure and cancer. Animal studies have also shown reproductive and developmental problems. Based on human and animal studies, the EPA has classified 1,3-butadiene as a known human carcinogen. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has given 1,3-butadiene a rating of A2, suspected human carcinogen.
The following links provide information about the health effects of 1,3-butadiene:
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