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Hazard Recognition

Many workers are unaware of the potential hazards in their work environment, which makes them more vulnerable to injury. The following references aid in recognizing hazards and the health effects associated with benzene in the workplace.

  • Benzene. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (1994, May). Provides an Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) document that includes acute toxicity data for benzene.
  • Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Benzene. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 74-137, (1974, July). Presents information collected by NIOSH to be used in recommending a standard for benzene and includes a discussion of worker exposure, biological effects, evaluation procedures, and possible control measures.
  • TOXNET for Benzene. The National Library of Medicine Hazardous Substance Database.
  • Report on Carcinogens (RoC). US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Toxicology Program (NTP). Identifies and discusses agents, substances, mixtures, or exposure circumstances that may pose a health hazard due to their carcinogenicity. The listing of substances in the RoC only indicates a potential hazard and does not establish the exposure conditions that would pose cancer risks to individuals.
    • Benzene (PDF). NTP classification: Known to be a human carcinogen
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks for Humans (PDF). World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Classification: Carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).
  • Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (2007, August). Includes links to information on health effects, chemical and physical information, potential for human exposure, and more.
  • ToxFAQs for Benzene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), (2007, August). Answers the most frequently asked health questions about benzene.
  • Benzene (CASRN 71-43-2). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Discusses the health effects of benzene.
  • Benzene. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Lists benzene as a Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) under the National Emissions Standard Hazardous Air Pollutants section of its Clean Air Act.
  • Benzene (PDF). New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet, (2001, January). Provides a summary source of information of all potential and most severe health hazards that may result from benzene exposure.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards: Benzene. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (2003, June 5). Summarizes essential health and safety information on benzene.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.

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