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||U. S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Directorate of Science, Technology and Medicine
Office of Science and Technology Assessment
Safety and Health Information Bulletin
Powered augers are used predominantly in the agriculture,
landscaping, construction and utility industries. They are commonly used to
drill holes for pilings, utility poles, light poles and fence posts. The auger
may be mounted on a variety of equipment or vehicles that may be ridden on or
| This Safety and Health Information Bulletin is not a standard or regulation, and it creates no new legal obligations. The Bulletin is advisory in nature, informational in content, and is intended to assist employers in providing a safe and healthful workplace. Pursuant to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employers must comply with hazard-specific safety and health standards promulgated by OSHA or by a state with an OSHA-approved state plan. In addition, pursuant to Section 5(a)(1), the General Duty Clause of the Act, employers must provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm. Employers can be cited for violating the General Duty Clause if there is a recognized hazard and they do not take
reasonable steps to prevent or abate the hazard. However, failure to implement any recommendations in this Safety and Health Information Bulletin is not, in
itself, a violation of the General Duty Clause. Citations can only be based on standards, regulations, and the General Duty Clause.
The drilling operation that prompted this Safety and Health Information Bulletin
(SHIB) involved the use of a truck-mounted auger to install the final post of a
security fence on a landscaped area covered by landscape fabric and a layer of
mulch. The operator standing on the mulch was pulled into the rotating auger by
the hidden fabric. His legs were amputated as they were pulled into the auger
and he died as a result of the severe injuries.
This SHIB addresses some potential hazards employees may be exposed to when an
auger strikes materials beneath or above the surface. In addition to contact
with hidden landscape fabric, contact with underground utility installations
such as gas, fuel, or electric lines (29 CFR 1926.651(b)(1)) or overhead power
lines such as electrical distribution and transmission lines (29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15)) also could result in a fatal accident.
The purpose of this SHIB is to:
Alert and inform employers, employees, and manufacturers
about some of the potential hazards associated with auger drilling, including
hazards posed by hidden or exposed fabrics, overhead or underground utilities,
modified equipment, and disabled safety controls,
Explain the importance of inspecting the area for hidden or exposed fabric,
and underground or overhead utilities (29 CFR 1926.651(b)(1), 29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15)),
Remind employers that frequent and regular inspections of the job site,
materials, and equipment must be performed by competent persons designated by
the employer (29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2)),
Remind employers of the training requirements to instruct employees in the
recognition and avoidance of unsafe work conditions (29
and to permit only employees qualified by training or experience to operate
equipment and machinery (29
CFR 1926.20(b)(4)), and
Remind employers of the importance of reviewing relevant precautions and
following the manufacturer's operating manual.
OSHA's Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania Area Office investigated a fatality at the
site of a newly-constructed administration building. A subcontractor had been
hired to install a security fence. On the day of the incident, one post hole
was left to be dug. All of the previous post holes had been dug on disturbed
construction soil, but the last hole was in a landscaped area covered with
mulch. The investigation revealed that the operator did not inspect the area
where this last hole was to be dug before drilling and, therefore, was not
aware of the landscape fabric beneath the mulch. Consequently, the landscape
fabric was not cut to accommodate the 16-inch auger before drilling.
Additionally, although the 1961 truck-mounted auger was originally equipped
with a platform, it had been removed years before this incident, forcing the
operator to stand on the mulch while operating the auger. The accompanying
operator's instruction manual did not mention the existence of the platform as
a standard piece of equipment for the auger, nor did it refer to it as a
safety feature. Newer truck-mounted augers are equipped with a seated
operator's control work station mounted on the vehicle. This is a standard
configuration for products of this type. Additionally, the accompanying
manufacturer's operating manual reflects safe practices for operating the
auger from the operator's control station. Although the operator's station
removes the operator from the ground, its use does not eliminate the hazard to
nearby helpers working on the ground.
In this accident, as the rotating auger penetrated the mulch, it entangled the
landscape fabric under the mulch and drew it into itself. The operator lost
his footing and was drawn into the point of operation where the auger entered
the soil. The operator sustained severe injuries including the amputation of
both legs and he later died as a result of these injuries.
Synthetic fabrics are used in outdoor settings for different purposes, such as
landscape fabric for weed control, erosion control, or civil engineering
applications. The strength of these fabrics varies depending on their uses and
the duration of exposure to ultraviolet light. Polypropylene ground cover is
most commonly used for landscaping. It can weigh as much as 27 ounces per
square yard with a grab tensile strength as high as 105 pounds per square
If an auger contacts fabric as it is drilling, the material may be rapidly
drawn into the point of operation, possibly causing any person standing on the
fabric to be drawn in at the same time. As in this incident, entanglements can
happen so quickly that there is no time for the operator to react.
The accident that prompted this bulletin was the first known recorded fatality
that has occurred as a result of an auger penetrating landscape fabric hidden
beneath ground cover. However, there have been a number of other fatal
accidents involving augers. According to OSHA's Integrated Management
Information System (IMIS), since 1987 at least thirteen fatalities have
resulted from entanglement or crushing hazards involving augers. The IMIS data
also indicate that a number of fatal accidents have occurred from contact with
underground and overhead electrical equipment and utility lines.
OSHA's Construction Standard Requirements
CFR 1926.21(b)(2) requires employers to instruct each employee in the
recognition, avoidance and prevention of unsafe conditions.
Employers should train operators, helpers and other employees to recognize
the hazards that may be encountered in the drilling process; for example,
hazards posed by hidden or exposed fabric, overhead or underground utilities,
modified equipment, or disabled safety controls.
Located overhead power lines:
29 CFR 1926.20(b)(2) requires frequent and regular inspections of the job
site, materials and equipment to be made by competent persons2 designated by
the employer. For example, a competent person should inspect to determine if
the operator's platform has been removed, the condition of the ground
(including the existence of any hidden fabric), and for the presence of
overhead or underground utilities.
Determine underground installations:
29 CFR 1926.600(a)(6) requires compliance with
29 CFR 1926.550(a)(15).
Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been
de-energized and visibly grounded at the point of work or where insulating
barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machines, have
been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines
shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the
For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any
part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet;
For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum clearance between the lines and any part
of the crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV., over 50
kV., or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet;
(iii) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall
be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV., and 10 feet for voltages
over 50 kV., up to and including 345kV., and 16 feet for voltages up to and
including 750 kV.
Contact utility companies or owners:
29 CFR 1926.651(b)(1) requires that
"the estimated location of utility installations, such as sewer, telephone,
fuel, electric, water lines or any other underground installations that
reasonably may be expected to be encountered during excavation work, shall be
determined prior to opening an excavation."
Personal protective equipment:
29 CFR 1926.651(b)(2) requires that utility companies or owners shall be
contacted within established or customary local response times, advised of the
proposed work, and asked to establish the location of the utility underground
installations prior to the start of actual excavation. When utility companies
or owners cannot respond to a request to locate underground utility
installations within 24 hours (unless a longer period is required by state or
local law), or cannot establish the exact locationof these installations, the
employer may proceed, provided that the employer does so with caution, and
provided that detection equipment or other acceptable means to locate utility
installations are used.
Recommended Safety Measures
29 CFR 1926.28 states that
"the employer is responsible for requiring the
wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment..." and
29 CFR 1926.95(a)
further requires that protective equipment include protective clothing where
Landscaping fabric of sufficient strength can trap employees' limbs when
entangled in a powered auger. Hazards resulting from contact with underground
or overhead utilities and from modifying equipment or disabling safety
controls can also lead to severe injuries or fatalities. Implementing the
actions described in this SHIB will reduce the potential for additional
fatalities or serious injuries relating to operating powered augers.
Follow the instructions in the manufacturer's operating and preventive
Conduct daily pre-task meetings to ensure that all employees are aware of the
correct procedures to prevent an unwanted incident and any hazards associated
with the job task.
Look for obstacles that may need to be removed. Hand digging may verify the
presence or absence of underground material, including utilities.
Prior to drilling, cut a hole in the landscape fabric
sufficiently larger than the diameter of the auger to prevent contact or
entanglement with the fabric.
Except for the operator, employees should not be near the auger when it is
Employees using hand tools should not move or remove spoil-pile while the
auger is operating.
The operator should sit or stand at the operator's station while operating the
Do not modify the operator's station or disable safety controls beyond
manufacturer's recommendations (for example: hold-to-run or seat switch
Remain a safe distance (a minimum of 10 feet) from the auger when helping the
Edwin G. Foulke, Jr.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
STERLING MODEL, "B-7" Earth Boring Machine with Standard Pole Setter, Hydraulic
240o Turntable Fore & Aft Platform, Stiffleg. GMC Chassis with
Hydraulically Driven Front End Winch.
This is not the truck-mounted auger that was used in this operation, but it
an example of this type of equipment. Notice the operator platform at the rear.
1 Grab tensile strengths are from specification sheets for
Dupont SF 65 Style geotextile and Dupont Seed Bed Covers. ASTM D4632-91-1966 Standard Test Method
for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles.
2 29 CFR 1926.32(f) Definitions.
Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and
predictable hazards in the surroundings or working
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees and who
has authorization to take prompt
corrective measures to eliminate them.