The primary sources of exposure to contaminated water in commercial and industrial facilities are water-cooled, heat transfer systems such as cooling towers or fluid coolers, and warm water sources such as domestic hot-water
Operating Systems: Use the following modules to review
maintenance, sampling protocol, treatment, and
design considerations of each operating system.
Health Care Facilities and LDB:
Legionnaires' disease Bacteria (LDB) Colonization Frequencies:
conducted by Hodgson and Casey
in 1998, several thousand
samples collected from a variety
of sources showed:
Water Distribution Systems
The Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) issued a new standard that became effective January 1, 2001. This standard, numbered EC 1.7, requires all JCAHO accredited facilities to have a management program to "reduce the potential for organizational-acquired illness." It holds the health care facility responsible for "managing pathogenic biological agents in cooling towers, domestic hot water, and other aerosolizing water systems."
- The American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) recommends that health care facilities conduct a risk assessment of
potential sources of LDB and develop a management plan for maintenance and operation of water systems.
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