||Chemical Sampling Information
|Vegetable oil mist (Total Dust)
Synonyms: Salad oil; Vegetable mist; Viscoleo oil
OSHA IMIS Code Number: V126
IMIS Name History: Oil Mist (Vegetable) prior to 9/1/89
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 68956-68-3
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: YX1850000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Vegetable Oil Mist: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 15 mg/m3 TWA
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 15 mg/m3 TWA
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 mg/m3 TWA
Potential symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, and respiratory system; lacrimation (discharge of tears).
Health Effects: Nuisance particulate (HE19)
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- Studies in rabbits indicate that vegetable oils (sesame seed, poppy seed, olive), in contrast to animal fat oils or mineral oil, cause little if any lung pathology.
- Increased respiratory symptoms (e.g., dyspnea) of kitchen workers exposed to fat aerosols during frying at high temperatures have been reported.
- A large number of thermal and oxidative decomposition products, some with known toxic properties, can be produced during the stir-frying or deep fat frying of foods in various seed oils (corn, canola, soybean, hydrogenated cotton-seed).
- A case of lipoid pneumonia was reported in a worker who observed the testing of fire extinguishers against fires involving lards and shortenings for a firm that made and tested "restaurant fire control systems."
- Eight former workers at a microwave popcorn production facility where there was exposure to volatile organic compounds from heated soybean oil mixed with salt and butter flavorings were diagnosed with a severe lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans, and some other workers there also showed obstructive pulmonary function abnormalities (see Diacetyl).
- A similar lung disease but also involving lung alveoli called bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia was described in beagle dogs that had accidental intra-airway exposure to oleic acid, a major component of some vegetable oils such as soybean oil.
Date Last Revised: 04/27/2007
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Vegetable oil mist.
- Chang, S.S., Peterson, R.J. and Ho, C.-T.: Chemical reactions involved in the deep-fat frying of foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 55(10):718-27, 1978.
- Kullman, G., Boylstein, R., Jones, W., Piacitelli, Pendergrass, S. and Kreiss, K.: Characterization of respiratory exposures at a microwave popcorn plant with cases of bronchiolitis obliterans. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2(3): 169-178, 2005.
- Li, X., Botts, S., Morton, D., Knickerbocker, M.J. and Adler, R.: Oleic acid-associated bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia in beagle dogs. Vet. Pathol. 43(2): 183-185, 2006.
- Oldenburger, D., Maurer, W.J., Beltaos, E. and Magnin, G.E.: Inhalation lipoid pneumonia from burning fats. A newly recognized industrial hazard. JAMA 222(10): 1288-1289, 1972.
- Pinkerton, H.: The reaction to oils and fats in the lung. Arch. Pathol. 5: 380-401, 1928 [cited in Spickard, A., III and Hirschmann, J.V.: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Arch Intern. Med. 154(6): 686-692, 1994].
- Schauer, J.J., Kleeman, M.J., Cass, G.R., Simoneit, B.R.T.: Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 4. C1-C27 organic compounds from cooking with seed oils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36(4): 567-575, 2002.
- Svendsen, K., Sjaastad, A.K. and Sivertsen, I.: Respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 43(4): 436-439, 2003.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
sampling media: tared 37-mm diameter low-ash polyvinyl chloride filter
maximum volume: 960 Liters maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gravimetric
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2121)
method classification: Partially Validated
note: OSHA personnel can obtain tared sampling media from SLTC.
note: If the net weight of the sample yields a concentration below the standard for the substance, SLTC will perform no further work on that sample. If the net weight corresponds to an amount greater than the standard, the sample may be analyzed for the appropriate element and the result reported as the substance.
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