||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: radon gas; alphatron; niton; radium emanation
OSHA IMIS Code Number: R100
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 10043-92-2
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: VE3750000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties: Colorless, tasteless, odorless gas
atomic mass: 222
boiling point: -62°C
melting point: -71°C
OSHA Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1096(c)(1) -- 100 pCi/L (This is the limit that a worker (over 18 years of age) can be exposed to in 40 hours in a consecutive 7 day period.)
OSHA Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing, Radiation requirements identical to 1910.1096
National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Known to be a human carcinogen
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 1, carcinogenic to humans
Potential symptoms: Shortness of breath, chronic cough, pulmonary hypertension, cardiopulmonary failure.
Health Effects: Known human carcinogen---lung (HE2); Cumulative lung damage---pulmonary fibrosis (HE10).
Affected organ: Lungs
- Although the gas radon is an OSHA Select carcinogen, its effects may be mediated by particulate progeny (decay products) which also are radioactive.
- There is an increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing exposure to radon. A study of uranium miners indicated that the latency for the development of lung cancer was shorter in smokers (~19 years) than in nonsmokers (25 years).
- Diffuse interstitial fibrosis in lungs of uranium miners often leading to cor pulmonale and death by pneumonia or cardiac arrhythmias also has been attributed primarily to inhalation of radon (and its progeny).
- The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (42 U.S.C. §2210 note) as amended by P.L. 107-273 provides for a payment of $100,000 to eligible workers with primary lung cancer and certain nonmalignant respiratory diseases who were employed in uranium mines, in uranium mills, or in the transport of uranium ore between 1942 and 1971.
Date Last Revised: 12/06/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Radon.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Radionuclides (including Radon, Radium and Uranium). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- U.S. Department of Justice: Radiation Exposure Compensation Program: About the Program (June 7, 2004) 5 pp.
- Archer, V.E., Coons, T. Saccomanno, G. and Hong, D.Y.: Latency and the lung cancer epidemic among United States uranium miners. Health Phys. 87(5): 480-489, 2004.
- Archer, V.E., Renzetti, A.D., Doggett, R.S., Jarvis, J.Q. and Colby, T.V.: Chronic diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lung in uranium miners. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 40(5): 460-474, 1998.
- Frumkin, H. and Samet, J.M.: Radon. CA Cancer J. Clin. 51(6): 337-344, 2001.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: Electret-Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (E-PERM)
sampling time: 2-7 days
current analytical method: Voltage change on electret (dielectric) surface
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-208)
method classification: Partially Validated
note: OSHA personnel may obtain E-PERM sampler from SLTC.