||Safety and Health Topics:
|Cyanide (as CN)
Synonyms: Calcium cyanide; CaCN; Potassium cyanide; KCN; Sodium cyanide; NaCN
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0790
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 57-12-5
Other Related Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers: 74-90-8; 592-01-8; 151-50-8; 143-33-9
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 5 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 4.7 ppm, 5 mg/m3 Ceiling; Skin (TLV listed under Hydrogen Cyanide) -- 5 mg/m3 Ceiling; Skin (TLV listed under Cyanide Salts)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 4.7 ppm, 5 mg/m3 STEL; Skin (REL listed under Hydrogen Cyanide) -- 4.7 ppm, 5 mg/m3 Ceiling (10 Minutes) (REL listed under Other Cyanides (as CN) except Hydrogen Cyanide)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 25 mg/m3 (as CN)
Potential symptoms: Asphyxia and death can occur, preceded by seizures, coma with abolished deep reflexes and dilated pupils, weakness; paralysis; dizziness; numbness; anxiety; chest tightness; irregular heartbeat; shortness of breath; confusion; headache; sore throat; nausea, vomiting; eye irritation; rash, chemical burns on skin; enlargement of thyroid gland.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin, Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Acute Toxicity (HE4).
Affected organs: cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thyroid, eyes, skin, blood
Note: Neurological sequelae in survivors of acute cyanide poisoning include parkinsonism and dystonia.
Date Last Revised: 07/15/2003
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): Toxicological Profile for Cyanide (Update). PHS, U.S. DHHS, Atlanta, GA, 1997.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Potassium cyanide.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Sodium cyanide.
- U.S. EPA Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website: Cyanide Compounds.
- (target organs, IDLH)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Potassium cyanide.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Sodium cyanide.
- (neurological sequelae)
Albin, R.L.: Basal ganglia neurotoxins. Neurol. Clin. 18(3): 665-680, 2000
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns in series with Midget Fritted Glass Bubbler (MFGB) containing 10 mL 0.1 N NaOH
maximum volume: 120 Liters maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
current analytical method: Ion Specific Electrode; ISE
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-120)
method classification: Fully Validated
note: Submit as a separate sample. If present, sulfide should be listed as an interference. Particulate cyanide is collected on the filter. HCN, if present, is collected in the Midger Fritted Glass Bubbler. (See HCN) Within 1 hour after the sample has been collected, transfer the filter to a clean screw cap vial containing 10 mL 0.1 N NaOH.
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
device: Detector Tube
model/type: Cyanide 2/a, order no. 67 28791
sampling information: 10 strokes
upper measurement limit: 15 mg/m3
detection limit: approximately 1 mg/m3
overall uncertainty: 33-49%
method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
Wipe sampling: Whatman smear tab; Solvent: Deionized Water