Tree Care Industry
Tree care companies provide services such as pruning,
removal, plant health care, cabling and bracing, transplanting, consulting,
fertilization, and lightning protection.
This page was developed as a product of OSHA's former Alliance with the Tree
Care Industry Association (TCIA).
Tree care hazards are addressed in specific standards for
recordkeeping and the general industry.
This section highlights OSHA standards, Federal Registers
(rules, proposed rules, and notices), directives (instructions for compliance
officers), standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the
standards), and national consensus standards related to the tree care industry.
states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have
OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and
enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards
that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted
different standards applicable to this topic or may have different
States may also develop compliance assistance programs and cooperative
arrangements with employers and organizations similar to those offered
by Federal OSHA. For more information, see
State Occupational Safety and Health Plans.
Frequently Cited Standards
Tree care industries must comply with all the
general industry standards (29
CFR 1910). The following standards, in order, were the most frequently cited
by Federal OSHA from October 2011 through September 2012, in Ornamental Shrub and
Tree Services Industry Group (SIC
1910.132, General requirements (Personal protective equipment) [related
1910.67, Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms
1910.1200, Hazard communication [related
- Section 5(a)(1)
of the OSH Act, often referred to as the General Duty Clause, requires employers to "furnish to each of his employees employment and a
place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his
employees". This section may be used to cite hazards for which there are no specific standards, such as ergonomics. [related topic page]
- 1910.133, Eye and face protection [related
Portable metal ladders
- 1910.333, Selection and use of work practices
- 1910.151, Medical services and first aid [related
Other Highlighted Standards
Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness (29 CFR 1904)
- 1904.39, Reporting fatalities and multiple hospitalization incidents to
Operations. Final Rules 59:51672-51748, (1994, October 12).
Logging Operations. Final Rules 60:47022-47037, (1995, September 8).
- Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment; Final Rule; Stay of Enforcement and Correction.
Final Rules 59:33658-33664, (1994, June 30). Corrected the enforcement (until November 1994) of some of the requirements contained in the
electric power generation standard, language in the preamble explaining the standard, and several
- Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment.
Final Rules 59:4320-4476, (1994, January 31). OSHA issued a standard that addresses the work practices to be used during the operation and
maintenance of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution facilities. The standard includes requirements relating to working
near energized parts, and line-clearance tree trimming.
- Search all available
- Enforcement of the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and
Distribution Standard. CPL 02-01-038 [CPL 2-1.38], (2003, June 18).
Provides information to assist OSHA compliance personnel in performing
inspections at electric power generation, transmission, and distribution
lines and equipment and other installations covered by
29 CFR 1910.269.
- Enforcement Procedures for the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens.
CPL 02-02-069 [CPL 2-2.69], (2001, November 17). Establishes policies and provides clarifications to ensure
uniform inspection procedures are followed when conducting inspections to enforce the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard.
Logging Operations, Inspection Procedures and Interpretive Guidance
Including Twelve Previously Stayed Provisions. CPL 02-01-022 [CPL
2-1.22], (1996, September 27). Establishes revised policies and provides
clarification to ensure uniform enforcement of the Logging Operations
CFR 1910.266). These policies and procedures have been amended in
part to clarify enforcement of the previously stayed provisions of the
standard. Current policy requires arborists to comply with portions of
OSHA's logging standard (29
CFR 1910.266) when performing logging operations, such as felling trees.
Proposed citations of employers in SIC 0783 under the logging standard are
reviewed by OSHA’s National Office. [Enforcement
Policy Regarding Arborists, SIC 0783 (Ornamental Shrub and Tree Services)]
- Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment; Final Rule.
CSP 01-01-028 [STP 2-1.172], (1994, April 15). Describes a federal program change to the regions and state designees.
- Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices -- Inspection Procedures and Interpretation Guidelines.
STD 01-16-007 [STD 1-16.7], (1991, July 1). Establishes policies and provides interpretive guidelines to ensure uniform
enforcement of the standard for Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices, 29 CFR
- Search all available
- Protection of ground-level workers from lowering of aerial lift bucket.
(1999, September 23).
- Clarification of 1910.269 as applied to line-clearance tree-trimming operations.
(1999, April 26).
- Acceptability of western style hard hats.
(1998, December 31).
- Apparel requirements for line-clearance tree-trimmers.
(1998, October 29).
- Fall protection anchorage points: guardrail systems and cranes.
(1998, June 8).
- Interpretation of the
First Aid standard.
(1996, December 11).
- Interpretation of the electric power generation, transmission, and distribution standard.
(1996, June 4).
- Scope of logging standard -- 1910.266.
(1996, March 12).
- OSHA's new fall protection standards for construction will prohibit use of safety belts with side dee rings as part of a personal fall arrest system.
(1995, September 25).
- Clarification of electric power generators, transmission and distribution standard.
(1994, July 18).
- Bloodborne pathogens standard's relationship to employees trained in first aid around electrical lines.
(1992, September 4).
- Bloodborne pathogen standard's applicability to electric utilities.
(1992, July 28).
- Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the telecommunications industry.
(1992, April 28).
- OSHA telecommunications standards.
(1982, November 15).
- The correct testing procedure for tree-trimming saddle belts.
(1982, May 7).
- Search all available
Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they
do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The following voluntary ANSI standards may be applicable
to the tree care industry. Compliance with ANSI standards does not ensure
compliance with OSHA policy, although the requirements of some ANSI standards have been adopted within OSHA standards.
This list is provided for reference use only.
- A300-2001, Tree Care Operations - Tree, Shrub and Other Woody Plant Maintenance - Standard Practices
- Z133.1-2000, Arboricultural Operations Safety
- B175.1-2000, Safety Requirements for Gasoline Powered Chain Saws
- A10.14-1991, Requirements for Safety Belts,
Harnesses, Lanyards, Lifelines, and Drop Lines for Constructional and
- A14.1-2000, Ladders - Portable Wood - Safety
- A14.2-2002, Ladders - Portable Metal - Safety
- A14.5-1992, Stepladders and Platform Ladders,
Aluminum Magnesium, Fiberglass Ladders
- A92.2-2001, Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices
- Z41-1991, Protective Footgear Requirements
- Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection Devices
- Z89.1-2003, Personnel Protection - Protective Headgear for Industrial Workers - Requirements
- Z308.1-2003, Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits
- Z359.1-1992, Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems, and Components
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
- B30.5-2004, Mobile and Locomotive Truck Cranes
Many hazards in the tree care industry are potentially
fatal. Overhead power lines, falling branches, and faulty safety equipment are
just a few of the dangers. The following references aid in recognizing some of
the hazards that may be encountered by tree care professionals.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Reports
Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. Concentrates on investigations of fatal occupational injuries. The
primary intent of this program is to provide interested users with access to the
full text of hundreds of fatality investigation reports including the following:
Common Shop Hazards and Tree Care Considerations
- Slipping hazards present from oils or solvents on the floor. [29 CFR 1910.22]
- Fire hazards in shop areas. [29 CFR 1910.106],
[29 CFR 1910.157]
- Adequate fire extinguishers [29 CFR 1910.157]
and first aid kits [29 CFR 1910.151]
in the shop. It is recommended that consideration be taken to also include
extinguishers in work vehicles as appropriate.
- Emergency response plans. [29 CFR 1910.38]
- Hazard Communication Issues – the need to identify all hazardous substances
within the shop area (carbon monoxide, welding fume, wood dust, metal dust,
solvents, fertilizers) and develop a program that addresses MSDSs, labeling, and
employee training. [29 CFR 1910.1200]
- If corrosive chemicals are used, emergency eyewashes and showers are
required. [29 CFR 1910.151]
- Stairways need railings if more than 4 stairs - differences in "open" and
"closed" stairs are clarified in. [29 CFR 1910.24]
- All safety guards must be in place and operational on all shop tools. [29 CFR 1910 Subpart O]
- Lockout/tagout program requirements. [29 CFR 1910.147]
- Compressed air used for cleaning purposes must be reduced to less than 30
p.s.i. and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective
equipment. [29 CFR 1910.242(b)],
- When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than seven feet above the
floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(5)]
- Storage issues with Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) containers. [29 CFR 1910.110]
- Workrests and tongue guards of grinders should be properly adjusted. [29 CFR 1910.215]
Hazards of Wood Chippers. OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB), (2008,
April 16). Also available as a 142 KB
PDF, 8 pages.
- Fact Sheet: Lyme Disease [91 KB PDF*, 3 pages]. OSHA and the Tree Care Industry Association (TCIA) Alliance. Addresses issues associated with Lyme disease, including its symptoms and treatment options and tick bite prevention and control.
- Quick Cards. OSHA and the Tree Care Industry Association (TCIA) Alliance, (2008, June).
- Lyme Disease [132 KB DOC*, 2 pages]. Addresses prevention of tick bites and identification of Lyme disease.
- Chipper Winches [51 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. Addresses the potential hazards and safe work practices regarding operating chipper winches.
- Hydraulic Dump Body Safety Tips [78 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. Addresses potential hazards and safe work practices regarding operating truck-mounted hydraulic dump bodies.
- Working Outdoors in Warm Climates [74 KB
PDF*, 2 pages]. OSHA Fact
Sheet, (2005, September).
Hazard ID 8 - Injury Associated with Working Near or Operating Wood Chippers. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-145, (1999, August). Contains detailed descriptions of hazards associated with wood chippers and recommendations for prevention.
Prevention of Slips, Trips, and Falls. Canadian Centre for Occupational
Health and Safety (CCOHS). This document is provided by the
Inquiries Service at CCOHS, whose mandate is to promote improvements in
occupational health and safety by providing practical information to answer
Safety and Health Program
In tree care, just as in other professions, effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive
factor in reducing the extent and the severity of work-related injuries and illnesses. Effective management addresses all work-related
hazards, including those potential hazards that could result from a change in worksite conditions or practices. It addresses hazards whether
or not they are regulated by government standards. For more information, see OSHA's
Injury and Illness Prevention Programs Safety and Health Topics
A tree care company's safety and health program should address the specific safety/compliance concerns applicable to its activities in the
field, shop, and office such as the following:
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
PPE standard requires the employer to assess the hazards of the worksite and ensure that employees use appropriate PPE.
The employer must also complete a written certification of hazard assessment. Documented policies, training, and enforcement
should ensure that PPE is used by all employees whenever it is required by virtue of hazards in the workplace.
HAZCOM/Right to Know
Communication Standard (HCS) addresses the issues of evaluating and communicating hazards to workers.
Employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the hazardous substances they are exposed to when working. They
also need to know what protective measures are available to prevent adverse effects. However, evaluation is
the responsibility of the producers and importers of the materials, who are required to provide the hazard information to employers that
purchase their products. If you are operating in an OSHA-approved State Plan State,
you must comply with the State's requirements, which may be more stringent than the Federal rule. Contact the
State OSHA Office
for more information regarding applicable requirements.
Lockout/Tagout Knowledge and Training
OSHA’s Lockout/Tagout standard requires that employees be safeguarded from the
unexpected startup of machinery or equipment, or the release of hazardous energy
during service or maintenance activities. If employees are involved in the
maintenance and servicing of equipment, the employer must develop a lockout/tagout
program. A lockout/tagout program must address employee training,
equipment-specific energy control procedures, and periodic inspections to ensure
that equipment is properly de-energized prior to servicing or maintenance.
Illness/Injury Recordkeeping and Posting [29 CFR 1904.2,
29 CFR 1904.4]
OSHA requires businesses to log (keep track of) and, once a year, post a summary of their occupational illnesses and injuries. The OSHA
website provides forms for this purpose. If your company had 10 or fewer
employees at all times during the last calendar year, you need not keep
OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the BLS informs you in writing
that you must keep records under 29
CFR 1904.1 or 29
CFR 1904.2. However, as required by 29
CFR 1904.39, all employers covered by the OSH Act must report to OSHA any workplace
incident that results in a fatality or the hospitalization of three or more
employees within 8 hours of the incident.
OSHA Poster Review
- All covered employers are required to display, and keep displayed, a poster
informing employees of the protections of the Occupational Safety and Health Act
and its amendments.
- The poster must be displayed in a conspicuous place where employees and applicants for employment can see it.
- When employees do not work at or report to a single establishment, posters shall be posted at the location from which the employees carry
out their activities.
- Reproductions or facsimiles of the poster have to be at least 8 1/2 by 14 inches with 10-point type.
- Get the plain language poster OSHA Publication 3165.
Also available as a 2 MB PDF, 1 page.
Reporting Serious Accidents
[29 CFR 1904.8]
- Within eight hours of the death of any employee from a work-related incident, or the in-patient hospitalization of three or more
employees as a result of a work-related incident, the employer must verbally report the accident by telephone or in person to the
OSHA Area Office nearest to the site of the incident, or by using
the OSHA toll-free central telephone number (1-800-321-OSHA).
- This requirement applies to each fatality or hospitalization of three or more employees that occurs within 30 days of an incident.
When the employer does not learn of a reportable incident at the time it occurs, he/she must report within eight hours of the time the
incident is reported to any agent or employee of the employer.
- Each report has to relate the following information: Establishment name, location of incident, time of the incident, number of fatalities
or hospitalized employees, contact person, phone number, and a brief description of the incident.
Training topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Job Skills for the specific job duty (required by various OSHA standards and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z133.1),
- Electrical Hazards [29 CFR 1910.332, 29 CFR 1910.333, 29 CFR 1910.334, 29 CFR 1910.335, 29 CFR 1910.268, 29 CFR 1910.269]
(only if qualified employees will encroach on the 10-foot minimum separation distance from overhead electrical conductors),
- Hazard Communication [29 CFR 1910.1200],
- First Aid/CPR [29 CFR 1910.151] (required in most instances),
- Bloodborne Pathogens [29 CFR 1910.1030] (required),
- Lockout/Tagout [29 CFR 1910.147] (required),
- Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention (recommended),
- Work Zone Safety (pursuant to the DOT Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)),
- Forklift Operation [29 CFR 1910.178],
- Ergonomics (recommended),
- Back Injury Prevention (recommended),
- Pre-job briefing by the crew leader (required by various OSHA standards and ANSI Z133.1), and
- Requirements for all climbing and rigging equipment, ANSI Z133.1.
Related Safety and Health Topics Pages
Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). OSHA. VPP participants are a select
group of facilities that have designed and implemented outstanding health and
- OSHA Challenge Program. This program is designed to reach and guide employers and companies in
all major industry groups strongly committed to improving their safety and
health management systems and interested in pursuing recognition in the
Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). OSHA provides Challenge participants with
a guide or roadmap to improve performance and ultimately achieve VPP Merit
or Star status.
Partnership. OSHA's Strategic Partnership Program (OSPP). Through OSPP,
OSHA and its partners agree to work cooperatively to address critical safety
and health issues.
- Spanish-Language Compliance Assistance Resources. OSHA. Compliance assistance resources for Hispanic employers and workers.
- Equipo de Protección Personal (Personal Protective Equipment) [48 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. OSHA
Fact Sheet, (2012, July).
- Protéjase Contra Los Rayos Dañinos del Sol (Protecting Yourself
in the Sun). OSHA Publication 3168, (2000). Also available as a 42 KB
PDF, 2 pages.
La Ecuación del Frío (The Cold Stress Equation). OSHA
Cold Stress Card (Publication 3156), (1998).
Also available as a 21 KB
PDF, 4 pages.
Información Sobre Los Riesgos de Los Productos Químicos (Information on the Risks of Chemical
Products). OSHA Publication 3117, (1989). Also available
as a 66 KB
PDF, 23 pages.
Programa en Español de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo de Oregon OSHA
(OR-OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Program in Spanish). Oregon OSHA.
Includes ready-to-use bilingual (English/Spanish) tailgate safety training lessons and
Instituto Nacional para la Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional (National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health). Provides a Spanish language web page that includes safety and health
information, links to specific Spanish language publications, and links to other Spanish language
- Petición De Ayuda Para La Prevención De Electrocuciones Debidas a Tomas De Corriente Y a Conectores Averiados
(Preventing Electrocutions Due to Damaged Receptacles and Connectors).
US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Publication No. 87-100, (1986, October).
- Petición De Ayuda Para La Prevención De
Electrocuciones Por Contacto Entre Grúas Y Cables De Alta Tensión (Preventing Electrocutions from Contact Between Cranes and Power Lines). US
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Publication No. 85-111, (1985,
- Petición De Ayuda Para La Prevención De Muertes a Los
Trabajadores Que Se Ponen En Contacto Con La Energía Elécrica
(Preventing Fatalities of Workers Who Contact Electrical Energy). US
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Publication No. 87-103, (1986, December).
Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing DOC and PDF materials.
*These files are provided for downloading.