Less than 40 years old, the semiconductors industry has
expanded greatly. Due to rapid changes in this industry, manufacturing processes
and their associated hazards may change completely every few years. These
changes make hazard assessments more difficult to complete and require that they
be conducted more often. Common hazards may include exposure to solvents, acid
and caustic solutions, toxic metals, and radiation.
Semiconductor hazards are addressed in specific standards
for the general industry.
This section highlights OSHA standards and national consensus standards related to semiconductors.
Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have
State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement
policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are
identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different
standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement
Frequently Cited Standards
A listing of the most frequently cited standards by Federal OSHA for Semiconductors and
Related Devices Industry Group (SIC
Code 3674) is available.
Other Highlighted Standards
General Industry (29 CFR
Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do
provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker
Semiconductor Equipment and Materials
- SEMI S1-0701, Safety Guidelines for Equipment Safety
- SEMI S2-1102, Safety Guidelines for Semiconductor Manufacturing
- SEMI S3-91, Safety Guidelines for Heated Chemical
- SEMI S4-92, Safety Guideline for the Segregation/Separation of Gas Cylinders
Contained in Cabinets
- SEMI S5-93, Safety Guideline for Flow Limiting
- SEMI S6-93, Safety Guideline for
- SEMI S7-96, Safety Guideline for Environmental, Safety, and Health
(ESH) Evaluation of Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
- SEMI S8-0701, Safety Guidelines for Ergonomics Engineering of Semiconductor
- SEMI S9-1101, Safety Guidelines for Electrical Design Verification Tests for Semiconductor Manufacturing
- SEMI S10-1296, Safety Guideline for Risk
- SEMI S11-1296, Environmental, Safety, and Health Guidelines for
Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment Minienvironments
- SEMI S12-0298, Guidelines for Equipment
- SEMI S13-0298, Safety Guidelines for Operation and Maintenance Manuals Used
with Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
- SEMI S15-0200, Safety Guideline for the Evaluation of Toxic and Flammable
Gas Detection Systems
- SEMI F1-96, Specification for Leak Integrity of High-Purity Gas Piping
Systems and Components
- SEMI F2-94, Specification for 316L Stainless Steel Tubing for General
Purpose Semiconductor Manufacturing Applications
- SEMI F3-94, Guide for Welding Stainless Steel Tubing for Semiconductor
- SEMI F4-1000, Specification for Pneumatically Actuated Cylinder
- SEMI F5-1101, Guide for Gaseous Effluent
- SEMI F6-92, Guide for Secondary Containment of Hazardous Gas Piping
- SEMI F7-92, Test Method to Determine the Tensile Strength of Tube Fitting
Connections Made of Fluorocarbon Materials
- SEMI F8-0998, Test Method for Evaluating the Sealing Capabilities of Tube
Fitting Connections Made of Fluorocarbon Materials When Subjected to Tensile
- SEMI F9-0998, Test Method to Determine the Leakage Characteristics of Tube
Fitting Connections Made of Fluorocarbon Materials When Subjected to a Side Load
- SEMI F10-0698, Test Method to Determine the Internal Pressure Required to
Produce a Failure of a Tube Fitting Connection Made of Fluorocarbon
- SEMI F11-0998, Test Method to Obtain an Indication of the Thermal
Characteristics of Tube Fitting Connections Made of Fluorocarbon
- SEMI F12-0998, Test Method to Determine the Sealing Capabilities of
Fittings, Made of Fluorocarbon Material, after Being Subjected to a Heat
- SEMI F13-1101, Guide for Gas Source Control
- SEMI F14-93, Guide for the Design of Gas Source Equipment
- SEMI F15-93, Test Method for Enclosures Using Sulfur Hexafluoride Tracer Gas
and Gas Chromatography
- SEMI F16-94, Specification for 316L Stainless Steel Tubing Which Is to Be
Finished and Electropolished for High Purity Semiconductor Manufacturing
- SEMI F17-95, Specification for High Purity Quality Electropolished 316L
Stainless Steel Tubing, Component Tube Stubs, and Fittings Made from
- SEMI F18-95, Guide for Determining the Hydrostatic Strength of, and Design
Basis for, Thermoplastic Pipe and Tubing
- SEMI F19-95, Specification for the Finish of the Wetted Surfaces of
Electropolished 316L Stainless Steel Components
- SEMI F20-0997, Specification for 316L Stainless Steel Bar, Extruded Shapes,
Plate, and Investment Castings for Components Used in the High Purity Semiconductor
- SEMI F21-1102, Classification of Airborne Molecular Contaminant Levels in
- SEMI F22-1102, Guide for Gas Distribution
- SEMI F23-0697, Particle Specification for Grade 10/0.2 Flammable Specialty
- SEMI F24-0697, Particle Specification for Grade 10/0.2 Inert Specialty
- SEMI F30-0298, Start-Up and Verification of Purifier Performance Testing for
Trace Gas Impurities and Particles at an Installation
- SEMI F31-0698, Guide for Bulk Chemical Distribution
- SEMI F32-0998, Test Method for Determination of Flow Coefficient for High
Purity Shutoff Valves
- SEMI F33-0998, Method for Calibration of Atmospheric Pressure Ionization
Mass Spectrometer (APIMS)
- SEMI F34-0998, Guide for Liquid Chemical Pipe
- SEMI F35-0998, Test Method for Ultra-High Purity Gas Distribution System
Integration Verification Using Non-Invasive Oxygen
- SEMI F36-0299, Guide for Dimensions and Connections of Gas Distribution
- SEMI F37-0299, Method for Determination of Surface Roughness Parameters for
Gas Distribution System Components
- SEMI F38-0699, Test Method for Efficiency Qualification of Point-of-Use Gas
- SEMI F39-0699, Guideline for Chemical Blending
- SEMI F40-0699, Practice for Preparing Liquid Chemical Distribution
Components for Chemical Testing
- SEMI F41-0699, Guide for Qualification of a Bulk Chemical Distribution
System Used in Semiconductor Processing
- SEMI F42-0600, Test Method for Semiconductor Processing Equipment Voltage
- SEMI F43-0699, Test Method for Determination of Particle Contribution by
- SEMI F44-0699, Guideline for Standardization of Machined Stainless Steel
- SEMI F45-0699, Guideline for Standardization of Machined Stainless Steel
Reducing Weld Fittings
- SEMI F46-0999, Guide for On-Site Chemical Generation (OSCG)
- SEMI F47-0200, Specification for Semiconductor Processing
Equipment Voltage Sag Immunity
- SEMI F48-0600, Test Method for Determining Trace Metals in Polymer
- SEMI F49-0200, Guide for Semiconductor Factory Systems Voltage Sag
- SEMI F50-0200, Guide for Electric Utility Voltage Sag Performance for
- SEMI PR3-0699E, Proposed Specification for Surface Mount Interface of Gas
- SEMI E16-90, Guideline for Determining and Describing Mass
Flow Controller Leak Rates
- SEMI E51-0200, Guide for Typical Facilities Services and Termination
- SEMI E76-0299, Guide for 300 mm Process Equipment Points of Connection to
- SEMI E80-0299, Test Method for Determining Attitude Sensitivity of Mass Flow
Controllers (Mounting Position)
International Semiconductor Manufacturing
Documentation for Suppliers. Provides a list of
guidance documents including guidelines
for factory design, user requirements, software requirements, and
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
318, Standard for the Protection of Semiconductor
Fabrication Facilities. (2009).
Hazards and Possible Solutions
Many high-technology workers in the semiconductor industry risk exposure to a variety of hazardous substances and operations. The following references aid in recognizing and
controlling hazards in the workplace.
Silicon Device Manufacturing
- Silicon Device Manufacturing. OSHA reviews the processes, potential hazards, and possible
solutions involved in silicon device manufacturing.
Gallium Arsenide Device Manufacturing
Profile of the Electronics and Computer Industry [1 MB PDF, 151 pages]. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Sector Notebook Publication No. EPA/310-R-95-002, (1995, September). Contains detailed descriptions of the semiconductor industry, including information on industrial processes, chemical emissions, pollution prevention, and other related environmental concerns. Find updated data on this industry in the
Sector Notebooks Data Refresh, which allows users to select an industry sector in order to obtain the most current emissions data from the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and compliance and enforcement data.
- Williams ME, Baldwin DG. Semiconductor industrial hygiene
Park Ridge (NY): Noyes Publications; 1995.
- Hazardous materials toxicology: clinical principles of
Sullivan JB Jr, Krieger GR, eds. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1992 Jan.
- Harrison M. Semiconductor manufacturing hazards.
Related Safety and Health Topics Pages
- Semiconductor Manufacturing.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic.
Documentation for Suppliers.
International Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology (SEMATECH). SEMATECH is a non-profit technology development consortium of semiconductor
manufacturers. Their work encompasses essential areas of semiconductor science, including lithography, interconnect,
front end processes, advanced technology, manufacturing methods, and environment, safety and health.
- Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123, (1981, January). Provides a table of contents of guidelines for many hazardous chemicals. The files provide technical chemical information, including chemical and physical properties, health effects, exposure limits, and recommendations for medical monitoring, personal protective equipment (PPE), and control procedures.
- Semiconductor Environmental, Safety & Health Association (SESHA). Promotes safety and health in the semiconductor industry.
- Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). Represents the computer chip industry.
- Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International (SEMI).
Serves the semiconductor and flat panel display industries.
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