An estimated 2.3 million construction workers, or 65 percent of the construction industry, work on scaffolds. Protecting these workers from scaffold-related accidents may prevent some of the 4,500 injuries and over 60 deaths every year (Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2003 and 2004 data for the private sector), at a savings for American employers of $90 million in workdays not lost. In a recent BLS study, 72 percent of workers injured in scaffold accidents attributed the accident either to the planking or support giving way, or to the employee slipping or being struck by a falling object. All of these accidents can be controlled by compliance with OSHA standards.
- Construction. OSHA Alliance Program. This is one of OSHA's Strategic Management Plan Focus Areas.
- Construction. OSHA. A Spanish version is also available. Construction can be a safe occupation when workers are aware of the hazards, and an effective Safety and Health Program is used. This eTool contains information that helps workers identify and control the hazards that cause the most serious construction-related injuries.
- Scaffolding. OSHA. Provides illustrated safety checklists for specific types of scaffolds. Hazards are identified, as well as the controls that keep these hazards from becoming tragedies.
Scaffolding hazards are addressed in specific standards for the construction industry.
This section highlights OSHA standards, preambles to final rules (background to final rules), Federal Registers (rules, proposed rules, and notices), directives (instructions for compliance officers), and standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards) related to scaffolding.
Note: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies.
Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)
- 1926 Subpart L, Scaffolds
- 1926.450, Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart
- 1926.451, General requirements
- 1926.452, Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds
- 1926.453, Aerial lifts
- 1926.454, Training requirements. Supplements and clarifies the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.21(b)(2) as these relate to the hazards of work on scaffolds.
- Appendix A, Scaffold specifications. Provides non-mandatory guidelines to assist employers in complying with the requirements of subpart L of this part.
- Appendix B, Criteria for determining the feasibility of providing safe access and fall protection for scaffold erectors and dismantlers
- Appendix C, List of national consensus standards
- Appendix D, List of training topics for scaffold erectors and dismantlers
- Appendix E, Drawings and illustrations. Provides drawings of particular types of scaffolds and scaffold components, as well as graphic illustrations of bracing patterns and tie spacing patterns.
- 1926 Subpart M, Fall Protection
- For additional information on specific state plans or other general standards, see the general industry Standards section.
Preambles to Final Rules
- Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry. Final Rules 61:46025-46075, (1996, August 30 ). Reports that although specific accident ratios cannot be projected for the estimated 3.6 million construction workers currently covered by subpart L, estimates that of the 510,500 injuries and illnesses that occur in the construction industry annually, 9,750 are related to scaffolds.
- Search all available Federal Registers.
Hazards and Possible Solutions
- A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry. OSHA Publication 3150, (Revised 2002). Also available as a 2 MB PDF, 73 pages. Aims to protect workers using scaffolding in construction work. Scaffolding hazards continue to rank high on the list of the most frequently cited standards in the construction industry.
- Construction - Pocket Guide. OSHA Publication 3252-05N, (2005). Also available as a 285 KB PDF, 36 pages. Provides hazards and solutions for the top 10 of the most frequently cited standards in construction and lists scaffolding as the most frequently cited standard.
- Scaffolding. OSHA. Provides training and reference materials.
- Preventing Electrocutions During Work with Scaffolds Near Overhead Power Lines. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 91-110, (1991, August). Alerts workers to the electrocution hazard when erecting, moving, or working from metal or conductive scaffolds near overhead power lines.
- Preventing Worker Injuries and Deaths Caused by Falls From Suspension
Scaffolds. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-108, (1992, August). Recommends measures to prevent serious injuries and fatal falls while working from suspension scaffolds:
- Working Outdoors in Warm Climates [74 KB PDF*, 2 pages]. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2005, September). Provides information on heat, sun exposure and other special hazards for outdoor workers in warm climates.
- For additional information on related safety and health topics pages, see the general industry Additional Information section.
Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300 for assistance accessing PDF and PPT materials.
*These files are provided for downloading.