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This guideline summarizes pertinent information about vegetable oil mist for workers and employers as well as for physicians, industrial hygienists, and other occupational safety and health professionals who may need such information to conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new developments in these fields; readers are therefore advised to regard these recommendations as general guidelines and to determine whether new information is available.
Data not available.* Structure
(For Structure, see paper copy)* Synonyms
Mists from common vegetable oils such as edible vegetable oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, flaxseed oil, earthnut oil, groundnut oil, or coconut oil* Identifiers
1. CAS No.: 68956-68-3* Appearance and odor
Vegetable oil mist is the finely divided particulate (mist) of a vegetable oil.CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
* Physical data
1. Molecular weight: Varies.* Reactivity
1. Conditions contributing to instability: None reported.* Flammability
The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 1 (slight fire hazard) to the following vegetable oils: corn oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, olive oil, and peanut oil. However, vegetable oil mist is considered a combustible material.EXPOSURE LIMITS
* OSHA PEL
The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for vegetable oil mist is 15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3)) of air for total dust, and 5 mg/m(3) for the respirable fraction, as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentration [29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1].* NIOSH REL
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for vegetable oil mist of 10 mg/m(3) for total dust, and 5 mg/m(3) for the respirable fraction, as a TWA for up to a 10-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek [NIOSH 1992].* ACGIH TLV
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned vegetable oil mist a threshold limit value (TLV) of 10 mg/m(3) (except castor, cashew nut, or similar irritant oils), as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek [ACGIH 1994, p. 35].* Rationale for Limits
The NIOSH limit is based on the risk of physical irritation [NIOSH 1992].
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
* Routes of Exposure
Exposure to vegetable oil mist can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.* Summary of toxicology
1. Effects on Animals: The mists of vegetable oils are considered biologically inert. High oral doses of vegetable oils have a laxative effect [ACGIH 1991]. Sunflower oil was lethal in rats when added to the animals diet in an amount corresponding to 45 percent of total diet calories for a period of 4.5 months [NLM 1995]. Direct instillation of vegetable oil into rabbit lungs is expected to induce acute bronchitis [ACGIH 1991].* Signs and symptoms of exposure
1. Acute exposure: No signs or symptoms of acute exposure to vegetable oil mist have been reported in humans. However, oils from certain plants (e.g. castor bean, sesame, acacia, and cashew nut) have reportedly caused occupational dermatitis and respiratory irritation [ACGIH 1991].EMERGENCY MEDICAL PROCEDURES
* Emergency medical procedures: [NIOSH to supply]
5. Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e.g., those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]). All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures, the location and proper use of emergency equipment, and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations.EXPOSURE SOURCES AND CONTROL METHODS
The following operations may involve vegetable oils and lead to worker exposure to the mists of these substances:
Good sources of information about control methods are as follows:
1. ACGIH . Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. 21st ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
2. Burton DJ . Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
3. Alden JL, Kane JM . Design of industrial ventilation systems. New York, NY: Industrial Press, Inc.
4. Wadden RA, Scheff PA . Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
5. Plog BA . Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.
WORKPLACE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne vegetable oil mists (total dust) is made using a tared low ash polyvinyl chloride (LAPVC) filter of 5 microns. Samples are collected at a maximum flow rate of 2.0 liters/minute to obtain a maximum sample volume of 960 liters. For the respirable fraction sampling, a 10 mm Dorr-Oliver nylon cyclone is used in combination with a tared LAPVC filter. Samples are collected at a flow rate of 1.7 liters/minute with a maximum sample volume of 816 liters. Analysis for both methods is conducted by gravimetric measurement (weighing of the sample). Both sampling methods are described in the OSHA Computerized Information System [OSHA 1994] and similar methods are described in NIOSH method Nos. 0500 and 0600 [NIOSH 1994].
PERSONAL HYGIENE PROCEDURES
If vegetable oil mist contacts the skin, workers should wash the affected areas with soap and water.
Clothing contaminated with vegetable oil mist should be removed, and provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing. Persons laundering the clothes should be informed of the hazardous properties of vegetable oil mist.
A worker who handles vegetable oils should thoroughly wash hands, forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, applying cosmetics, or taking medication.
Workers should not eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication in areas where vegetable oil mist is generated.
SPILLS AND LEAKS
In the event of a spill or leak involving vegetable oil, persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:
1. Do not touch the spilled material; stop the leak if it is possible to do so without risk.
2. For small liquid spills, take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into closed containers for later disposal.
3. For large liquid spills, build dikes far ahead of the spill to contain the vegetable oil mist for later reclamation or disposal.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning, reportable quantities of hazardous releases, community right-to-know, and hazardous waste management may change over time. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available.
* Emergency planning requirements
Vegetable oil mist is not subject to EPA emergency planning requirements under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Title III) in 42 USC 11022.* Reportable quantity requirements for hazardous releases
A hazardous substance release is defined by EPA as any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical, employers are required to notify the proper Federal, State, and local authorities [40 CFR 355.40].* Community right-to-know requirements
Employers are not required by EPA in 40 CFR Part 372.30 to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to EPA reporting the amount of vegetable oil mist emitted or released from their facility annually.* Hazardous waste management requirements
EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.21-261.24. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.], EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. Although vegetable oil mist is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA, EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above.RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
* Conditions for respirator use
Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of vegetable oil mist exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed, (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures, (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4) during emergencies. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).* Respiratory protection program
Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that, at a minimum, complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.134]. Such a program must include respirator selection, an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel, respirator fit testing, periodic workplace monitoring, and regular respirator maintenance, inspection, and cleaning. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users, consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection.PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with vegetable oil mist. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to vegetable oil mist. There are no published reports on the resistance of various materials to permeation by vegetable oil mist.
To evaluate the use of PPE materials with vegetable oil mist, users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e.g., butyl) produced by different manufacturers. In addition, the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.
Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve vegetable oil mist.
Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes.
In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel (e.g., aprons, encapsulating suits), workers should wear work uniforms, coveralls, or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk.
Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.
Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation, especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments.
ACGIH . Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
ACGIH . 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
CFR. Code of Federal regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of the Federal Register.
Genium . Material safety data sheet Nos. 476, 477. Schenectady, NY: Genium Publishing Corporation.
Lewis RJ, ed. . Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Mickelsen RL, Hall RC . A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48(11): 941-947.
Mickelsen RL, Hall RC, Chern RT, Myers JR . Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 52(10): 445-447.
NFPA . Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. 9th ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
NIOSH [1987a]. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 87-116.
NIOSH [1987b]. NIOSH respirator decision logic. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 87-108.
NIOSH . Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-100.
NIOSH [1994a]. NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116.
NIOSH [1994b]. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-113.
NIOSH . Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Vegetable oil. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, Technical Information Branch.
NLM . Hazardous substances data bank: Vegetable oil. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine.
OSHA . Computerized information system. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
USC. United States code. Washington. DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.