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This guideline summarizes pertinent information about carbon disulfide for workers and employers as well as for physicians, industrial hygienists, and other occupational safety and health professionals who may need such information to conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new developments in these fields; readers are therefore advised to regard these recommendations as general guidelines and to determine whether new information is available.
For Structure, see paper copy)
Carbon bisulfide, carbon bisulphide, dithiocarbonic anhydride, carbon sulfide, sulphocarbonic anhydride, weeviltox
Carbon disulfide is a clear, colorless to faintly yellow liquid; it is almost colorless when pure. The technical grades have a strong, disagreeable odor similar to hydrogen sulfide. An odor threshold of part per million (ppm) parts of air has been reported.
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
* Physical data
The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 3 (serious fire hazard) to carbon disulfide.
Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering. Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Vapors are an explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. Containers of carbon disulfide may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely. If this is not possible, cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out. Stay away from the ends of containers. Personnel should withdraw immediately if a rising sound from a venting safety device is heard or if there is discoloration of a container due to fire. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving carbon disulfide.
* OSHA PEL
The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PELs) for carbon disulfide are 20 ppm as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentration, 30 ppm() as an acceptable peak concentration for 30-minutes, and 100 ppm as a maximum peak [29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-2].
* NIOSH REL
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limits (RELs) for carbon disulfide of 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a TWA for up to ahour workday and a 40-hour workweek, and a 10 ppm (30 mg/m(3)) short-term exposure limit. NIOSH also assigns a "Skin" notation, which indicates that the cutaneous route of exposure, including mucous membranes and eyes, contributes to overall exposure [NIOSH 1992].
* ACGIH TLV
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned carbon disulfide a threshold limit value (TLV) of 10 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. The ACGIH also assigns a "Skin" notation to carbon disulfide [ACGIH 1994, p. 15].
* Rationale for Limits
The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system, and reproductive effects [NIOSH 1992].
The ACGIH limit is based on the risk of cardiovascular effects [ACGIH p. 226].
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
* Routes of Exposure
Exposure to carbon disulfide can occur through inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact, and absorption through the skin [Sittig 1991].
* Summary of toxicology
* Emergency medical procedures: [NIOSH to supply]
Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure andimplement appropriate emergency procedures (e.g., those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard CFR 1910.1200]). All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures, the location and proper use of emergency equipment, and methodsof protecting themselves during rescue operations.
EXPOSURE SOURCES AND CONTROL METHODS
The following operations may involve carbon disulfide and lead to worker exposures to this substance:
Good sources of information about control methods are as follows:
OSHA is currently developing requirements for medical surveillance. When these requirements are promulgated, readers should refer to them for additional information and to determine whether employers whose employees are exposed to carbon disulfide are required to implement medical surveillance procedures.
* Medical Screening
Workers who may be exposed to chemical hazards should be monitored in a systematic program of medical surveillance that is intended to prevent occupational injury and disease. The program should include education of employers and workers about work-related hazards, early detection of adverse health effects, and referral of workers for diagnosis and treatment. The occurrence of disease or other work- related adverse health effects should prompt immediate evaluation of primary preventive measures (e.g., industrial hygiene monitoring, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment). A medical surveillance program is intended to supplement, not replace, such measures. To detect and control work-related health effects, medical evaluations should be performed (1) before job placement, periodically during the term of employment, and (3) at the time of job transfer or termination.
* Pre-placement medical evaluation
Before a worker is placed in a job with a potential for exposure to carbon disulfide, a licensed health care professional should evaluate and document the worker's baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks. These should concentrate on the function and integrity of the eyes, skin, central and peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys.
A pre-placement medical evaluation is recommended to assess medical conditions that may be aggravated or may result in increased risk when a worker is exposed to carbon disulfide at or below the prescribed exposure limit. The health care professional should consider the probable frequency, intensity, and duration of exposure as well as the nature and degree of any applicable medical condition. Such conditions (which should not be regarded as absolute contraindications to job placement) include a history and other findings consistent with diseases of the eyes, skin, central and peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular system, liver, or kidneys.
* Periodic medical evaluations
Occupational health interviews and physical examinations should be performed at regular intervals during the employment period, as mandated by any applicable Federal, State, or local standard. Where no standard exists and the hazard is minimal, evaluations should be conducted every 3 to 5 years or as frequently as recommended by an experienced occupational health physician. Additional examinations may be necessary if a worker develops symptoms attributable to carbon disulfide exposure. The interviews, examinations, and medical screening tests should focus on identifying the adverse effects of carbon disulfide on the eyes, skin, central and peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular system, liver, or kidneys. Current health status should be compared with the baseline health status of the individual worker or with expected values for a suitable reference population.
* Termination medical evaluations
The medical, environmental, and occupational history interviews, the physical examination, and selected physiologic or laboratory tests that were conducted at the time of placement should be repeated at the time of job transfer or termination to determine the worker's medical status at the end of his or her employment. Any changes in the worker's health status should be compared with those expected for a suitable reference population.
* Biological monitoring
Biological monitoring involves sampling and analyzing body tissues or fluids to provide an index of exposure to a toxic substance or metabolite. Exposure to carbon disulfide can be estimated by measuring the concentration of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acidTTCA) in the urine. Samples should be collected at the end of the workshift. The biological exposure index is 5 milligrams TTCA per gram of creatinine in the urine.
WORKPLACE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne carbon disulfide is madeusing a charcoal tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh). Samples arecollected at a maximum flow rate of 0.2 liter/minute (for ceiling, peak, STEL, or TWA sampling) until a maximum collection volume of 25 liters (TWA), 3 liters (STEL) is reached, or for a minimum time of 30 minutes ceiling) or 5 minutes (peak). The sample is then treated with toluene or a 95:5 methylene chloride:methanol solvent. Analysis is conducted by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector (GC/FPD). This method OSHA modified NIOSH method No. 1600) is described in the OSHA Computerized Information System [OSHA 1994] and is fully validated. NIOSH Method No. for carbon disulfide sampling can also be used [NIOSH 1994b].
PERSONAL HYGIENE PROCEDURES
If carbon disulfide contacts the skin, workers should flush the affected areas immediately with flooding amounts of water, followed by washing with soap and water.
Clothing contaminated with carbon disulfide should be removed immediately, and provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing. Persons laundering the clothes should be informed of the hazardous properties of carbon disulfide, particularly its potential for causing eye and skin irritation and skin burns.
A worker who handles carbon disulfide should thoroughly wash hands, forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, applying cosmetics, or taking medication.
Workers should not eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication in areas where carbon disulfide or a solution containing carbon disulfide is handled, processed, or stored.
Carbon disulfide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area intightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]. Iron, steel, porcelain, orglass containers should be used for storage. Containers of carbondisulfide should be protected from physical damage and rust, and should be stored separately from strong oxidizers, chemically active materials (suchas sodium, potassium, and zinc), azides, halogens, and organic amines.
SPILLS AND LEAKS
In the event of a spill or leak involving carbon disulfide, persons notwearing protective equipment and fully-encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning, reportable quantities of hazardous releases, community right-to-know, and hazardous waste management may change over time. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available.
* Emergency planning requirements
Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 10,000 pounds or more of carbon disulfide must comply with EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355.30].
* Reportable quantity requirements for hazardous releases
A hazardous substance release is defined by EPA as any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical, employers are required to notify the proper Federal, State, and local authorities [40 CFR].
The reportable quantity of carbon disulfide is 100 pounds. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24- hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility, employers are required to do the following:
Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25,000 pounds or more of carbon disulfide per calendar year or otherwise use 10,000 pounds or more of carbon disulfide per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form Form R) to EPA reporting the amount of carbon disulfide emitted or released from their facility annually.
* Hazardous waste management requirements
EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.21-261.24. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.], EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. Carbon disulfide is listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA and has been assigned EPA Hazardous Waste No. P022. This substance has been banned from land disposal and must be treated by incineration.
Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline. The U.S. Department of Transportation, EPA, and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal, transport, and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations. To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets EPA regulatory requirements, employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington, D.C. area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington, D.C.). In addition, relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance.
* Conditions for respirator use
Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of carbon disulfide exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed, (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures, (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4) during emergencies. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
* Respiratory protection program
Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that, at a minimum, complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.134]. Such a program must include respirator selection, an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel, respirator fit testing, periodic workplace monitoring, and regular respirator maintenance, inspection, and cleaning. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users, consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a].
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective inpreventing skin contact with carbon disulfide. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker'spotential exposure to carbon disulfide. The resistance of various materials to permeation by carbon disulfide is shown below:
Material Breakthrough time (hr) polyvinyl alcohol viton H (PE/EVAL) barricade responder trellchem HPS teflon Caution 1 to 4 butyl rubber natural rubber neoprene nitrile rubber polyvinyl alcohol polyvinyl chloride saranex chemrel
Material has been estimated (but not tested) to provide protection for four hours Not recommended, degradation may occur
To evaluate the use of these materials with carbon disulfide, users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e.g., butyl) produced by different manufacturers. In addition, the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.
Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve carbon disulfide.
Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes.
In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e.g., aprons, encapsulating suits), workers should wear work uniforms, coveralls, or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk.
Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should beinspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.
Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation, especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments.
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