fastline n: the end of the drilling line that is affixed to the drum or
reel of the drawworks, so called because it travels with greater velocity than
any other portion of the line. Compare deadline.
fingerboard n: a rack that supports the stands of
pipe being stacked in the derrick or mast. It has several steel fingerlike
projections that form a series of slots into which the derrickman can place a
stand of drill pipe or collars after it is pulled out of the hole and removed
from the drill string.
fire flooding n: a thermal recovery method in which
the oil in the reservoir is ignited, the heat vaporizes lighter hydrocarbons
and water pushes the warmed oil toward a producing well. Also called in situ
combustion. See thermal recovery.
fish n: an object that is left in the wellbore
during drilling or workover operations and that must be recovered before work
can proceed. It can be anything from a piece of scrap metal to a part of the
fishing n: the procedure of recovering lost or stuck
equipment in the wellbore.
fishing magnet n: a powerful magnet designed to
recover metallic objects lost in a well.
fishing tool n: a tool designed to recover equipment
lost in a well.
fishing-tool operator n: the person (usually a
service company employee) in charge of directing fishing operations.
fitting n: a small, often standardized, part (such
as a coupling, valve, or gauge) installed in a larger apparatus.
float collar n: a special coupling device inserted one or two joints
above the bottom of the casing string that contains a check valve to permit
fluid to pass downward but not upward through the casing. The float collar
prevents drilling mud from entering the casing while it is being lowered,
allowing the casing to float during its descent and thus decreasing the load
on the derrick or mast.
float shoe n: a short, heavy, cylindrical steel
section with a rounded bottom that is attached to the bottom of the casing
string. It contains a check valve and functions similarly to the float collar
but also serves as a guide shoe for the casing.
flood v: 1. to drive oil from a reservoir into a
well by injecting water under pressure into the reservoir formation. See
waterflooding. 2. to drown out a well with water.
flow n: a current or stream of fluid or gas.
floor crew n: those workers on a drilling or workover rig who work
primarily on the rig floor. See rotary helper.
floorhand n: see rotary helper.
floorman n: see rotary helper.
flowing well n: a well that produces oil or gas by
its own reservoir pressure rather than by use of artificial means (such as
flow line n: the surface pipe through which oil or
gas travels from a well to processing equipment or to storage.
flow rate n: the speed, or velocity, of fluid or gas
flow through a pipe or vessel.
fluid injection n: injection of gases or liquids
into a reservoir to force oil toward and into producing wells.
fluid loss n: the unwanted migration of the liquid
part of the drilling mud or cement slurry into a formation, often minimized or
prevented by the blending of additives with the mud or cement.
formation fluid n: fluid (such as gas, oil, or
water) that exists in a subsurface formation.
formation gas n: gas initially produced from an
formation pressure n: the force exerted by fluids or
gas in a formation, recorded in the hole at the level of the formation with
the well shut in. Also called reservoir pressure or shut-in bottomhole
formation testing n: the gathering of pressure data
and fluid samples from a formation to determine its production potential
before choosing a completion method.
formation water n: 1. the water originally in place
in a formation. 2. any water that resides in the pore spaces of a formation.
frac fluid n: a fluid used in the fracturing process
(for example, a method of stimulating production by opening new flow channels
in the formation surrounding a production well). Under extremely high
hydraulic pressure, frac fluids (such as distillate, diesel fuel, crude oil,
dilute hydrochloric acid, water, or kerosene) are pumped downward through
production tubing or drill pipe and forced out below a packer or between two
packers. The pressure causes cracks to open in the formation, and the fluid
penetrates the formation through the cracks. Sand grains, aluminum pellets,
walnut shells, or similar materials (propping agents) are carried in
suspension by the fluid into the cracks. When the pressure is released at the
surface, the fracturing fluid returns to the well but leaves behind the
propping agents to hold open the formation cracks.
tanks n pl: fuel storage tanks for the power generating system.
fracture n: a crack or crevice in a formation,
either natural or induced. See hydraulic fracturing.
fracture acidizing n: a procedure by which acid is
forced into a formation under pressure high enough to cause the formation to
crack. The acid acts on certain kinds of formations, usually carbonates, to
increase the permeability of the formation. Also called acid fracturing.
fracture pressure n: the pressure at which a
formation will break down, or fracture.
fracturing fluid n: a fluid, such as water, oil, or
acid, used in hydraulic fracturing. The fluid carries propping agents that
hold open the formation cracks after hydraulic pressure dissipates. See acid
fracturing, hydraulic fracturing, propping agents.
free-point indicator n: a device run on wireline
into the wellbore and inside the fishing string and fish to locate the area
where a fish is stuck. When the drill string is pulled and turned, the
electromagnetic fields of free pipe and stuck pipe differ. The free-point
indicator is able to distinguish these differences, which are registered on a
metering device at the surface.
friction n: resistance to movement created when two
surfaces are in contact. When friction is present, movement between the
surfaces produces heat.
full-gauge bit n: a bit that has maintained its
full-gauge hole n: a wellbore drilled with a
full-gauge bit. Also called a true-to-gauge hole.