Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) - Table of Contents Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) - Table of Contents
• Part Number: 1910
• Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards
• Subpart: R
• Subpart Title: Special Industries
• Standard Number: 1910.261
• Title: Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.


1910.261(a)
General requirements -
1910.261(a)(1)
Application. This section applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured and converted. This section does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
1910.261(a)(2)
Standards incorporated by reference. Standards covering issues of occupational safety and health which have general application without regard to any specific industry are incorporated by reference in paragraphs (b) through (m) of this section and in subparagraphs (3) and (4) of this paragraph and made applicable under this section. Such standards shall be construed according to the rules set forth in 1910.5.
1910.261(a)(3)
General incorporation of standards. Establishments subject to this section shall comply with the following standards of the American National Standards Institute, which are incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6:
1910.261(a)(3)(i)
Practice for Industrial Lighting, A11.1 - 1965 (R-1970).
1910.261(a)(3)(ii)
Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, A13.1 - 1956.
1910.261(a)(3)(iii)
Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Moving Walks, A17.1 - 1965, including Supplements A17.1a - 1967, A17.1b - 1968, A17.1c - 1969, and A17.1d - 1970.
1910.261(a)(3)(iv)
Practice for the Inspection of Elevators (Inspector's Manual), A17.2 - 1960, including Supplements A17.2a - 1965 and A17.2b - 1967.
1910.261(a)(3)(v)
Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, B20.1 - 1957.
1910.261(a)(3)(vi)
Power Piping, B31.1.0 - 1967 and addenda B31.10a - 1969. Fuel Gas Piping, B31.2 - 1968.
1910.261(a)(3)(vii)
Identification of Gas-Mask Canisters, K13.1 - 1967.
1910.261(a)(3)(viii)
Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, Z12.12 - 1968.
1910.261(a)(3)(ix)
Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1 - 1961.
1910.261(a)(3)(x)
[Redesignated as (a)(3)(v)]
1910.261(a)(3)(xi)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xiii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xiv)
[Redesignated as (a)(3)(vi)]
1910.261(a)(3)(xv)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xvi)
[Redesignated as (a)(3)(vii)]
1910.261(a)(3)(xvii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xviii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xix)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xx)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxi)
[Redesignated as (a)(3)(viii)]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxiii)
[Redesignated as (a)(3)(ix)]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxiv)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxv)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxvi)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(3)(xxvii)
[Removed]
1910.261(a)(4)
Other standards. The following standards, which are incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6, shall be considered standards under this section:
1910.261(a)(4)(i)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, including addenda 1969.
1910.261(a)(4)(ii)
Building Exits Code for Life Safety from Fire, NFPA 101 - 1970.
1910.261(a)(4)(iii)
Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960, Institute of Makers of Explosives.
1910.261(b)
Safe practices -
1910.261(b)(1)
Lockouts. Devices such as padlocks shall be provided for locking out the source of power at the main disconnect switch. Before any maintenance, inspection, cleaning, adjusting, or servicing of equipment (electrical, mechanical, or other) that requires entrance into or close contact with the machinery or equipment, the main power disconnect switch or valve, or both, controlling its source of power or flow of material, shall be locked out or blocked off with padlock, blank flange, or similar device.
1910.261(b)(2)
Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting shall be provided wherever it is necessary for employees to remain at their machines or stations to shut down equipment in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided at stairways and passageways or aisleways used by employees for emergency exit in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided in all plant first aid and medical facilities.
1910.261(b)(3)
[Removed]
1910.261(b)(4)
[Redesignated as (b)(1)]
1910.261(b)(5)
[Removed]
1910.261(b)(6)
[Removed]
1910.261(b)(7)
[Redesignated as (b)(2)]
1910.261(c)
Handling and storage of pulpwood and pulp chips -
1910.261(c)(1)
Handling pulpwood with forklift trucks. Where large forklift trucks, or lift trucks with clam-jaws, are used in the yard, the operator's enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.
1910.261(c)(2)
Handling pulpwood with cranes or stackers.
1910.261(c)(2)(i)
Where locomotive cranes are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
1910.261(c)(2)(ii)
The minimum distance of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained at not less than 8 1/2 feet.
1910.261(c)(2)(iii)
Logs shall be piled in an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
1910.261(c)(2)(iv)
Railroad cars shall not be spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24-inch clearance is maintained, as required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.
1910.261(c)(2)(v)
The handling and storage of other materials shall conform to paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section with respect to clearance.
1910.261(c)(2)(vi)
No person shall be permitted to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.
1910.261(c)(2)(vii)
[Removed]
1910.261(c)(2)(viii)
[Redesignated as (c)(2)(vi)]
1910.261(c)(3)
Handling pulpwood from ships.
1910.261(c)(3)(i)
[Reserved]
1910.261(c)(3)(ii)
The hatch tender shall be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the men working in the hold are in the clear.
1910.261(c)(3)(iii)
The air in the ship's hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for both toxic and explosive gases and vapors.
1910.261(c)(4)
Handling pulpwood from flatcars and all other railway cars.
1910.261(c)(4)(i)
Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
1910.261(c)(4)(ii)
Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
1910.261(c)(4)(iii)
When it is necessary to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
1910.261(c)(4)(iv)
When steel straps without stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees from being struck by the falling logs.
1910.261(c)(4)(v)
Flatcars and all other cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
1910.261(c)(4)(vi)
A derail shall be used to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.
1910.261(c)(5)
Handling pulpwood from trucks.
1910.261(c)(5)(i)
Cutting of stakes and binder wires shall be done in accordance with paragraph (c)4(iii) of this section.
1910.261(c)(5)(ii)
Where binder chain and steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped from the opposite side of the load spillage.
1910.261(c)(5)(iii)
Where binder chains and crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.
1910.261(c)(6)
All cars shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
1910.261(c)(6)(i)
[Redesignated as (c)(6)]
1910.261(c)(6)(ii)
[Removed]
1910.261(c)(7)
All trucks and trailers shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
1910.261(c)(7)(i)
[Redesignated as (c)(7)]
1910.261(c)(7)(ii)
[Removed]
1910.261(c)(8)
Cranes.
1910.261(c)(8)(i)
[Reserved]
1910.261(c)(8)(ii)
A safety device such as a heavy chain or cable at least equal in strength to the lifting cables shall be fastened to the boom and to the frame of the boom crane (if it is other than locomotive) at the base. Alternatively, a telescoping safety device shall be fastened to the boom and to the cab frame, so as to prevent the boom from snapping back over the cab in the event of lifting cable breakage.
1910.261(c)(8)(iii)
A crane shall not be operated where any part thereof may come within 10 feet of overhead powerlines (or other overhead obstructions) unless the powerlines have been deenergized. The boom shall be painted bright yellow from and including the head sheave to a point 6 feet down the boom towards the cab.
1910.261(c)(8)(iv)
Standard signals for the operation of cranes shall be established for all movements of the crane, in accordance with American National Standards B30.2 - 1943 (reaffirmed 1968) and B30.2.0 - 1967.
1910.261(c)(8)(v)
Only one member of the crew shall be authorized to give signals to the crane operator.
1910.261(c)(8)(vi)
All cranes shall be equipped with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.
1910.261(c)(8)(vii)
A sheave guard shall be provided beneath the head sheave of the boom.
1910.261(c)(9)
Traffic warning signs or signals.
1910.261(c)(9)(i)
A flagman shall direct the movement of cranes or locomotives being moved across railroad tracks or roads, and at any points where the vision of the operator is restricted. The flagman must always remain in sight of the operator when the crane or locomotive is in motion. The blue flag policy shall be used to mark stationary cars day and night. This policy shall include marking the track in advance of the spotted cars (flag for daytime, light for darkness).
1910.261(c)(9)(ii)
After cars are spotted for loading or unloading, warning flags or signs shall be placed in the center of the track at least 50 feet away from the cars and a derail set to protect workmen in the car.
1910.261(c)(10)
Illumination. Artificial illumination shall be provided when loading or unloading is performed after dark, in accordance with American National Standard A11.1 - 1965 (R - 1970).
1910.261(c)(11)
[Reserved]
1910.261(c)(12)
Barking devices. When barking drums are employed in the yard, the requirements of paragraph (e)(12) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(c)(13)
Hand tools. Handles of wood hooks shall be locked to the shank to prevent them from rotating.
1910.261(c)(14)
Removal of pulpwood.
1910.261(c)(14)(i)
The ends of a woodpile shall be properly sloped and cross-tiered into the pile. Upright poles shall not be used at the ends of woodpiles. To knock down wood from the woodpile, mechanical equipment shall be used to permit employees to keep in the clear of loosened wood.
1910.261(c)(14)(ii)
If dynamite is used to loosen the pile, only authorized personnel shall be permitted to handle and discharge the explosive. An electric detonator is preferable for firing; if a fuse is used, it shall be an approved safety fuse with a burning rate of not less than 120 seconds per yard and a minimum length of 3 feet, in accordance with Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, July 1960.
1910.261(c)(15)
Belt conveyors.
1910.261(c)(15)(i)
The sides of the conveyor shall be constructed so that the wood will not fall off.
1910.261(c)(15)(ii)
Where conveyors cross passageways or roadways, a horizontal platform shall be provided under the conveyor extending out from the sides of the conveyor a distance equal to 1.5 times the length of the wood handled. The platform shall extend the width of the road plus 2 feet on each side, and shall be kept free of wood and rubbish. The edges of the platform shall be provided with toeboards or other protection to prevent wood from falling, in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(c)(15)(iii)
All conveyors for pulpwood shall have the inrunning nips between chain and sprockets guarded; also, turning drums shall be guarded.
1910.261(c)(15)(iv)
Every belt conveyor shall have an emergency stop cable extending the length of the conveyor so that it may be stopped from any location along the line, or conveniently located stop buttons within 10 feet of each work station, in accordance with American National Standard B20.1 - 1957.
1910.261(c)(16)
Signs. When conveyors cross walkways or roadways in the yards, the employer must erect signs reading "Danger--Overhead Conveyor" or an equivalent warning, in accordance with ANSI Z35.1-1968 or ANSI Z535.2-2011, incorporated by reference in § 1910.6.
1910.261(d)
Handling and storage of raw materials other than pulpwood or pulp chips -
1910.261(d)(1)
Whenever possible, all dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the source, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2 - 1960. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when handling alum, clay, soda ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar materials, and when opening rag bales.
1910.261(d)(1)(i)
[Redesignated as (d)(1)]
1910.261(d)(1)(ii)
[Removed]
1910.261(d)(2)
Clearance.
1910.261(d)(2)(i)
When materials are being piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
1910.261(d)(2)(ii)
Baled paper and rags stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads.
1910.261(d)(3)
Piling and unpiling pulp.
1910.261(d)(3)(i)
Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
1910.261(d)(3)(ii)
Piles of pulp shall not be undermined when being unpiled.
1910.261(d)(3)(iii)
Floor capacities shall be clearly marked on all floors.
1910.261(d)(4) 1910.261(d)(4)(i)
[Reserved]
1910.261(d)(4)(ii)
Where rolls are pyramided two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row. Where pulp and paper rolls are stored on smooth floors in processing areas, rubber chocks with wooden core shall be used.
1910.261(d)(4)(iii)
When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.
1910.261(e)
Preparing pulpwood -
1910.261(e)(1)
Gang and slasher saws. A guard shall be provided in front of all gang and slasher saws to protect workers from wood thrown by saws. A guard shall be placed over tail sprockets.
1910.261(e)(2)
Slasher tables. Saws shall be stopped and power switches shall be locked out and tagged whenever it is necessary for any person to be on the slasher table.
1910.261(e)(3)
[Reserved]
1910.261(e)(4)
Runway to the jack ladder. The runway from the pond or unloading dock to the table shall be protected with standard handrails and toeboards. Inclined portions shall have cleats or equivalent nonslip surfacing in accordance with § 1910.23. Protective equipment shall be provided for persons working over water.
1910.261(e)(5)
Guards below table. Where not protected by the frame of the machine, the underside of the slasher saws shall be enclosed with guards.
1910.261(e)(6)
Conveyors. The requirements of paragraph (c)(15)(iv) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(e)(7)
[Reserved]
1910.261(e)(8)
Barker feed. Each barker shall be equipped with a feed and turnover device which will make it unnecessary for the operator to hold a bolt or log by hand during the barking operation. Eye, ear, and head protection shall be provided for the operator, in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
1910.261(e)(9)
[Reserved]
1910.261(e)(10)
Stops. All control devices shall be locked out and tagged when knives are being changed.
1910.261(e)(11)
Speed governor. Water wheels, when directly connected to barker disks or grinders, shall be provided with speed governors, if operated with gate wide open.
1910.261(e)(12)
Continuous barking drums.
1910.261(e)(12)(i)
When platforms or floors allow access to the sides of the drums, a standard railing shall be constructed around the drums. When two or more drums are arranged side by side, proper walkways with standard handrails shall be provided between each set, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.23, Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.
1910.261(e)(12)(ii)
Sprockets and chains, gears, and trunnions shall have standard guards, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.219, Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
1910.261(e)(12)(iii)
Whenever it becomes necessary for a workman to go within a drum, the driving mechanism shall be locked and tagged, at the main disconnect switch, in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
1910.261(e)(13)
Intermittent barking drums. In addition to motor switch, clutch, belt shifter, or other power disconnecting device, intermittent barking drums shall be equipped with a device which may be locked to prevent the drum from moving while it is being emptied or filled.
1910.261(e)(14)
Hydraulic barkers. Hydraulic barkers shall be enclosed with strong baffles at the inlet and the outlet. The operator shall be protected by at least five-ply laminated glass.
1910.261(e)(15)
Splitter block. The block upon or against which the wood is rested shall have a corrugated surface or other means provided that the wood will not slip. Wood to be split, and also the splitting block, shall be free of ice, snow, or chips. The operator shall be provided with eye and foot protection. A clear and unobstructed view shall be maintained between equipment and workers around the block and the workers' help area.
1910.261(e)(16)
Power control. Power for the operation of the splitter shall be controlled by a clutch or equivalent device.
1910.261(e)(17)
Knot cleaners. The operators of knot cleaners of the woodpecker type shall wear eye protection equipment.
1910.261(e)(18)
Chipper spout. The feed system to the chipper spout shall be arranged in such a way that the operator does not stand in a direct line with the chipper spout. All chipper spouts shall be enclosed to a height of at least 42 inches from the floor or operator's platform. When other protection is not sufficient, the operator shall wear a safety belt line. The safety belt line shall be fastened in such a manner as to make it impossible for the operator to fall into the throat of the chipper. Ear protection equipment shall be worn by the operator and others in the immediate area if there is any possibility that the noise level may be harmful (see 1910.95).
1910.261(e)(19)
Carriers for knives. Carriers shall be provided and used for transportation of knives.
1910.261(f)
Rag and old paper preparation -
1910.261(f)(1)
Ripping and trimming tools.
1910.261(f)(1)(i)
Hand knives and scissors shall have blunt points, shall be fastened to the table with chain or thong, and shall not be carried on the person but placed safely in racks or sheaths when not in use.
1910.261(f)(1)(ii)
Hand knives and sharpening steels shall be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade.
1910.261(f)(2)
Shredders, cutters, and dusters.
1910.261(f)(2)(i)
Rotating heads or cylinders shall be completely enclosed except for an opening at the feed side sufficient to permit only the entry of stock. The enclosure shall extend over the top of the feed rolls. It shall be constructed either of solid material or with mesh or openings not exceeding one-half inch and substantial enough to contain flying particles and prevent accidental contact with moving parts. The enclosure shall be bolted or locked into place.
1910.261(f)(2)(ii)
A smooth-pivoted idler roll resting on the stock or feed table shall be provided in front of feed rolls except when arrangements prevent the operator from standing closer than 36 inches to any part of the feed rolls.
1910.261(f)(2)(iii)
Any manually fed cutter, shredder, or duster shall be provided with an idler roll as per subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph or the operator shall use special hand-feeding tools.
1910.261(f)(2)(iv)
Hoods of cutters, shredders, and dusters shall have exhaust ventilation, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2 - 1960.
1910.261(f)(3)
Blowers.
1910.261(f)(3)(i)
Blowers used for transporting rags shall be provided with feed hoppers having outer edges located not less than 48 inches from the fan.
1910.261(f)(3)(ii)
The arrangement of the blower discharge outlets and work areas shall be such as to prevent material from falling on workers.
1910.261(f)(4)
Conveyors. Conveyors and conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed or, if open and within 7 feet of the floor, shall be constructed and guarded in accordance with paragraph (c)(15) of this section and American National Standards B15.1 - 1953 (Reaffirmed 1958) and B20.1 - 1957.
1910.261(f)(5)
Dust. Measures for the control of dust shall be provided, in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1 - 1961, Z87.1 - 1968, and Z88.2 - 1969.
1910.261(f)(6)
Rag cookers.
1910.261(f)(6)(i)
When cleaning, inspection, or other work requires that persons enter rag cookers, all steam and water valves, or other control devices, shall be locked and tagged in the closed or "off" position. Blank flanging of pipelines is acceptable in place of closed and locked valves.
1910.261(f)(6)(ii)
When cleaning, inspection, or other work requires that persons must enter the cooker, one person shall be stationed outside in a position to observe and assist in case of emergency, in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section.
1910.261(f)(6)(iii)
[Reserved]
1910.261(f)(6)(iv)
Rag cookers shall be provided with safety valves in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels - 1968, with Addenda.
1910.261(g)
Chemical processes of making pulp -
1910.261(g)(1)
Sulfur burners.
1910.261(g)(1)(i)
Sulfur-burner houses shall be safely and adequately ventilated, and every precaution shall be taken to guard against dust explosion hazards and fires, in accordance with American National Standards Z9.2 - 1960 and Z12.12 - 1968.
1910.261(g)(1)(ii)
Nonsparking tools and equipment shall be used in handling dry sulfur.
1910.261(g)(1)(iii)
Sulfur storage bins shall be kept free of sulfur dust accumulation, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2 - 1960.
1910.261(g)(1)(iv)
Sulfur-melting equipment shall not be located in the burner room.
1910.261(g)(1)(v)
[Redesignated as (g)(1)(iv)]
1910.261(g)(2)
Protection for employees (acid plants).
1910.261(g)(2)(i)
Supplied air respirators shall be strategically located for emergency and rescue use.
1910.261(g)(2)(ii)
During inspection, repairs, or maintenance of acid towers, the workman shall be provided with eye protection, a supplied air respirator, a safety belt, and an attached lifeline. The line shall be extended to an attendant stationed outside the tower opening.
1910.261(g)(2)(iii)
[Redesignated as (c)(2)(ii)]
1910.261(g)(3)
Acid tower structure. Outside elevators shall be inspected daily during winter months when ice materially affects safety. Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for the acid tower shall be inspected monthly for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.
1910.261(g)(4)
Tanks (acid).
1910.261(g)(4)(i)
Tanks shall be free of acid and shall be washed out with water, and fresh air shall be blown into them before allowing men to enter. Men entering the tanks shall be provided with supplied air respirators, lifebelts, and attached lifelines.
1910.261(g)(4)(ii)
A man shall be stationed outside to summon assistance if necessary. All intake valves to a tank shall be blanked off or disconnected.
1910.261(g)(5)
Clothing. Where lime slaking takes place, employees shall be provided with rubber boots, rubber gloves, protective aprons, and eye protection. A deluge shower and eye fountain shall be provided to flush the skin and eyes to counteract lime or acid burns.
1910.261(g)(6)
Lead burning. When lead burning is being done within tanks, fresh air shall be forced into the tanks so that fresh air will reach the face of the worker first and the direction of the current will never be from the source of the fumes toward the face of the workers. Supplied air respirators (constant-flow type) shall be provided.
1910.261(g)(7)
Hoops for acid storage tanks. Hoops of tanks shall be made of rods rather than flat strips and shall be safely maintained by scheduled inspections.
1910.261(g)(8)
Chip and sawdust bins. Steam or compressed-air lances, or other facilities, shall be used for breaking down the arches caused by jamming in chip lofts. No worker shall be permitted to enter a bin unless provided with a safety belt, with line attached, and an attendant stationed at the bin to summon assistance.
1910.261(g)(9)
Exits (digester building). At least one unobstructed exit at each end of the room shall be provided on each floor of a digester building.
1910.261(g)(10)
Gas masks (digester building). Gas masks must be available, and they must furnish adequate protection against sulfurous acid and chlorine gases and be inspected and repaired in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.
1910.261(g)(11)
Elevators.
1910.261(g)(11)(i)
Elevators shall be constructed in accordance with American National Standard A17.1 - 1965.
1910.261(g)(11)(ii)
Elevators shall be equipped with gas masks for the maximum number of passengers.
1910.261(g)(11)(iii)
Elevators shall be equipped with an alarm system to advise of failure.
1910.261(g)(12)
Blowoff valves and piping.
1910.261(g)(12)(i)
The blowoff valve of a digester shall be arranged so as to be operated from another room, remote from safety valves.
1910.261(g)(12)(ii)
Through bolts instead of cap bolts shall be used on all digester pipings.
1910.261(g)(12)(iii)
Heavy duty pipe, valves, and fittings shall be used between the digester and blow pit. These valves, fittings, and pipes shall be inspected at least semiannually to determine the degree of deterioration.
1910.261(g)(12)(iv)
Digester blow valves shall be pinned or locked in closed position throughout the entire cooking period.
1910.261(g)(13)
Blow pits and blow tanks.
1910.261(g)(13)(i)
Blowpit openings shall be preferably on the side of the pit instead of on top. When located on top, openings shall be as small as possible and shall be provided with railings in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(g)(13)(ii)
A specially constructed ladder shall be used for access to blow pits, to be constructed so that the door of the blow pit cannot be closed when the ladder is in place; other means shall be provided to prevent the closing of the pit door when anyone is in the pit.
1910.261(g)(13)(iii)
A signaling device shall be installed in the digester and blow-pit rooms and chip bins to be operated as a warning before and while digesters are being blown.
1910.261(g)(13)(iv)
Blow-pit hoops shall be maintained in a safe condition.
1910.261(g)(14)
Blowing digester.
1910.261(g)(14)(i)
Blowoff valves shall be opened slowly.
1910.261(g)(14)(ii)
After the digester has started to be blown, the blowoff valve shall be left open, and the hand plate shall not be removed until the digester cook signals the blow-pit man that the blow is completed. Whenever it becomes necessary to remove the hand plate to clear stock, operators shall wear eye protection equipment and protective clothing to guard against burns from hot stock.
1910.261(g)(14)(iii)
Means shall be provided whereby the digester cook shall signal the man in the chip bin before starting to load the digester.
1910.261(g)(15)
Inspecting and repairing digester.
1910.261(g)(15)(i)
Valves controlling lines leading into a digester shall be locked out and tagged. The keys to the locks shall be in the possession of a person or persons doing the inspecting or making repairs.
1910.261(g)(15)(ii)
Fresh air shall be blown into the digester constantly while workmen are inside. Supplied air respirators shall be available in the event the fresh air supply fails or is inadequate.
1910.261(g)(15)(iii)
No inspector shall enter a digester unless a lifeline is securely fastened to his body by means of a safety belt and at least one other experienced employee is stationed outside the digester to handle the line and to summon assistance. All ladders and lifelines shall be inspected before each use.
1910.261(g)(15)(iv)
All employees entering digesters for inspection or repair work shall be provided with protective headgear. Eye protection and dust masks shall be provided to workmen while the old brick lining is being removed, in accordance with American National Standards, Z87.1 - 1968, Z88.2 - 1969, and Z99.1 - 1969.
1910.261(g)(15)(v)
[Redesignated as (g)(15)(iv)]
1910.261(g)(15)(vi)
[Removed]
1910.261(g)(16)
Pressure tanks-accumulators (acid).
1910.261(g)(16)(i)
Safety regulations governing inspection and repairing of pressure tanks-accumulators (acid) shall be the same as those specified in subparagraph (15) of this paragraph.
1910.261(g)(16)(ii)
The pressure tanks-accumulators shall be inspected twice annually. (See the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels - 1968, with Addenda.)
1910.261(g)(17)
Pressure vessels (safety devices).
1910.261(g)(17)(i)
A safety valve shall be installed in a separate line from each pressure vessel; no hand valve shall be installed between this safety valve and the pressure vessel. Safety valves shall be checked between each cook to be sure they have not become plugged or corroded to the point of being inoperative. (See the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels - 1968, with Addenda.)
1910.261(g)(17)(ii)
All safety devices shall conform to Paragraph U-2 in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels - 1968, with Addenda.
1910.261(g)(18)
Miscellaneous. Insofar as the processes of the sulfate and soda operations are similar to those of the sulfite processes, the standard of paragraphs (g)(1) through (17) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(g)(18)(i)
Quick operating showers, bubblers, etc., shall be available for emergency use in case of caustic soda burns.
1910.261(g)(18)(ii)
Rotary tenders, smelter operators, and those cleaning smelt spouts shall be provided with eye protection equipment (fitted with lenses that filter out the harmful rays emanating from the light source) when actively engaged in their duties, in accordance with American National Standard Z87.1 - 1968.
1910.261(g)(18)(iii)
Heavy-duty pipe, valves, and fittings shall be used between digester and blow pit. These shall be inspected at least semiannually to determine the degree of deterioration and repaired or replaced when necessary, in accordance with American National Standards B31.1 - 1955, B31.1a - 1963, B31.1.0 - 1967, and B31.2 - 1968.
1910.261(g)(18)(iv)
Smelt-dissolving tanks shall be covered and the cover kept closed, except when samples are being taken.
1910.261(g)(18)(v)
Smelt tanks shall be provided with vent stacks and explosion doors, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.1 - 1951.
1910.261(g)(19)
Blow lines.
1910.261(g)(19)(i)
[Reserved]
1910.261(g)(19)(ii)
[Reserved]
1910.261(g)(19)(iii)
When blow lines from more than one digester lead into one pipe, the cock or valve of the blow line from the tank being inspected or repaired shall be locked or tagged out, or the line shall be disconnected and blocked off.
1910.261(g)(20)
Furnace room. Exhaust ventilation shall be provided where niter cake is fed into a rotary furnace and shall be so designed and maintained as to keep the concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas below the parts per million listed in 1910.1000.
1910.261(g)(21)
Inspection and repair of tanks. All piping leading to tanks shall be blanked off or valved and locked or tagged. Any lines to sewers shall be blanked off to protect workers from air contaminants.
1910.261(g)(22)
Welding. Welding on blow tanks, accumulator tanks, or any other vessels where turpentine vapor or other combustible vapor could gather shall be done only after the vessel has been completely purged of fumes. Fresh air shall be supplied workers inside of vessels.
1910.261(g)(23)
Turpentine systems and storage tanks. Nonsparking tools and ground hose shall be used when pumping out the tank. The tank shall be surrounded by a berm or moat.
1910.261(h)
Bleaching -
1910.261(h)(1)
Bleaching engines. Bleaching engines, except the Bellmer type, shall be completely covered on the top, with the exception of one small opening large enough to allow filling, but too small to admit a person. Platforms leading from one engine to another shall have standard guardrails in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(h)(2)
Bleach mixing rooms.
1910.261(h)(2)(i)
The room in which the bleach powder is mixed shall be provided with adequate exhaust ventilation, located at the floor level, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.1 - 1951.
1910.261(h)(2)(ii)
Chlorine gas shall be carried away from the work place and breathing area by an exhaust system. The gas shall be rendered neutral or harmless before being discharged into the atmosphere. The requirements of American National Standard Z9.2 - 1960 shall apply to this subdivision.
1910.261(h)(2)(iii)
For emergency and rescue operations, the employer must provide employees with self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied-air respirators, and ensure that employees use these respirators, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134.
1910.261(h)(2)(iv)
[Redesignated as (h)(2)(iii)]
1910.261(h)(3)
Liquid chlorine.
1910.261(h)(3)(i)
Tanks of liquid chlorine shall be stored in an adequately ventilated unoccupied room, where their possible leakage cannot affect workers.
1910.261(h)(3)(ii)
Gas masks capable of absorbing chlorine shall be supplied, conveniently placed, and regularly inspected, and workers who may be exposed to chlorine gas shall be instructed in their use.
1910.261(h)(3)(iii)
For emergency and rescue work, independent self-contained oxygen-type masks or supplied air equipment shall be provided.
1910.261(h)(3)(iv)
At least two exits, remote from each other, shall be provided for all rooms in which chlorine is stored.
1910.261(h)(3)(v)
Spur tracks upon which tank cars containing chlorine and caustic are spotted and connected to pipelines shall be protected by means of a derail in front of the cars.
1910.261(h)(3)(vi)
All chlorine, caustic, and acid lines shall be marked for positive identification, in accordance with American National Standard A13.1 - 1967.
1910.261(h)(4)
Bagged or drummed chemicals. Bagged or drummed chemicals require efficient handling to prevent damage and spillage. Certain oxidizing chemicals used in bleaching pulp and also in some sanitizing work require added precautions for safety in storage and handling. In storage, these chemicals must be isolated from combustible materials and other chemicals with which they will react such as acids. They must also be kept dry, clean and uncontaminated.
1910.261(i)
Mechanical pulp process -
1910.261(i)(1)
Pulp grinders.
1910.261(i)(1)(i)
Water wheels directly connected to pulp grinders shall be provided with speed governors limiting the peripheral speed of the grinder to that recommended by the manufacturer.
1910.261(i)(1)(ii)
Doors of pocket grinders shall be arranged so as to keep them from closing accidentally.
1910.261(i)(2)
Butting saws. Hood guards shall be provided on butting saws, in accordance with American National Standard O1.1 - 1954 (reaffirmed 1961).
1910.261(i)(3)
Floors and platforms. The requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(i)(4)
Personal protection. Persons exposed to falling material shall wear eye, head, foot, and shin protection equipment, in accordance with American National Standards Z87.1 - 1968, Z88.2 - 1969, Z89.1 - 1969, and Z41.1 - 1967.
1910.261(j)
Stock preparation -
1910.261(j)(1)
Pulp shredders.
1910.261(j)(1)(i)
Cutting heads shall be completely enclosed except for an opening at the feed side sufficient to permit only entry of stock. The enclosure shall be bolted or locked in place. The enclosure shall be of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding one-half inch.
1910.261(j)(1)(ii)
Either a slanting feed table with its outer edge not less than 36 inches from the cutting head or an automatic feeding device shall be provided.
1910.261(j)(1)(iii)
Repairs for cleaning of blockage shall be done only when the shredder is shutdown and control devices locked.
1910.261(j)(1)(iv)
[Removed]
1910.261(j)(2)
Pulp conveyors. Pulp conveyors and conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed, or if open and within 7 feet of the floor, shall be constructed and guarded in accordance with American National Standard B20.1 - 1957.
1910.261(j)(3)
[Reserved]
1910.261(j)(4)
Beaters.
1910.261(j)(4)(i)
Beater rolls shall be provided with covers.
1910.261(j)(4)(ii)
When cleaning, inspecting, or other work requires that persons enter the beaters, all control devices shall be locked or tagged out, in accordance with paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
1910.261(j)(4)(iii)
When beaters are fed from a floor above, the chute opening, if less than 42 inches from the floor, shall be provided with a complete rail or other enclosure. Openings for manual feeding shall be sufficient only for entry of stock, and shall be provided with at least two permanently secured crossrails in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(j)(4)(iv)
[Reserved]
1910.261(j)(4)(v)
Floors around beaters shall be provided with sufficient drainage to remove wastes.
1910.261(j)(4)(vi)
-
1910.261(j)(5)
Pulpers.
1910.261(j)(5)(i)
All pulpers having the top or any other opening of a vessel less than 42 inches from the floor or work platform shall have such openings guarded by railed or other enclosures. For manual charging, openings shall be sufficient to permit the entry of stock, and shall be provided with at least two permanently secured crossrails in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(j)(5)(ii)
When cleaning, inspecting, or other work requires that persons enter the pulpers, they shall be equipped with safety belt and lifeline, and one person shall be stationed outside at a position to observe and assist in case of emergency.
1910.261(j)(5)(iii)
When cleaning, inspecting, or other work requires that persons enter pulpers, all steam, water, or other control devices shall be locked or tagged out. Blank flanging and tagging of pipe lines is acceptable in place of closed and locked or tagged valves. Blank flanging of steam and water lines shall be acceptable in place of valve locks.
1910.261(j)(5)(iv)
[Removed]
1910.261(j)(6)
Stock chests.
1910.261(j)(6)(i)
All control devices shall be locked or tagged out when persons enter stock chests, in accordance with paragraph (b)(4) of this section.
1910.261(j)(6)(ii)
When cleaning, inspecting, or other work requires that persons enter stock chests, they shall be provided with a low-voltage extension light.
1910.261(j)(6)(iii)
[Redesignated as (j)(6)(ii)]
1910.261(k)
Machine room -
1910.261(k)(1)
Emergency stops. Paper machines shall be equipped with devices that will stop the machine quickly in an emergency. The devices shall consist of push buttons for electric motive power (or electrically operated engine stops), pull cords connected directly to the prime mover, control clutches, or other devices, interlocked with adequate braking action. The devices shall be tested periodically by making use of them when stopping the machine and shall be so located that any person working on the machine can quickly disconnect the machine from the source of power in case of emergency.
1910.261(k)(2)
Drives.
1910.261(k)(2)(i)
All drives shall be provided with lockout devices at the power switch which interrupts the flow of current to the unit.
1910.261(k)(2)(ii)
All ends of rotating shafts including dryer drum shafts shall be completely guarded.
1910.261(k)(2)(iii)
All accessible disengaged doctor blades should be covered.
1910.261(k)(2)(iv)
All exposed shafts shall be guarded. Crossovers shall be provided.
1910.261(k)(2)(v)
Oil cups and grease fittings shall be placed in a safe area remote from nip and heat hazards.
1910.261(k)(2)(vi)
[Redesignated as (k)(2)(v)]
1910.261(k)(3)
Protective equipment. Face shields, aprons, and rubber gloves shall be provided for workmen handling acids in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2) and (d)(1) of this section.
1910.261(k)(4)
[Reserved]
1910.261(k)(5)
[Reserved]
1910.261(k)(6)
Steps. Steps of uniform rise and tread with nonslip surfaces shall be provided at each press in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(k)(7)
Plank walkways. A removable plank shall be provided along each press, with standard guardrails installed. The planks shall have nonslip surfaces in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
1910.261(k)(8)
Dryer lubrication. If a gear bearing must be oiled while the machine is in operation, an automatic oiling device to protect the oiler shall be provided, or oil cups and grease fittings shall be placed along the walkways out of reach of hot pipes and dryer gears.
1910.261(k)(9)
Levers. All levers carrying weights shall be constructed so that weights will not slip or fall off.
1910.261(k)(10)
First dryer. Either a permanent guardrail or apron guard or both shall be installed in front of the first dryer in each section in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
1910.261(k)(11)
Steam and hot-water pipes. All exposed steam and hot-water pipes within 7 feet of the floor or working platform or within 15 inches measured horizontally from stairways, ramps, or fixed ladders shall be covered with an insulating material, or guarded in such manner as to prevent contact.
1910.261(k)(12)
Dryer gears. Dryer gears shall be guarded excepting where the oilers' walkway is removed out of reach of the gears' nips and spokes and hot pipes in accordance with American National Standard B15.1 - 1953 (reaffirmed 1958).
1910.261(k)(13)
Broke hole.
1910.261(k)(13)(i)
A guardrail shall be provided at broke holes in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(k)(13)(ii)
Where pulpers are located directly below the broke hole on a paper machine and where the broke hole opening is large enough to permit a worker to fall through, any employee pushing broke down the hole shall wear a safety belt attached to a safety belt line. The safety belt line shall be fastened in such a manner that it is impossible for the person to fall into the pulper.
1910.261(k)(13)(iii)
An alarm bell or a flashing light shall be actuated before dropping material through the broke hole.
1910.261(k)(14)
Feeder belt. A feeder belt or other effective device shall be provided for starting paper through the calender stack.
1910.261(k)(15)
Steps. Steps or ladders of uniform rise and tread with nonslip surfaces shall be provided at each calendar stack. Handrails and hand grips shall be provided at each calendar stack in accordance with § 1910.23.
1910.261(k)(16)
[Reserved]
1910.261(k)(17)
Sole plates. All exposed sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels, and rewinders shall have a nonskid surface.
1910.261(k)(18)
Nip points. The hazard of the nip points on all calender rolls shall be eliminated or minimized by means of an effective barrier device, or by feeding the paper into the rolls by means of a rope carrier, air jets, or hand feeding devices.
1910.261(k)(19)
Platforms. [Reserved]
1910.261(k)(20)
Scrapers. Alloy steel scrapers with pullthrough blades approximately 3 by 5 inches in size shall be used to remove "scabs" from calender rolls.
1910.261(k)(21)
Illumination. Permanent lighting shall be installed in all areas where employees are required to make machine adjustments and sheet transfers in accordance with the American National Standard A11.1 - 1965 (R 1970).
1910.261(k)(22)
Control panels. All control panel handles and buttons shall be protected from accidental contact.
1910.261(k)(23)
[Reserved]
1910.261(k)(24)
Lifting reels.
1910.261(k)(24)(i)
The reels shall stop rotating before being lifted from bearings.
1910.261(k)(24)(ii)
All lifting equipment (clamps, cables, and slings) shall be maintained in a safe condition and inspected regularly.
1910.261(k)(24)(iii)
Reel shafts with square block ends shall be guarded.
1910.261(k)(25)
Feeder belts. Feeder belts, carrier ropes, air carriage, or other equally effective means shall be provided for starting paper into the nip or drum-type reels.
1910.261(k)(26)
Inrunning nip.
1910.261(k)(26)(i)
Where the nipping points of all drum winders and rewinders is on the operator's side, it shall be guarded by barrier guards interlocked with the drive mechanism.
1910.261(k)(27)
Core collars. Set screws for securing core collars to winding and unwinding shafts shall not protrude above the face of the collar. All edges of the collar with which an operator's hand comes in contact shall be beveled to remove all sharp corners.
1910.261(k)(28)
Slitter knives. Slitter knives shall be guarded so as to prevent accidental contact. Carriers shall be provided and used for transportation of slitter knives.
1910.261(k)(29)
Winder shaft. The winder shall have a guide rail to align the shaft for easy entrance into the opened rewind shaft bearing housings.
1910.261(k)(30)
Core shaft. When the core shaft weighs in excess of the safe standard, a mechanical device such as a dolly shall be provided for carrying all or part of the weight when it is being removed from the set of paper and placed in the dressing brackets on the winder.
1910.261(k)(31)
Winder area. A nonskid surface shall be provided in the front vicinity of the winder to prevent accidental slipping.
1910.261(k)(32)
Radiation. Special standards regarding the use of radiation equipment shall be posted and followed as required by 1910.96.
1910.261(l)
Finishing room -
1910.261(l)(1)
Cleaning rolls. Rolls shall be cleaned only on the outrunning side.
1910.261(l)(2)
Emergency stops. Electrically or manually operated quick power disconnecting devices, interlocked with braking action, shall be provided on all operating sides of the machine within easy reach of all employees. These devices shall be tested by making use of them when stopping the machine.
1910.261(l)(3)
Core collars. The requirements of paragraph (k)(27) of this section and the American National Standard B15.1 - 1953 (reaffirmed 1958) shall apply.
1910.261(l)(4)
Elevators. These shall be in accordance with American National Standard A17.1 - 1965.
1910.261(l)(5)
Control panels. The requirements of paragraph (k)(22) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(l)(6)
Guillotine-type cutters.
1910.261(l)(6)(i)
Each guillotine-type cutter shall be equipped with a control which requires the operator and his helper, if any, to use both hands to engage the clutch.
1910.261(l)(6)(ii)
Each guillotine-type cutter shall be equipped with a nonrepeat device.
1910.261(l)(6)(iii)
Carriers shall be provided and used for transportation of guillotine-type cutter knives.
1910.261(l)(7)
Rotary cutter.
1910.261(l)(7)(i)
On single-knife machines a guard shall be provided at a point of contact to the knife.
1910.261(l)(7)(ii)
On duplex cutters the protection required for single-knife machines shall be provided for the first knife, and a hood shall be provided for the second knife.
1910.261(l)(7)(iii)
Safe access shall be provided to the knives of a rotary cutter by means of catwalks with nonslip surfaces, railings, and toeboards in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
1910.261(l)(7)(iv)
A guard shall be provided for the spreader or squeeze roll at the nip side on sheet cutters.
1910.261(l)(7)(v)
Electrically or manually operated quick power disconnecting devices with adequate braking action shall be provided on all operating sides of the machine within easy reach of all operators.
1910.261(l)(7)(vi)
The outside slitters shall be guarded.
1910.261(l)(8)
Platers.
1910.261(l)(8)(i)
A guard shall be arranged across the face of the rolls to serve as a warning that the operator's hand is approaching the danger zone.
1910.261(l)(8)(ii)
A quick power disconnecting device shall be installed on each machine within easy reach of the operator.
1910.261(l)(9)
Finishing room rewinders.
1910.261(l)(9)(i)
The nipping points of all drum winders and rewinders located on the operator's side shall be guarded by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards of sufficient height to protect fully anyone working around them. The barrier guard shall be interlocked with the drive mechanism to prevent operating above jog speed without the guard in place.

A zero speed switch should be installed to prevent the guard from being raised while the roll is turning.
1910.261(l)(9)(ii)
A nonskid surface shall be provided in front of the rewinder to prevent an employee from slipping in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section.
1910.261(l)(9)(iii)
Mechanical lifting devices shall be provided for placing and removing rolls from the machine.
1910.261(l)(10)
Control panels. The requirements of paragraph (k)(22) of this section shall apply.
1910.261(l)(11)
Roll-type embosser. The nipping point located on the operator's side shall be guarded by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards interlocked with the drive.
1910.261(l)(12)
Sorting and counting tables.
1910.261(l)(12)(i)
Tables shall be smooth and free from splinters, with edges and corners rounded.
1910.261(l)(12)(ii)
Paddles shall be smooth and free from splinters.
1910.261(l)(13)
Roll splitters. The nip point and cutter knife shall be guarded by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards.
1910.261(m)
Materials handling -
1910.261(m)(1)
Hand trucks. No person shall be permitted to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is so designed by the manufacturer. A limit switch shall be on operating handle - 30 degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.
1910.261(m)(2)
[Reserved]
1910.261(m)(3)
Cartons. The carton-stitching machine shall be guarded to prevent the operator from coming in contact with the stitching head.
1910.261(m)(4)
[Rerserved]
1910.261(m)(5)
Unloading Cars. Flag signals, derails, or other protective devices shall be used to protect men during switching operations. The blue flag policy shall be invoked according to paragraph (c)(9)(i) of this section.
1910.261(m)(5)(i)
[Removed]
1910.261(m)(5)(ii)
[Removed]
1910.261(m)(5)(iii)
[Redesignated as (m)(5)]

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49751, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5323, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 72 FR 71070, Dec. 14, 2007; 76 FR 80739, Dec. 27, 2011; 78 FR 35566, June 13, 2013]

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