A signal person must be provided in each of the following situations:
The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the operator.
When the equipment is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed.
Due to site specific safety concerns, either the operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary.
Types of signals. Signals to operators must be by hand, voice, audible, or new signals.
When using hand signals, the Standard Method must be used (see Appendix A of this subpart). Exception: Where use of the Standard Method for hand signals is infeasible, or where an operation or use of an attachment is not covered in the Standard Method, non-standard hand signals may be used in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
Non-standard hand signals. When using non-standard hand signals, the signal person, operator, and lift director (where there is one) must contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand signals that will be used.
New signals. Signals other than hand, voice, or audible signals may be used where the employer demonstrates that:
The new signals provide at least equally effective communication as voice, audible, or Standard Method hand signals, or
The new signals comply with a national consensus standard that provides at least equally effective communication as voice, audible, or Standard Method hand signals.
Suitability. The signals used (hand, voice, audible, or new), and means of transmitting the signals to the operator (such as direct line of sight, video, radio, etc.), must be appropriate for the site conditions.
During operations requiring signals, the ability to transmit signals between the operator and signal person must be maintained. If that ability is interrupted at any time, the operator must safely stop operations requiring signals until it is reestablished and a proper signal is given and understood.
If the operator becomes aware of a safety problem and needs to communicate with the signal person, the operator must safely stop operations. Operations must not resume until the operator and signal person agree that the problem has been resolved.
Only one person may give signals to a crane/derrick at a time, except in circumstances covered by paragraph (j) of this section.
Anyone who becomes aware of a safety problem must alert the operator or signal person by giving the stop or emergency stop signal. (Note: § 1926.1417(y) requires the operator to obey a stop or emergency stop signal).
All directions given to the operator by the signal person must be given from the operator's direction perspective.
Communication with multiple cranes/derricks. Where a signal person(s) is in communication with more than one crane/derrick, a system must be used for identifying the crane/derrick each signal is for, as follows:
for each signal, prior to giving the function/direction, the signal person must identify the crane/derrick the signal is for, or
must use an equally effective method of identifying which crane/derrick the signal is for.
[75 FR 48153, August 9, 2010]