Powered by GoogleTranslate
Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) - Table of Contents
• Part Number: 1910
• Part Title: Occupational Safety and Health Standards
• Subpart: Z
• Subpart Title: Toxic and Hazardous Substances
• Standard Number: 1910.1053
• Title: Respirable crystalline silica.
• Appendix: A ,   B
• GPO Source: e-CFR


1910.1053(a)

Scope and application.

1910.1053(a)(1)

This section applies to all occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica, except:

1910.1053(a)(1)(i)

Construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b) (occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica in construction work are covered under 29 CFR 1926.1153);

1910.1053(a)(1)(ii)

Agricultural operations covered under 29 CFR part 1928; and

1910.1053(a)(1)(iii)

Exposures that result from the processing of sorptive clays.

1910.1053(a)(2)

This section does not apply where the employer has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica will remain below 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air (25 μg/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any foreseeable conditions.

1910.1053(a)(3)

This section does not apply if the employer complies with 29 CFR 1926.1153 and:

1910.1053(a)(3)(i)

The task performed is indistinguishable from a construction task listed on Table 1 in paragraph (c) of 29 CFR 1926.1153; and

1910.1053(a)(3)(ii)

The task will not be performed regularly in the same environment and conditions.

1910.1053(b)

Definitions. For the purposes of this section the following definitions apply:

Action level means a concentration of airborne respirable crystalline silica of 25 μg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA

Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

Director means the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee.

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne respirable crystalline silica that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

High-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing monodispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Objective data means information, such as air monitoring data from industry-wide surveys or calculations based on the composition of a substance, demonstrating employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica associated with a particular product or material or a specific process, task, or activity. The data must reflect workplace conditions closely resembling or with a higher exposure potential than the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.

Physician or other licensed health care professional [PLHCP] means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the particular health care services required by paragraph (i) of this section.

Regulated area means an area, demarcated by the employer, where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the PEL.

Respirable crystalline silica means quartz, cristobalite, and/or tridymite contained in airborne particles that are determined to be respirable by a sampling device designed to meet the characteristics for respirable-particlesize- selective samplers specified in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708:1995: Air Quality-Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-Related Sampling.

Specialist means an American Board Certified Specialist in Pulmonary Disease or an American Board Certified Specialist in Occupational Medicine.

This section means this respirable crystalline silica standard, 29 CFR 1910.1053.

1910.1053(c)

Permissible exposure limit (PEL). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of respirable crystalline silica in excess of 50 μg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

1910.1053(d)

Exposure assessment.-

1910.1053(d)(1)

General. The employer shall assess the exposure of each employee who is or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to respirable crystalline silica at or above the action level in accordance with either the performance option in paragraph (d)(2) or the scheduled monitoring option in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

1910.1053(d)(2)

Performance option. The employer shall assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of any combination of air monitoring data or objective data sufficient to accurately characterize employee exposures to respirable crystalline silica.

1910.1053(d)(3)

Scheduled monitoring option.

1910.1053(d)(3)(i)

The employer shall perform initial monitoring to assess the 8-hour TWA exposure for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing zone air samples that reflect the exposures of employees on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same tasks on the same shift and in the same work area, the employer may sample a representative fraction of these employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, the employer shall sample the employee(s) who are expected to have the highest exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

1910.1053(d)(3)(ii)

If initial monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.

1910.1053(d)(3)(iii)

Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are at or above the action level but at or below the PEL, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring.

1910.1053(d)(3)(iv)

Where the most recent exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are above the PEL, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within three months of the most recent monitoring.

1910.1053(d)(3)(v)

Where the most recent (non-initial) exposure monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, the employer shall repeat such monitoring within six months of the most recent monitoring until two consecutive measurements, taken 7 or more days apart, are below the action level, at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

1910.1053(d)(4)

Reassessment of exposures. The employer shall reassess exposures whenever a change in the production, process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices may reasonably be expected to result in new or additional exposures at or above the action level, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional exposures at or above the action level have occurred.

1910.1053(d)(5)

Methods of sample analysis. The employer shall ensure that all samples taken to satisfy the monitoring requirements of paragraph (d) of this section are evaluated by a laboratory that analyzes air samples for respirable crystalline silica in accordance with the procedures in Appendix A to this section.

1910.1053(d)(6)

Employee notification of assessment results.

1910.1053(d)(6)(i)

Within 15 working days after completing an exposure assessment in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, the employer shall individually notify each affected employee in writing of the results of that assessment or post the results in an appropriate location accessible to all affected employees.

1910.1053(d)(6)(ii)

Whenever an exposure assessment indicates that employee exposure is above the PEL, the employer shall describe in the written notification the corrective action being taken to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.

1910.1053(d)(7)

Observation of monitoring.

1910.1053(d)(7)(i)

Where air monitoring is performed to comply with the requirements of this section, the employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

1910.1053(d)(7)(ii)

When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required for any workplace hazard, the employer shall provide the observer with protective clothing and equipment at no cost and shall ensure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment.

1910.1053(e)

Regulated areas.-

1910.1053(e)(1)

Establishment. The employer shall establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica is, or can reasonably be expected to be, in excess of the PEL.

1910.1053(e)(2)

Demarcation.

1910.1053(e)(2)(i)

The employer shall demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in a manner that minimizes the number of employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica within the regulated area.

1910.1053(e)(2)(ii)

The employer shall post signs at all entrances to regulated areas that bear the legend specified in paragraph (j)(2) of this section.

1910.1053(e)(3)

Access. The employer shall limit access to regulated areas to:

1910.1053(e)(3)(A)

Persons authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in the regulated area;

1910.1053(e)(3)(B)

Any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring procedures under paragraph (d) of this section; and

1910.1053(e)(3)(C)

Any person authorized by the Occupational Safety and Health Act or regulations issued under it to be in a regulated area.

1910.1053(e)(4)

Provision of respirators. The employer shall provide each employee and the employee's designated representative entering a regulated area with an appropriate respirator in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section and shall require each employee and the employee's designated representative to use the respirator while in a regulated area.

1910.1053(f)

Methods of compliance. -

1910.1053(f)(1)

Engineering and work practice controls. The employer shall use engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica to or below the PEL, unless the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible. Wherever such feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them with the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

1910.1053(f)(2)

Written exposure control plan.

1910.1053(f)(2)(i)

The employer shall establish and implement a written exposure control plan that contains at least the following elements:

1910.1053(f)(2)(i)(A)

A description of the tasks in the workplace that involve exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(f)(2)(i)(B)

A description of the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection used to limit employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica for each task; and

1910.1053(f)(2)(i)(C)

A description of the housekeeping measures used to limit employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica.

1910.1053(f)(2)(ii)

The employer shall review and evaluate the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan at least annually and update it as necessary.

1910.1053(f)(2)(iii)

The employer shall make the written exposure control plan readily available for examination and copying, upon request, to each employee covered by this section, their designated representatives, the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

1910.1053(f)(3)

Abrasive blasting. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the employer shall comply with other OSHA standards, when applicable, such as 29 CFR 1910.94 (Ventilation), 29 CFR 1915.34 (Mechanical paint removers), and 29 CFR 1915 Subpart I (Personal Protective Equipment), where abrasive blasting is conducted using crystalline silicacontaining blasting agents, or where abrasive blasting is conducted on substrates that contain crystalline silica.

1910.1053(g)

Respiratory protection. -

1910.1053(g)(1)

General. Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph and 29 CFR 1910.134. Respiratory protection is required:

1910.1053(g)(1)(i)

Where exposures exceed the PEL during periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

1910.1053(g)(1)(ii)

Where exposures exceed the PEL during tasks, such as certain maintenance and repair tasks, for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

1910.1053(g)(1)(iii)

During tasks for which an employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL; and

1910.1053(g)(1)(iv)

During periods when the employee is in a regulated area.

1910.1053(g)(2)

Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.

1910.1053(h)

Housekeeping.

1910.1053(h)(1)

The employer shall not allow dry sweeping or dry brushing where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless wet sweeping, HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of exposure are not feasible.

1910.1053(h)(2)

The employer shall not allow compressed air to be used to clean clothing or surfaces where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless:

1910.1053(h)(2)(i)

The compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air; or

1910.1053(h)(2)(ii)

No alternative method is feasible.

1910.1053(i)

Medical surveillance -

1910.1053(i)(1)

General.

1910.1053(i)(1)(i)

The employer shall make medical surveillance available at no cost to the employee, and at a reasonable time and place, for each employee who will be occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year.

1910.1053(i)(1)(ii)

The employer shall ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by a PLHCP as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.

1910.1053(i)(2)

Initial examination. The employer shall make available an initial (baseline) medical examination within 30 days after initial assignment, unless the employee has received a medical examination that meets the requirements of this section within the last three years. The examination shall consist of:

1910.1053(i)(2)(i)

A medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated exposure to respirable crystalline silica, dust, and other agents affecting the respiratory system; any history of respiratory system dysfunction, including signs and symptoms of respiratory disease (e.g., shortness of breath, cough, wheezing); history of tuberculosis; and smoking status and history;

1910.1053(i)(2)(ii)

A physical examination with special emphasis on the respiratory system;

1910.1053(i)(2)(iii)

A chest X-ray (a single posteroanterior radiographic projection or radiograph of the chest at full inspiration recorded on either film (no less than 14 x 17 inches and no more than 16 x 17 inches) or digital radiography systems), interpreted and classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses by a NIOSH-certified B Reader;

1910.1053(i)(2)(iv)

A pulmonary function test to include forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio, administered by a spirometry technician with a current certificate from a NIOSHapproved spirometry course;

1910.1053(i)(2)(v)

Testing for latent tuberculosis infection; and

1910.1053(i)(2)(vi)

Any other tests deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

1910.1053(i)(3)

Periodic examinations.The employer shall make available medical examinations that include the procedures described in paragraph (i)(2) of this section (except paragraph (i)(2)(v)) at least every three years, or more frequently if recommended by the PLHCP.

1910.1053(i)(4)

Information provided to the PLHCP. The employer shall ensure that the examining PLHCP has a copy of this standard, and shall provide the PLHCP with the following information:

1910.1053(i)(4)(i)

A description of the employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(i)(4)(ii)

The employee's former, current, and anticipated levels of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(i)(4)(iii)

A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used or will use that equipment; and

1910.1053(i)(4)(iv)

Information from records of employment-related medical examinations previously provided to the employee and currently within the control of the employer.

1910.1053(i)(5)

PLHCP's written medical report for the employee. The employer shall ensure that the PLHCP explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides each employee with a written medical report within 30 days of each medical examination performed. The written report shall contain:

1910.1053(i)(5)(i)

A statement indicating the results of the medical examination, including any medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to respirable crystalline silica and any medical conditions that require further evaluation or treatment;

1910.1053(i)(5)(ii)

Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators;

1910.1053(i)(5)(iii)

Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica; and

1910.1053(i)(5)(iv)

A statement that the employee should be examined by a specialist (pursuant to paragraph (i)(7) of this section) if the chest X-ray provided in accordance with this section is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

1910.1053(i)(6)

PLHCP's written medical opinion for the employer.

1910.1053(i)(6)(i)

The employer shall obtain a written medical opinion from the PLHCP within 30 days of the medical examination. The written opinion shall contain only the following:

1910.1053(i)(6)(i)(A)

The date of the examination;

1910.1053(i)(6)(i)(B)

A statement that the examination has met the requirements of this section; and

1910.1053(i)(6)(i)(C)

Any recommended limitations on the employee's use of respirators.

1910.1053(i)(6)(ii)

If the employee provides written authorization, the written opinion shall also contain either or both of the following:

1910.1053(i)(6)(ii)(A)

Any recommended limitations on the employee's exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(i)(6)(ii)(B)

A statement that the employee should be examined by a specialist (pursuant to paragraph (i)(7) of this section) if the chest X-ray provided in accordance with this section is classified as 1/0 or higher by the B Reader, or if referral to a specialist is otherwise deemed appropriate by the PLHCP.

1910.1053(i)(6)(iii)

The employer shall ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion described in paragraph (i)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section within 30 days of each medical examination performed.

1910.1053(i)(7)

Additional examinations.

1910.1053(i)(7)(i)

If the PLHCP's written medical opinion indicates that an employee should be examined by a specialist, the employer shall make available a medical examination by a specialist within 30 days after receiving the PLHCP's written opinion.

1910.1053(i)(7)(ii)

The employer shall ensure that the examining specialist is provided with all of the information that the employer is obligated to provide to the PLHCP in accordance with paragraph (i)(4) of this section.

1910.1053(i)(7)(iii)

The employer shall ensure that the specialist explains to the employee the results of the medical examination and provides each employee with a written medical report within 30 days of the examination. The written report shall meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(5) (except paragraph (i)(5)(iv)) of this section.

1910.1053(i)(7)(iv)

The employer shall obtain a written opinion from the specialist within 30 days of the medical examination. The written opinion shall meet the requirements of paragraph (i)(6) (except paragraph (i)(6)(i)(B) and (i)(6)(ii)(B)) of this section.

1910.1053(j)

Communication of respirable crystalline silica hazards to employees-

1910.1053(j)(1)

Hazard communication. The employer shall include respirable crystalline silica in the program established to comply with the hazard communication standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of crystalline silica and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (j)(3) of this section. The employer shall ensure that at least the following hazards are addressed: Cancer, lung effects, immune system effects, and kidney effects.

1910.1053(j)(2)

Signs. The employer shall post signs at all entrances to regulated areas that bear the following legend:

DANGER
RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN
THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

1910.1053(j)(3)

Employee information and training.

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)

The employer shall ensure that each employee covered by this section can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of at least the following:

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)(A)

The health hazards associated with exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)(B)

Specific tasks in the workplace that could result in exposure to respirable crystalline silica;

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)(C)

Specific measures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, including engineering controls, work practices, and respirators to be used;

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)(D)

The contents of this section; and

1910.1053(j)(3)(i)(E)

The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (i) of this section.

1910.1053(j)(3)(ii)

The employer shall make a copy of this section readily available without cost to each employee covered by this section.

1910.1053(k)

Recordkeeping-

1910.1053(k)(1)

Air monitoring data.

1910.1053(k)(1)(i)

The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record of all exposure measurements taken to assess employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica, as prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section.

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)

This record shall include at least the following information:

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(A)

The date of measurement for each sample taken;

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(B)

The task monitored;

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(C)

Sampling and analytical methods used;

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(D)

Number, duration, and results of samples taken;

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(E)

Identity of the laboratory that performed the analysis;

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(F)

Type of personal protective equipment, such as respirators, worn by the employees monitored; and

1910.1053(k)(1)(ii)(G)

Name, social security number, and job classification of all employees represented by the monitoring, indicating which employees were actually monitored.

1910.1053(k)(1)(iii)

The employer shall ensure that exposure records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

1910.1053(k)(2)

Objective data.

1910.1053(k)(2)(i)

The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record of all objective data relied upon to comply with the requirements of this section.

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)

This record shall include at least the following information:

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)(A)

The crystalline silica-containing material in question;

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)(B)

The source of the objective data;

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)(C)

The testing protocol and results of testing;

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)(D)

A description of the process, task, or activity on which the objective data were based; and

1910.1053(k)(2)(ii)(E)

Other data relevant to the process, task, activity, material, or exposures on which the objective data were based.

1910.1053(k)(2)(iii)

The employer shall ensure that objective data are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

1910.1053(k)(3)

Medical surveillance.

1910.1053(k)(3)(i)

The employer shall make and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under paragraph (i) of this section.

1910.1053(k)(3)(ii)

The record shall include the following information about the employee:

1910.1053(k)(3)(ii)(A)

Name and social security number;

1910.1053(k)(3)(ii)(B)

A copy of the PLHCPs' and specialists' written medical opinions; and

1910.1053(k)(3)(ii)(C)

A copy of the information provided to the PLHCPs and specialists.

1910.1053(k)(3)(iii)

The employer shall ensure that medical records are maintained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1020.

1910.1053(l)

Dates.

1910.1053(l)(1)

This section is effective June 23, 2016.

1910.1053(l)(2)

Except as provided for in paragraphs (l)(3) and (4) of this section, all obligations of this section commence June 23, 2018.

1910.1053(l)(3)

For hydraulic fracturing operations in the oil and gas industry:

1910.1053(l)(3)(i)

All obligations of this section, except obligations for medical surveillance in paragraph (i)(1)(i) and engineering controls in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, commence June 23, 2018;

1910.1053(l)(3)(ii)

Obligations for engineering controls in paragraph (f)(1) of this section commence June 23, 2021; and

1910.1053(l)(3)(iii)

Obligations for medical surveillance in paragraph (i)(1)(i) commence in accordance with paragraph (l)(4) of this section.

1910.1053(l)(4)

The medical surveillance obligations in paragraph (i)(1)(i) commence on June 23, 2018, for employees who will be occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica above the PEL for 30 or more days per year. Those obligations commence June 23, 2020, for employees who will be occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year.
[81 FR 16861-16865, March 25, 2016]

Next Standard (1910.1053 App A)

Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) - Table of Contents

Thank You for Visiting Our Website

You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.

The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.

Close