General. The following requirements shall apply to the use of
cranes and derricks brought aboard vessels for conducting longshoring
operations. They shall not apply to cranes and derricks forming part of
a vessel's permanent equipment.
Certification. Cranes and derricks shall be certificated in
accordance with part 1919 of this chapter.
Posted weight. The crane weight shall be posted on all cranes
hoisted aboard vessels for temporary use.
Rating chart. All cranes and derricks having ratings that vary
with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables shall have a
durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete
range of the manufacturers' (or design) capacity ratings. The rating
chart shall include all operating radii (outreach) for all permissible
boom lengths and jib lengths, as applicable, with and without
outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such
ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer
shall be included along with the chart.
Rated loads. The manufacturers' (or design) rated loads for the
conditions of use shall not be exceeded.
Change of rated loads. Designated working loads shall not be
increased beyond the manufacturers' ratings or original design
limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturers' approval.
When the manufacturers' services are not available or where the
equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis shall
be done or approved by a person accredited for certificating the
equipment under part 1919 of this chapter. Engineering design analysis
shall be done by a registered professional engineer competent in the
field of cranes and derricks. Any structural changes required by the
change in rating shall be carried out.
Radius indicator. When the rated load varies with the boom
radius, the crane or derrick shall be fitted with a boom angle or
radius indicator visible to the operator.
Operator's station. The cab, controls and mechanism of the
equipment shall be so arranged that the operator has a clear view of
the load or signalman, when one is used. Cab glass, when used, shall be
safety plate glass or equivalent. Cranes with missing, broken, cracked,
scratched, or dirty glass (or equivalent), that impairs operator vision
shall not be used. Clothing, tools, and equipment shall be stored so as
not to interfere with access, operation, and the operator's view.
Counterweights or ballast. Cranes shall be operated only with
the specified type and amount of ballast or counterweights. Ballast or
counterweights shall be located and secured only as provided in the
manufacturers' or design specifications, which shall be available for
Outriggers. Outriggers shall be used according to the
manufacturers' specifications or design data, which
shall be available for inspection. Floats, when used, shall be securely
attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support shall be of
sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that may
affect safety, and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane
from shifting or toppling under load.
Exhaust gases. Engine exhaust gases shall be discharged away
from crane operating personnel.
Electrical/Guarding. Electrical equipment shall be so placed
or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact.
Designated persons may work on energized equipment only if necessary
during inspection, maintenance, or repair; otherwise the equipment
shall be stopped and its power source locked out and tagged out.
At least one portable approved or listed fire extinguisher of at least a 5-B:C rating or equivalent shall
be accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.
No portable fire extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or
chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents shall be used.
Rope on drums. At least three full turns of rope shall remain
on ungrooved drums, and two turns on grooved drums, under all operating
conditions. Wire rope shall be secured to drums by clamps, U-bolts,
shackles or equivalent means. Fiber rope fastenings are prohibited.
Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be
equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor
shaft or gear train.
Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall, in addition
to the holding brake, be equipped with a controlled braking means to
control lowering speeds.
Holding brakes for hoist units shall have not less than the
following percentage of the rated load hoisting torque at the point
where the brake is applied:
125 percent when used with an other than mechanically
controlled braking means;
100 percent when used with a mechanically controlled braking
100 percent when two holding brakes are provided.
All power control braking means shall be capable of
maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
Operating controls. Crane and derrick operating controls shall
be clearly marked, or a chart showing their function shall be posted at
the operator's position.
Booms. Cranes with elevatable booms and without operable
automatic limiting devices shall be provided with boom stops if boom
elevation can exceed maximum design angles from the horizontal.
Foot pedals. Foot pedals shall have a non-skid surface.
Access. Ladders, stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps
or equivalent means shall be provided as necessary to ensure safe
access to footwalks, cab platforms, the cab and any portion of the
superstructure that employees must reach.
Use of cranes together. When two or more cranes
hoist a load in unison, a designated person shall direct the operation
and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the load and
movements to be made.
Guarding of swing radius. Accessible areas within the swing
radius of the body of a revolving crane shall be physically guarded
during operations to prevent an employee from being caught between the
body of the crane and any fixed structure or between parts of the
Equipment shall not be used in a way that
exerts side loading stresses upon the crane or derrick boom.
No crane or derrick having a visible or known defect that may
affect safe operation shall be used.
Unattended cranes. The following steps shall be taken before
leaving a crane unattended between work periods:
Suspended loads, such as those hoisted by lifting magnets or
clamshell buckets, shall be landed unless the storage position or
maximum hoisting of the suspended device will provide equivalent
Clutches shall be disengaged;
The power supply shall be shut off;
The crane shall be secured against accidental travel; and
The boom shall be lowered or secured against movement.
Protection for employees being hoisted.
No employee shall
be hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick except
on a platform meeting the following requirements:
Enclosed by a railing or other means providing protection
equivalent to that described in 1917.112(c) of this chapter;
Fitted with toe boards if the platform has open railings;
A safety factor of four based on ultimate strength;
Bearing a plate or permanent marking indicating maximum load
rating, which shall not be exceeded, and the weight of the platform
Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from
Equipped with overhead protection for employees on the
platform if they are exposed to falling objects or overhead hazards;
Secured to the load line by means other than wedge and socket
attachments, unless the free (bitter) end of the line is secured back
to itself by a clamp placed as close above the wedge as possible.
Except in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all cranes or
derricks used to hoist personnel shall operate only in power up and
power down, with automatic brake application when not hoisting or
All cranes and derricks used to hoist personnel shall be
equipped with an anti-two-blocking device.
Variable radius booms of a crane or derrick used to hoist
personnel shall be so constructed or secured as to prevent accidental
Platforms or devices used to hoist employees shall be inspected
for defects before each day's use and shall be removed from service if
Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and
communication with the operator or signalman.
Operators shall remain at the controls when employees are
Cranes shall not travel while employees are hoisted, except in
emergencies or in normal tier-to-tier transfer of employees during
Designated persons shall visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in
functional operating components and shall report any defect found to
the employer. The employer shall inform the operator of the result of
A designated person shall thoroughly inspect all functional
components and accessible structural features of each crane or device
at monthly intervals.
Any defects found during such inspections that may create a
safety hazard shall be corrected before further equipment use. Repairs
shall be done only by designated persons.
A record of each monthly inspection shall be maintained for six
months in or on the crane or derrick or at the terminal.
When exposed moving parts such as
gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees during
crane and derrick operations, those parts shall be securely guarded.
Crane hooks shall be latched or otherwise secured to prevent
accidental load disengagement.
Unless exempted by the provisions
of paragraph (f)(1)(viii) of this section, every crane used to load or
discharge cargo into or out of a vessel shall be fitted with a load-
indicating device or alternative device in proper working condition
that shall meet the following criteria:
The type or model of any load-indicating device used shall be
such as to provide:
A direct indication in the cab of actual weight hoisted or a
means of determining this by reference to crane ratings posted and
visible to the operator, except that the use of a dynamometer or simple
scale alone will not meet this requirement; or
An automatic weight-moment device (e.g., a computer) providing
indications in the cab according to the radius and load at the moment;
A device that will prevent an overloaded condition.
The accuracy of the load-indicating device, weight-moment
device, or overload protection device shall be such that any indicated
load (or limit), including the sum of actual weight hoisted and
additional equipment or "add ons" such as slings, sensors, blocks,
etc., is within the range between 95 percent (5 percent underload) and
110 percent (10 percent overload) of the actual true total load. Such
accuracy shall be required over the range of daily operating variables
reasonably anticipated under the conditions of use.
* The device shall enable the operator to decide before making
any lift that the load indicating device or alternative device is
operative. In the alternative, if the device is not so mounted or
attached and does not include such means of checking, it shall be
certified by the manufacturer to remain operative for a specific time.
The device shall be checked for accuracy, using known values of the
load, at the time of every certification survey (see 1918.11) and
at such additional times as may be recommended by the manufacturer.
When the load indicating device or alternative device is so
arranged in the supporting system (crane structure) that its failure
could cause the load to be dropped, its strength shall not be the
limiting factor of the supporting system (crane structure).
Units of measure in pounds or both pounds and kilograms (or
other indicators of measurement, such as colored indicator lights),
capacity of the indicating system, accuracy of the indicating system,
and operating instructions and precautions shall be conspicuously
marked. If the system used provides no readout but automatically ceases
crane operation when the rated load limit is reached under any specific
condition of use, the marking shall provide the make and model of the
device installed, a description of what it does, how it is operated,
and any necessary precautions regarding the system. All of these
markings shall be readily visible to the operator.
All load indicating devices shall operate over the full
operating radius. Overall accuracy shall be based on actual applied
loads and not on full scale (full capacity) load.
Note to paragraph (f)(1)(vi): If the accuracy of the load
indicating device is based on full scale loads and the device is
arbitrarily set at plus or minus 10 percent, it would accept a
reading between 90,000 and 110,000 lbs. at full capacity for a
machine with a maximum rating of 100,000 lbs. but would also show a
reading of between zero and 20,000 lbs. at that outreach (radius) at
which the load would be 10,000 lbs.; this is clearly unacceptable.
If, however, the accuracy of the device is based on actual applied
loads under the same conditions, the acceptable range would remain
the same with the 100,000-lb. load but would show a figure between
9,000 and 11,000 lbs. at the 10,000-lb. load; this is an acceptable
When a load-indicating device uses the radius as a factor in
its use or in its operating indications, the indicated radius (which
may be in feet and/or meters, or degrees of boom angle, depending on
the system used) shall be within the range between 97 percent and 110
percent of the actual (true) radius. When radius is presented in
degrees, and feet or meters are required for necessary determinations,
a conversion chart shall be provided.
The load indicating device requirements of this paragraph do
not apply to a crane:
Of the trolley equipped bridge type while handling containers
known to be and identified as empty, or loaded, and in either case
according to the provisions of 1918.85(b) of this part, or while
hoisting other lifts by means of a lifting beam supplied by the crane
manufacturer for the purpose and in all cases within the crane rating;
While handling bulk commodities or cargoes by means of
clamshell bucket or magnet;
While used to handle or hold hoses in connection with transfer
of bulk liquids, or other hose-handled products; or
While the crane is used exclusively to handle cargo or
equipment whose total actual gross weight is marked on the unit or
units hoisted, and the total actual gross weight never exceeds 11,200
lbs., and the load is less than the rated capacity of the crane at the
maximum outreach possible at the time.
[62 FR 40141, July 25, 1997; 65 FR 40945, June 30, 2000]