section applies to every type of
mechanically powered vehicle used for material or equipment handling
aboard a vessel.
Modifications, such as adding counterweights that
might affect the vehicle's capacity or safety, shall not be done
without either the manufacturers' prior written approval or the written
approval of a registered professional engineer experienced with the
equipment, who has consulted with the manufacturer, if available.
Capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags or decals
shall be changed to conform to the equipment as modified.
Rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights,
shall not be exceeded. Rated capacities shall be marked on the vehicle
and shall be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and
without a counterweight, shall be similarly marked.
If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison,
the total weight shall not exceed the combined safe lifting capacity of
Guards for fork lift trucks.
Except as noted in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with
overhead guards securely attached to the machines. The guard shall be of such design and construction
as to protect the operator from boxes, cartons, packages, bagged material, and other similar items of cargo
that might fall from the load being handled or from stowage.
Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view, and
openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches (15.24 cm)
in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are
permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled
through the guard.
Overhead guards shall be built so that failure of the vehicle's
mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard.
Overhead guards shall be large enough to extend over the
operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt.
An overhead guard may be removed only when it would prevent a
truck from entering a work space and only if the operator is not
exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space.
Where necessary to protect the operator, fork lift trucks shall
be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load
from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward
tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device
extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised
loads from falling backward.
Guards for bulk cargo-moving vehicles.
Every crawler type, rider operated, bulk cargo-moving vehicle shall be
equipped with an operator's guard of such design and construction as to
protect the operator, when seated, against injury from contact with a
projecting overhead hazard.
Overhead guards and their attachment points shall be so
designed as to be able to withstand, without excessive deflection, a
load applied horizontally at the operator's shoulder level equal to the
drawbar pull of the machine.
Overhead guards are not required when the vehicle is used in
situations in which the seated operator cannot contact projecting
After July 26, 1999, bulk cargo-moving vehicles shall be
equipped with rollover protection of such design and construction as to
prevent the possibility of the operator being crushed because of a
rollover or upset.
"Approved power-operated industrial
truck" means one listed as approved for the intended use or location
by a nationally
recognized testing laboratory (see 1910.7 of this chapter).
Approved power-operated industrial trucks shall bear a label or
other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous (see 1918.2 and 1918.93), only approved
power-operated industrial trucks shall
Mechanically powered vehicles shall be maintained in safe working order. Safety devices shall not
be removed or made inoperative except where permitted in this section. Vehicles with a fuel system
leak or any other safety defect shall not be operated.
Braking systems or other mechanisms used for braking shall be operable and in safe condition.
Replacement parts whose function might affect operational
safety shall be equivalent in strength and performance capability to
the original parts that they replace.
Repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of mechanically
powered vehicles that involve fire hazards shall be conducted only in
locations designated as safe for such repairs.
Batteries on all mechanically powered vehicles shall be
disconnected during repairs to the primary electrical system except
when power is necessary for testing and repair. On vehicles equipped
with systems capable of storing residual energy, that energy shall be
safely discharged before work on the primary electrical system begins.
Only designated persons shall do maintenance and repair.
Parking brakes. All mechanically powered vehicles purchased
after January 21, 1998, shall be equipped with parking brakes.
Only stable and safely arranged loads within the rated capacity of the mechanically powered vehicle shall be handled.
The employer shall require drivers to ascend and descend grades slowly.
If the load obstructs the forward view, the employer shall
require drivers to travel with the load trailing.
Steering knobs shall not be used unless the vehicle is equipped
with power steering.
When mechanically powered vehicles use cargo lifting devices
that have a means of engagement hidden from the operator, a means shall
be provided to enable the operator to determine that the cargo has been
No load on a mechanically powered vehicle shall be suspended or
swung over any employee.
When mechanically powered vehicles are used, provisions shall
be made to ensure that the working surface can support the vehicle and
load, and that hatch covers, truck plates, or other temporary surfaces
cannot be dislodged by movement of the vehicle.
When mechanically powered vehicles are left unattended, load-engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, brakes set
and power shut off. Wheels shall be blocked or curbed if the vehicle is
on an incline.
When lift trucks or other mechanically powered vehicles are
being operated on open deck-type barges, the edges of the barges shall
be guarded by railings, sideboards, timbers, or other means sufficient
to prevent vehicles from rolling overboard. When such vehicles are
operated on covered lighters where door openings other than those being
used are left open, means shall be provided to prevent vehicles from
rolling overboard through such openings.
Unauthorized personnel shall not ride on mechanically powered
vehicles. A safe place to ride shall be provided when riding is
An employee may be elevated by fork lift trucks only when a
platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform
shall meet the following requirements:
The platform shall have a railing complying with 1917.112(c) of this chapter.
The platform shall have toeboards complying with 1917.112(d) of this chapter, if tools or other objects could fall on employees below.
When the truck has controls elevated with the lifting
carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut
off power to the vehicle.
Employees on the platform shall be protected from exposure to
moving truck parts.
The platform floor shall be skid resistant.
An employee shall be at the truck's controls whenever employees are elevated.
While an employee is elevated, the truck may be moved only to
make minor adjustments in placement.
[62 FR 40141, July 25, 1997; 65 FR 40945, June 30, 2000]