At the completion of each use, loose gear such as slings, chains, bridles, blocks and hooks shall be
so placed as to avoid damage to the gear. Loose gear shall be inspected and any defects corrected before reuse.
All loose gear shall be inspected by the employer or his authorized representative before each use
and, when necessary, at intervals during its use, to ensure that it is safe. Any gear which is found upon such inspection to be visibly unsafe shall
not be used until it is made safe.
Defective gear shall not be used, Distorted hooks, shackles or similar gear shall be
Wire rope and wire rope slings.
The employer shall ascertain and adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for wire rope and
wire rope slings and shall have such ratings available for inspection. When the manufacturer is unable to supply such ratings, the employer shall use
the tables for wire rope and wire rope slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971. A design safety factor of at
least five shall be maintained for the common sizes of running wire used as falls, in purchases or in such uses as light load slings. Wire rope with
a safety factor of less than five may be used only:
In specialized equipment such as but not limited to cranes, designed to be used with lesser wire
rope safety factors;
In accordance with design factors standing rigging applications; or
For heavy lifts or other purposes for which a safety factor of five is impracticable and for
which the employer can demonstrate that equivalent safety is ensured.
Wire rope or wire rope slings having any of the following conditions shall not be used:
Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three or more broken wires in one strand
in one rope lay;
Kinking, crushing, bird caging or other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope
Evidence of heat damage;
Excessive wear or corrosion, deformation or other defect in the wire or attachments, including
cracks in attachments;
Any indication of strand or wire slippage in end attachments; or
More than one broken wire in the close vicinity of a socket or swaged fitting.
Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. Coverings
shall be removable so that splices can be examined. Means used to cover or blunt ends shall not damage the wire.
Where wire rope clips are used to form eyes, the employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's
recommendations, which shall be made available for inspection. If "U" bolt clips are used and the manufacturer's recommendations are not available, Table
C-1 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of the clips. "U" bolts shall be applied with the "U" section in contact with the dead end of the
|Table C-1. -- Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips
|Improved plow steel, rope diameter
|Minimum number of clips
||Minimum spacing (inches/(cm))
|½ or less (1.3)
Wire rope shall not be secured by knots.
Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, bull wires, or in single parts used for hoisting shall not be
formed by wire rope clips or knots.
Eye splices in wire ropes shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two
tucks with a one-half of the wire cut from each strand. Other forms of splices or connections which are shown to be equivalently safe may be
Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in
hoisting or lowering, or in bulling cargo, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
Natural fiber rope.
The employer shall ascertain the manufacturers' ratings for the specific natural fiber rope used and
have such ratings available for inspection. The manufacturers' ratings shall be adhered to and a minimum design safety factor of five
Eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks. Short splices consist of at least six full
tucks, three on each side of the center line.
The employer shall adhere to the manufacturers' ratings and use recommendations for the specific
synthetic fiber rope used and shall make such ratings available for inspection.
Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, when
synthetic fiber ropes are substituted for fiber ropes of less than
three inches (7.62 cm) in circumference, the substitute shall be of
equal size. Where substituted for fiber rope of three inches or more in
circumference, the size of the synthetic rope shall be determined from
Where C = the required circumference of the synthetic rope in inches,
Cs= the circumference to the nearest one-quarter inch of a synthetic
rope having a breaking strength not less than that of the size fiber
rope that is required by paragraph (c) of this section and Cm= the
circumference of the fiber rope in inches that is required by paragraph
(c) of this section.
(ii) In making such substitution, it shall be ascertained that the
inherent characteristics of the synthetic fiber are suitable for
Removal of natural and synthetic fiber from service. Natural and synthetic rope having any of the
following defects shall be removed from service.
Powdered fiber between strands;
Sufficient cut or broken fibers to affect the capability of the rope;
Variations in the size or roundness of strands;
Discolorations other than stains not associated with rope damage;
Distortion or other damage to attached hardware.
Thimbles. Properly fitting thimbles shall be used where any rope is secured permanently to a ring,
shackle or attachment, where practicable.
Synthetic web slings.
Slings and nets or other combinations of more than one piece of synthetic webbing assembled and used
as a single unit (synthetic web slings) shall not be used to hoist loads in excess of the sling's rated capacity.
Synthetic web slings shall be removed from service if they exhibit any of the following
Acid or caustic burns;
Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
Broken or worn stitches; or
Distortion or damage to fittings.
Display of visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear or damage.
Defective synthetic web slings removed from service shall not be returned to service unless repaired
by a sling manufacturer or similar entity. Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the repairer to twice the slings rated capacity prior to its
return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.
Synthetic web slings provided by the employer shall only be used in accordance with the
manufacturer's use recommendations, which shall be available.
Fittings shall have a breaking strength at least equal to that of the sling to which they are
attached and shall be free of sharp edges.
Chains and chain slings used for hoisting.
The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for safe working loads for the
sizes of wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain slings used and shall have such ratings available. When the manufacturer is unable to provide
such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for chains and chain slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI
Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, and other chain not recommended by
the manufacturer for slinging or hoisting shall not be used for slinging or hoisting.
Sling chains, including end fastenings shall be inspected for visible defects before each day's
use and as often as necessary during use to ensure integrity of the sling.
Thorough inspections of chains on use shall be made quarterly to detect wear, defective welds,
deformation or increase in length or stretch. The month of inspection shall be indicated on each chain by color of paint on a link or by other equally
Chains shall be removed from service when maximum allowable wear, as indicated in Table C-2, is
reached at any point of link.
Chain slings shall be removed from service when stretch has increased the length of a measured
section by more than five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when a link has a raised scarf or defective weld.
Only designated persons shall inspect chains used for slinging and hoisting.
TABLE C-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEAR AT ANY POINT OF LINK
Chain Size | Maximum allowable wear
| | |
Inches | (cm) | Inches | (cm)
| | |
1/4(9/32) | (0.6) | 3/64 | (0.1)
3/8 | (1.0) | 5/64 | (0.2)
1/2 | (1.3) | 7/64 | (0.3)
5/8 | (1.6) | 9/64 | (0.4)
3/4 | (1.9) | 5/32 | (0.4)
7/8 | (2.2) | 11/64 | (0.4)
1 | (2.5) | 3/16 | (0.5)
1 1/8 | (2.9) | 7/32 | (0.6)
1 1/4 | (3.2) | 1/4 | (0.6)
1 3/8 | (3.5) | 9/32 | (0.7)
1 1/2 | (3.8) | 5/16 | (0.8)
1 3/4 | (4.4) | 11/32 | (0.9)
Chains shall be repaired only under qualified supervision. Links or portions of chain defective
under any of the criteria of paragraph (h)(3)(iii) of this section shall be replaced with properly dimensioned links or connections of material similar
to those of the original chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they shall be tested to the proof load recommended by the
manufacturer for the original chain. Tests shall be performed by the manufacturer or shall be certified by an agency accredited for the purpose under part 1919 of this chapter. Test certificates shall be available for inspection.
Wrought iron chains in constant use shall be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six
months. Heat treatment certificates shall be available for inspection. Alloy chains shall not be annealed.
Kinked or knotted chains shall not be used for lifting. Chains shall not be shortened by bolting,
wiring or knotting. Makeshift links or fasteners such as wire, bolts or rods shall not be used.
Hooks, rings, links and attachments affixed to sling chains shall have rated capacities at least
equal to that of the chains to which they are attached.
Chain slings shall bear identification of size, grade and rated capacity.
If available, the manufacturer's recommended safe working loads for shackles shall not be exceeded.
In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, Table C-3 shall apply.
Screw pin shackles used aloft in house fall or other gear, except in cargo hook assemblies, shall
have their pins moused or otherwise effectively secured.
|Table C-3. -- Safe Working Loads for Shackles
||Safe working load in 2,000 lb tons
Hooks other than hand hooks.
The manufacturers' recommended safe working loads for hooks shall not be exceeded. Hooks other than hand hooks shall be tested in accordance with 1917.50(c)(6).
Bent or sprung hooks shall be discarded.
Teeth of case hooks shall be maintained in safe condition.
Jaws of patent clamp-type plate hooks shall be maintained in safe condition to grip plates
Loads shall be applied to the throat of the hook only.
Pallets shall be made and maintained to safely support and carry loads being handled. Fastenings of
reusable pallets used for hoisting shall be bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails or fastenings of
equivalent holding strength.
Damaged pallets shall be stored in designated areas and identified,
Reusable wing or lip-type pallets shall be hoisted by bar
bridles or other suitable gear and shall have an overhanging wing or
lip of at least three inches (7.62cm). They shall not be hoisted by
wire slings alone.
Loaded pallets that do not meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be hoisted only after being
placed on pallets meeting such requirements or shall be handled by other means providing equivalent safety.
Bridles for handling flush end or box-type pallets shall be designed to prevent disengagement from
the pallet under load.
Pallets shall be stacked or placed to prevent falling, collapsing or otherwise causing a hazard
under standard operating conditions.
Disposable pallets intended only for one use shall not be reused for hoisting.
[62 FR 40141, July 25, 1997; 65 FR 40938, June 30, 2000]