Regulations (Preambles to Final Rules) - Table of Contents|
| Record Type:||Longshoring and Marine Terminals|
| Title:||Section 10 - X. Federalism|
This standard has been reviewed in accordance with Executive Order 12612, 52 FR 41685 (October 30, 1987), regarding Federalism. This Order requires that agencies, to the extent possible, refrain from limiting State policy options, consult with States prior to taking any actions that would restrict State policy options, and take such actions only when there is a clear constitutional authority and the presence of a problem of national scope. The Order provides for preemption of State law only if there is a clear Congressional intent for the Agency to do so. Any such preemption is to be limited to the extent possible.
Section 18 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act), expresses Congress' clear intent to preempt State laws with respect to which Federal OSHA has promulgated occupational safety or health standards. Under the OSH Act, a State can avoid preemption only if it submits, and obtains Federal approval of, a plan for the development of such standards and their enforcement. Occupational safety and health standards developed by such State Plan-States must, among other things, be at least as effective in providing safe and healthful employment and places of employment as the Federal standards. Where such standards are applicable to products distributed or used in interstate commerce, they may not unduly burden commerce and must be justified by compelling local conditions (See section 18(c)(2)).
The final Longshoring and Marine Terminals Standards are drafted so that employees in every State will be protected by general, performance-oriented standards, except in those cases in which employee safety would be enhanced by more specific requirements. States with occupational safety and health plans approved under section 18 of the OSH Act will be able to develop their own State standards to deal with any special problems which might be encountered in a particular state. Moreover, the performance nature of this standard, of and by itself, allows for flexibility by States and employers to provide as much leeway as possible using alternative means of compliance.
These final Longshoring and Marine Terminals Standards address safety and health problems related to the hazards found in the marine cargo handling industry which is national in scope.
Those States which have elected to participate under section 18 of the OSH Act would not be preempted by this regulation and will be able to deal with special, local conditions within the framework provided by this standard while ensuring that their standards are at least as effective as the Federal Standard.
[62 FR 40142, July 25,1997]
|Regulations (Preambles to Final Rules) - Table of Contents|