US Dept of Labor

Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationWe Can Help

OSHA News Release - (Archived) Table of Contents
Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and may no longer represent OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.
Trade News Release Banner Image

Tuesday, January 8, 2002
Contact: Lydia Kleiner
Phone: (202) 693-1999


Working in cold environments can be dangerous. More than 700 people die of hypothermia each year in the United States. To help protect workers in cold environments, OSHA reminds employers and workers to take simple precautions, such as those listed on OSHA's Cold Stress Card

Prolonged exposure to freezing or cold temperatures can result in health problems such as trench foot, frostbite and hypothermia. When the body is unable to warm itself, serious cold-related illnesses and injuries may occur, and permanent tissue damage and death may result. Employers and workers in construction, commercial fishing, maritime and agriculture need to take precautions and learn how to prevent and treat cold-related disorders. Death can result very quickly in cases of cold water immersion.

Hypothermia can occur when land temperatures are above freezing or water temperatures are below 98.6 F or 37 C (normal body temperature). Cold-related illnesses can slowly overcome a person who has been chilled by low temperatures, brisk winds or wet clothing. Danger signs include uncontrolled shivering, slurred speech, clumsy movements, fatigue and confused behavior. If these signs are observed, call for emergency help.

OSHA's Cold Stress Card provides recommendations that can prevent many illnesses and injuries. Available in English and Spanish, this laminated fold-up card is free to employers to distribute to their workers. It offers a quick reference about frost bite and hypothermia, including warning signs and prevention tips:

How to Protect Workers

  • Recognize the environmental and workplace conditions that lead to potential cold-induced illnesses and injuries.

  • Learn the signs and symptoms of cold-induced illnesses/injuries and what to do to help workers.

  • Train workers about cold-induced illnesses and injuries.

  • Encourage workers to wear proper clothing for cold, wet and windy conditions. Layer clothing to adjust to changing environmental temperatures. Wear a hat and gloves, in addition to underwear that will keep water away from the skin (polypropylene).

  • Be sure that workers take frequent short breaks in warm dry shelters to allow the body to warm up.

  • Try to schedule work for the warmest part of the day.

  • Avoid exhaustion or fatigue because energy is needed to keep muscles warm.

  • Use the buddy system -- work in pairs so that one worker can recognize danger signs.

  • Drink warm, sweet beverages (sugar water, sports-type drinks) and avoid drinks with caffeine (coffee, tea, sodas or hot chocolate) or alcohol.

  • Eat warm, high-calorie foods such as hot pasta dishes.

  • Remember, workers face increased risks when they take certain medications, are in poor physical condition or suffer from illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease.

For free copies of OSHA's Cold Stress Card in English or Spanish, click on OSHA's website,, then Newsroom, followed by Publications. Fill out the order form online, and fax your request to Publications at (202) 693-2498. You can also call (202) 693-1888 or write to: U.S. Department of Labor/OSHA, OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535 Washington, D.C. 20013-7535.

More information about cold and cold hazards can be found on OSHA's website, and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)


The text of this news release is on the World Wide Web at Information on this news release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Phone: (202) 693-1999.

Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and may no longer represent OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.

OSHA News Release - (Archived) Table of Contents

Thank You for Visiting Our Website

You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.

The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.