Federal Registers - Table of Contents Federal Registers - Table of Contents
• Publication Date: 12/12/2008
• Publication Type: Final Rules
• Fed Register #: 73:75568-75589
• Standard Number: 1910; 1915; 1917; 1918; 1926
• Title: Clarification of Employer Duty To Provide Personal Protective Equipment and Train Each Employee

[Federal Register: December 12, 2008 (Volume 73, Number 240)]
[Rules and Regulations]               
[Page 75568-75589]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr12de08-6]                         

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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1917, 1918 and 1926

[Docket No. OSHA-2008-0031]
RIN 1218-AC42

 
Clarification of Employer Duty To Provide Personal Protective 
Equipment and Train Each Employee

AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. 
Department of Labor.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: In this rulemaking, OSHA is amending its standards to add 
language clarifying that the personal protective equipment (PPE) and 
training requirements impose a compliance duty to each and every 
employee covered by the standards and that noncompliance may expose the 
employer to liability on a per-employee basis. The amendments consist 
of new paragraphs added to the introductory sections of the listed 
Parts and changes to the language of some existing respirator and 
training requirements. This action, which is in accord with OSHA's 
longstanding position, is being taken in response to recent decisions 
of the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission indicating that 
differences in wording among the various PPE and training provisions in 
OSHA safety and health standards affect the Agency's ability to treat 
an employer's failure to provide PPE or training to each covered 
employee as a separate violation. The amendments add no new compliance 
obligations. Employers are not required to provide any new type of PPE 
or training, to provide PPE or training to any employee not already 
covered by the existing requirements, or to provide PPE or training in 
a different manner than that already required. The amendments simply 
clarify that the standards apply to each employee.

DATES: This final rule becomes effective on January 12, 2009.

ADDRESSES: In accordance with 28 U.S.C. 2112(a), the Agency designates 
Joseph M. Woodward, Associate Solicitor of Labor for Occupational 
Safety and Health, Office of the Solicitor of Labor, Room S-4004, U.S. 
Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 
20210, to receive petitions for review of the final rule.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact Ms. Jennifer Ashley, Director, 
Office of Communications, OSHA, U.S. Department of Labor, Room N-3647, 
200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone (202) 
693-1999 or fax (202) 693-1634.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. Table of Contents

I. Table of Contents
II. Background
III. Legal Authority
IV. Summary and Explanation of the Final Rule
V. Final Economic Analysis
VI. Regulatory Flexibility Certificate
VII. Environmental Impact Assessment
VIII. Federalism
IX. Unfunded Mandates
X. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act
XI. State Plan States
XII. Authority and Signature

II. Background

A. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    The use of personal protective equipment, including respirators, is 
often necessary to protect employees from injury or illness caused by 
exposure to toxic substances and other workplace hazards. Many OSHA 
standards in Parts 1910 through 1926 require employers to provide PPE 
to their employees and ensure the use of PPE. Some general standards 
require the employer to provide appropriate PPE wherever necessary to 
protect employees from hazards. See, e.g., Sec. Sec.  1910.132(a); 
1915.152(a); 1926.95(a). Other standards require the employer to
provide specific types of PPE or to provide PPE in specific 
circumstances. For example, the logging standard requires employers to 
provide cut-resistant leg protection to employees operating a chainsaw, 
29 CFR 1910.266(d)(1)(iv); the coke oven emissions standard requires 
the employer to provide flame resistant clothing and other specialized 
protective equipment, Sec.  1910.1029(h); and the methylene chloride 
standard requires the employer to provide protective clothing and 
equipment that is resistant to methylene chloride, Sec.  1910.1052(h). 
OSHA's respirator standards follow a similar pattern. Section 1910.134, 
revised in 1998, requires employers to provide respirators "when such 
equipment is necessary to protect the health of the employee." Sec.  
1910.134(a)(2). The section includes additional paragraphs requiring 
employers to establish a respiratory protection program, to select an 
appropriate respirator based upon the hazard(s) to which the employee 
is exposed, to provide a medical examination to determine the 
employee's ability to use a respirator, to fit-test the respirator to 
the individual employee and to take other actions to ensure that 
respirators are properly selected, used and maintained. E.g., Sec.  
1910.134(c) through (m); 63 FR 1152-1300 January 8, 1998 (Respiratory 
Protection rule). A variety of other standards require the employer to 
provide respirators when employees are or may be exposed to specific 
hazardous substances. See, e.g., Sec.  1910.1101(g)(asbestos); Sec.  
1910.1027(g)(cadmium). The 1998 Respiratory Protection rule revised the 
substance-specific standards then in existence to simplify and 
consolidate their respiratory protection provisions. 63 FR 1265-68. 
Except for a limited number of respirator provisions unique to each 
substance-specific standard, the regulatory text on respirators for 
these standards is virtually the same. The construction industry 
asbestos standard's initial respirator paragraph, which is virtually 
identical to the initial respirator paragraphs in most substance 
specific standards, states that, "[f]or employees who use respirators 
required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that 
comply with the requirements of this paragraph." Sec.  
1926.1101(h)(1). The standard also states that, "the employer must 
implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with [certain 
requirements in Sec.  1910.134]." Sec.  1926.1101(h)(2).

B. Training

    Training is also an important component of many OSHA standards. 
Training is necessary to enable employees to recognize the hazards 
posed by toxic substances and dangerous work practices and protect 
themselves from these hazards. Virtually all of OSHA's toxic-substance 
standards, such as the asbestos, vinyl chloride, lead, chromium, 
cadmium and benzene standards, require the employer to train or provide 
training to employees who may be exposed to the substance. Many safety 
standards also contain training requirements. The lockout/tagout 
standard, for example, requires the employer to provide training on the 
purpose and function of the energy control program, Sec.  
1910.147(c)(7), and the electric power generation standard requires 
that employees be trained in and familiar with pertinent safety 
requirements and procedures. Sec.  1910.269(a)(2).
    The regulatory text on training varies from standard to standard. 
Some standards explicitly state that "each employee shall be trained" 
or "each employee shall receive training" or contain similar language 
that makes clear that the training must be provided to each individual 
employee covered by the requirement. E.g., process safety management, 
Sec.  1910.119(g)(i) (each employee shall be trained); lockout/tagout, 
Sec.  1910.147(c)(7)(A) (each employee shall receive training); vinyl 
chloride, Sec.  1910.1017(j) (each employee shall be provided 
training); construction general safety and health provisions, Sec.  
1926.20(b) (instruct each employee); construction fall protection, 
Sec.  1926.503(a) (provide a training program for each employee).
    Other standards contain a slight variation; they state that 
"employees shall be trained" or that the employer must "provide 
employees with information and training." E.g., Electric power 
generation, Sec.  1910.269(a)(2) (employees shall be trained); Benzene, 
Sec.  1910.1028(j)(3)(i) (provide employees with information and 
training); Hazard communication, Sec.  1910.1200(h) (provide employees 
with effective information and training).
    Finally, some standards state that the employer must "institute a 
training program [for exposed employees] and ensure their participation 
in the program" or contain similar language. For example, the asbestos 
standard's initial training section states that "[t]he employer shall 
institute a training program for all employees who are exposed to 
airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the PEL and/or 
excursion limit and ensure their participation in the program." Sec.  
1910.1001(j)(7). See also, e.g., Sec.  1926.1101(k)(9) (Construction 
asbestos); Sec.  1910.1025(l) (Lead); Sec.  1910.1027(m)(4) (Cadmium).
    The Agency interprets its PPE and training provisions to impose a 
duty upon the employer to comply for each and every employee subject to 
the requirement regardless of whether the provision expressly states 
that PPE or training must be provided to "each employee." Neither the 
Commission nor any court has ever suggested that an employer can comply 
with the PPE and training provisions in safety and health standards by 
providing PPE to some employees covered by the requirement but not 
others, or that the employer can train some employees covered by the 
training requirement but not others. The basic nature of the employer's 
obligation is the same in all of these provisions; each and every 
employee must receive the required protection.
    Therefore, the agency's position is that a separate violation 
occurs for each employee who is not provided required PPE or training, 
and that a separate citation item and proposed penalty may be issued 
for each. However, as discussed in the Legal Authority section, a 
recent decision of the Review Commission in the Ho case suggests that 
minor variations in the wording of the provisions affect the 
Secretary's authority to cite and penalize separate violations. 
Secretary of Labor v. Erik K. Ho, Ho Ho Ho Express, Inc. and Houston 
Fruitland, Inc., 20 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1361 (Rev. Comm'n 2003), aff'd, 
Chao v. OSHRC and Erik K. Ho, 401 F.3d 355 (5th Cir. 2005). The agency 
is proposing to amend its standards to make it unmistakably clear that 
each covered employee is required to receive PPE and training, and that 
each instance when an employee subject to a PPE or training requirement 
does not receive the required PPE or training may be considered a 
separate violation subject to a separate penalty.
    Where an employer commits multiple violations of a single standard 
or regulation, OSHA either groups the violations and proposes a single 
penalty, or cites and proposes a penalty for each discrete violation. 
Although "grouping" is the more common method, OSHA proposes separate 
"per-instance" penalties in cases where the resulting heightened 
aggregate penalty is appropriate to deter flagrant violators and 
increase the impact of OSHA's limited resources. Per-employee penalties 
for violations of PPE and training requirements are no different in 
kind than other types of per-instance penalties the agency has proposed 
under this policy. OSHA's current policies for issuing instance-by-instance 
violations are described in OSHA Instruction CPL 2.80 issued on October 21, 
1990. These detailed instructions to OSHA's field offices and the National 
Office ensure that the policy is only used when a particularly flagrant 
violation is discovered, and that each case receives careful review by the 
Agency's senior officials before such citations are issued. Approximately seven 
instance-by-instance, or egregious, citations are issued each year (Ex. 
69).
    Accordingly, on August 19, 2008, OSHA proposed to amend the 
respirator and training provisions in the standards in Parts 1910 
through 1926 to: (1) Revise the language of the initial respirator 
paragraphs adopted in the 1998 respiratory protection rule to 
explicitly state that the employer must provide each employee an 
appropriate respirator and implement a respiratory protection program 
for each employee, (2) revise the language of those initial training 
paragraphs that require the employer to institute or provide a training 
program to explicitly state that the employer must train each employee, 
and (3) add a new section to the introductory Subparts of each Part to 
clarify that standards requiring the employer to provide PPE, including 
respirators, or to provide training to employees, impose a separate 
compliance duty to each employee covered by the requirement and that 
each instance of an employee who does not receive the required PPE or 
training may be considered a separate violation (73 FR 48335-48350).
    OSHA received approximately 50 comments on the proposal, and, in 
response to several requests, held a hearing on October 6, 2008. A 30-
day period was established for post-hearing comments and briefs, and 
seven post-hearing submissions were received by the Agency.
    Following the notice and comment period, an informal rulemaking 
hearing, and careful Agency deliberation, OSHA finds that its 
preliminary conclusions are appropriate and is therefore issuing this 
final standard clarifying employers' responsibilities to provide 
required PPE and training to each and every one of their employees.
    Federal Register documents, comments, the transcript from the 
hearing, and post hearing submissions can be accessed electronically at 
http://www.regulations.gov, docket No. OSHA-2008-0031. Comments 
received are identified at regulations.gov as Exhibits "OSHA-2008-
0031-XXX". However, in the discussion below, comments will simply be 
referenced as "Ex. XXX" to shorten the references and make the 
document more readable.
    Please note that the title of the final rulemaking has been changed 
from the title used in the proposal. The proposed rulemaking title 
"Clarification of Remedy for Violation of Requirements to Provide 
Personal Protective Equipment and Train Each Employee" caused some 
confusion as to the nature of the rulemaking. Therefore, OSHA has 
changed the title to "Clarification of Employer Duty to Provide 
Personal Protective Equipment and Training to Each Employee" to show 
that the rulemaking does not impose penalties, but rather clarifies 
each employer's duty to provide PPE and training to each and every 
employee covered by the standards and informs employers that the 
failure to provide PPE or training to an employee may be considered a 
separate violation.

III. Legal Authority

A. Introduction

    The final rule does not impose any new substantive requirements. 
The regulatory text clarifies that the duty to provide personal 
protective equipment of all types, including respirators, and training 
to employees is a duty owed to each employee covered by the 
requirement. This adds no new compliance burden; the nature of the 
employer's duty to protect each employee is inherent in the existing 
provisions. To comply with existing PPE and training provisions, the 
employer must provide PPE to each employee who needs it and train each 
employee who must be informed of job hazards. The employer is not in 
compliance if some employees are without personal protection or are 
untrained. The final rule achieves greater consistency in the 
regulatory text of the various respirator and training provisions in 
Parts 1910 through 1926, provides clearer notice of the nature of the 
employer's duty under existing PPE and training provisions, and 
addresses the Commission's interpretation that the language of some 
respirator and training provisions does not allow separate per-employee 
citations and penalties.
    Before OSHA can issue a new more protective standard, the agency 
must find that the hazard being regulated poses a significant risk of 
material health impairment and that the new standard is reasonably 
necessary and appropriate to reduce that risk. Industrial Union 
Department, AFL-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 
(1980). OSHA must also show that the new standard is technologically 
and economically feasible, and cost effective. American Textile Mfrs. 
Inst., Inc. v. Donovan, 452 U.S. 490 (1980). These requirements are not 
implicated in this final rule because the amendments merely clarify the 
obligations under the existing PPE and training provisions and add no 
additional requirements. See sections V and VI infra. The agency met 
its burden of showing significant risk, feasibility and cost 
effectiveness in promulgating the existing PPE and training 
requirements.

B. General Principles Governing Per-Instance Penalties

    Section 9(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to issue a 
citation when "an employer has violated a requirement of * * * any 
standard." 29 U.S.C. 658(a). A separate penalty may be assessed for 
"each violation." Id. at 666(a), (b), (c). "The plain language of 
the Act could hardly be clearer" in authorizing a separate penalty for 
each discrete instance of a violation of a duty imposed by a standard. 
Kaspar Wire Works, Inc. v. Secretary of Labor, 268 F.3d 1123, 1130 (DC 
Cir. 2001).
    What constitutes an instance of a violation for which a separate 
penalty may be assessed depends upon the nature of the duty imposed by 
the standard or regulation at issue. If the standard "prohibits 
individual acts rather than a single course of action," each 
prohibited act constitutes a violation for which a penalty may be 
assessed. Secretary of Labor v. General Motors Corp., CPCG Oklahoma 
City Plant, 2007 WL 4350896, 35 (GM) (Rev. Comm'n 2007); Sanders Lead 
Co. 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1197, 1203 (Rev. Comm'n 1995). Applying this 
test, the Commission has held that the recordkeeping regulation's 
requirement to record each injury or illness is violated each time the 
employer failed to record an injury or illness, Secretary of Labor v. 
Caterpillar Inc., 15 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 2153, 2172-73 (Rev. Comm'n 
1993); the machine guarding standard's requirement for point-of-
operation guards on machine parts that could injure employees is 
violated at each unguarded machine, Hoffman Constr. Co. v. Secretary of 
Labor, 6 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1274, 1275 (Rev. Comm'n 1975); the fall 
protection standard's requirement to guard floor and wall openings is 
violated at each location on a construction site where appropriate fall 
protection is lacking, Secretary of Labor v. J.A. Jones Constr. Co., 15 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 2201, 2212 (Rev. Comm'n 1993); the trenching 
standard's shoring or shielding requirement is violated at each
unprotected trench, Secretary of Labor v. Andrew Catapano Enters., 
Inc., 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1776, 1778 (Rev. Comm'n 1996) and the 
electrical safety standard is violated at each location where non-
complying electrical equipment is installed. A.E. Staley Mfg. Co. v. 
Secretary of Labor, 295 F.3d 1341, 1343 (DC Cir. 2002).
    The failure to protect an employee is a discrete act for which a 
separate penalty may be assessed when the standard imposes a specific 
duty on the employer to protect individual employees:

    Some standards implicate the protection, etc. of individual 
employees to such an extent that the failure to have the protection 
in place for each employee permits the Secretary to cite on a per-
instance basis. However, where a single practice, method or 
condition affects multiple employees, there can be only one 
violation of the standard.

Secretary of Labor v. Hartford Roofing Co., 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1361, 
1365 (Rev. Comm'n 1995). In Hartford Roofing, the Commission held that 
abatement of an unguarded roof edge required the single action of 
installing a motion stopping system or line that would constitute 
compliance for all employees exposed to a fall. Id. at 1367. 
Accordingly, the failure to abate the hazard could be cited only once 
regardless of the number of exposed employees. Ibid. However, where the 
employer fails to protect employees from falls at several different 
locations in the same building, a violation exists at each such 
location. J.A. Jones, 15 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 2212. Thus, what 
constitutes an "instance" of a violation varies depending upon the 
standard. "Per-instance" can mean per-machine, or per-injury, or per-
location depending upon the nature of the employer's compliance 
obligation.
    Per-employee violations are no different from other types of per-
instance violations. Just as the employer must ensure that electrical 
equipment is safe in each location where it is installed, Staley, 295 
F.3d at 1343, the employer must ensure that each employee who requires 
PPE or training receives it. Hartford Roofing, 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 
1366. The failure to provide an individual employee with an appropriate 
respirator is a discrete instance of a violation of the general 
respirator standard, 29 CFR 1910.134, because the standard requires an 
individual act for each employee:

    As long as employees are working in a contaminated environment, 
the failure to provide each of them with appropriate respirators 
could constitute a separate and discrete violation * * *. [T]he 
condition or practice to which the standard is directed * * * [is] 
the individual and discrete failure to provide an employee working 
within a contaminated environment with a proper respirator.

17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1366. Hartford Roofing reflects the guiding 
principle that provisions requiring the employer to "provide" 
respirators to employees because of environmental or other hazards to 
which they are exposed are intrinsically employee-specific because such 
provisions require protection for employees as individuals. The 
Commission reaffirmed this principle in subsequent cases. In Secretary 
of Labor v. Sanders Lead Co., 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1197, 1203 (Rev. 
Comm'n 1995), the Commission held that the lead standard's requirement 
for semiannual respirator fit-tests could be cited on a per-employee 
basis because it involved evaluation of individual employees' 
respirators under certain conditions peculiar to each employee. 
Furthermore, in Catapano, 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1780, the Commission 
indicated that the general construction training standard, Sec.  
1926.21(b)(2), clearly supported per-employee citations for each 
individual employee not trained. However, the Commission in Catapano 
found that the Secretary had not cited training violations on a per-
employee basis, but rather, had impermissibly cited the employer for 
each inspection in which employees were found not to have been trained. 
Thus, the Commission affirmed only a single violation of the standard. 
Ibid.
    In the Ho decision, the Commission veered from these principles and 
adopted an analysis focused on the presence or absence of certain 
specific words in the respirator or training provision at issue. 20 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1369-1380. Under this approach, the agency's 
ability to enforce respirator and training violations using per-
employee citations in appropriate cases turns on minor variations in 
the wording of the requirements.
    Erik Ho, a Texas businessman, was cited for multiple violations of 
the construction asbestos standard's respirator and training 
provisions. Ho's conduct was particularly flagrant. He hired eleven 
undocumented Mexican employees to remove asbestos from a vacant 
building without providing any of them with appropriate protective 
equipment, including respirators, and without training them on the 
hazards of asbestos. Ho persisted in exposing the unprotected, 
untrained employees to asbestos even after a city building inspector 
shut down the worksite, at which point Ho began operating secretly at 
night behind locked gates. The citations charged Ho with separate 
violations for each of the eleven employees not provided a respirator. 
The respirator provision then in effect stated, in relevant part, that 
"[t]he employer shall provide respirators and ensure that they are 
used * * * [d]uring all Class I asbestos jobs." Sec.  
1926.1101(h)(1)(i). Ho was also charged with separate violations for 
each of the eleven employees not trained in accordance with Sec.  
1926.1101(k)(9)(i) and (k)(9)(viii). Paragraph (k)(9)(i) requires the 
employer to "institute a training program for all [exposed] employees 
and * * * ensure their participation in the program;" paragraph 
(k)(9)(viii) states that "[t]he training program shall be conducted in 
a manner that the employee is able to understand * * * [and] the 
employer shall ensure that each such employee is informed of [specific 
hazard information]."
    A divided Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission vacated 
all but one of the respirator and one of the training violations. 
According to the majority, the requirement to provide respirators and 
ensure their use involved the single act of providing respirators to 
the employees in the group performing the specified asbestos work. 17 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1372. Thus, the majority concluded, "the plain 
language of the standard addresses employees in the aggregate, not 
individually." Ibid. The majority reached this conclusion despite 
acknowledging that various subparagraphs immediately following the 
cited provision required particularly employee-specific actions, such 
as fit-testing individual employees. Ibid. n. 12.
    The majority adopted an equally narrow interpretation of the 
requirement in Sec.  1926.1101(k)(9)(i) to "institute a training 
program" for all [exposed] employees and ensure their participation in 
the program." According to the majority, this language requires the 
employer to have a single training program for all exposed employees 
and imposes a single duty to train employees generally. Id. at 1374. 
Although paragraph (k)(9)(viii) explicitly states that, "the employer 
shall ensure that each such employee is informed of [specific hazard 
information]," the majority found that "the mere use of the 
terminology `each such employee' under (k)(9)(viii) does not 
demonstrate that these [training] provisions define the relevant 
workplace exposure in terms of exposure of individual employees." 
Ibid. One Commissioner dissented, arguing that the plain wording of the 
respirator and training provisions authorizes OSHA to treat as a discrete 
violation each employee not provided and required to use an appropriate 
respirator, and each employee not trained in asbestos hazards. Id. at 
1380-86 (Rodgers, Comm'r dissenting).
    A divided panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit 
affirmed the result reached by the Commission, in part on different 
grounds than those articulated by the Commission majority. 401 F.3d at 
368-376. The majority agreed with the Commission that the language of 
the respirator provision did not support per-employee penalties for 
Ho's failure to provide a respirator to each employee who performed 
covered asbestos work. Id. at 373-74. Disagreeing with the Commission, 
the majority found that the language of the training provision permits 
per-employee citations. Id. at 372. However, the majority concluded 
that the agency's decision to cite and penalize Ho for each untrained 
employee was unreasonable absent circumstances showing that different 
training actions would have been required because of uniquely employee-
specific factors. Id. at 373. Judge Garza dissented. He read the 
respirator provision to require action on a per-employee basis. Id. at 
379 (Garza J. dissenting). He also found no support for the majority's 
"employee-specific unique circumstances" requirement under the 
training provision and concluded that, in any event, the requirement 
was met by Ho's failure to train the employees and ensure that they 
understood the training. Id. at 379-80.
    In two subsequent decisions, the Commission stated that respirator 
and training requirements worded slightly differently from those at 
issue in Ho may be cited on a per-employee basis. In Secretary of Labor 
v. Manganas Painting Co., 21 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1964, 1998-99 (Rev. 
Comm'n 2007), the Commission indicated that the initial respiratory 
protection paragraph of the 1993 construction lead standard, Sec.  
1926.62(f)(1), authorizes per-employee citations. That paragraph 
states, in relevant part, "[w]here the use of respirators is required 
under this section the employer shall provide * * * and assure the use 
of respirators which comply with the requirements of this paragraph." 
The Commission distinguished Ho on the ground that the language in the 
cited provision requiring the employer to provide respirators "which 
comply with the requirements of this paragraph" means that compliance 
with paragraph (f)(1) is predicated upon compliance with all of the 
requirements in paragraph (f), including fit-testing requirements in 
another section of the paragraph that are uniquely employee-
specific.\1\ Ibid. In contrast, in Ho the language requiring compliance 
with such provisions immediately followed the cited initial provision, 
and the Commission declined to read the initial provision in light of 
the subsequent requirements. However, the Commission's interpretation 
in Manganas that the lead standard authorizes per-employee violations 
may not be part of the holding of the case. After stating that the 
standard could be cited on a per-employee basis, the Commission then 
stated that it declined to determine whether Manganas's failure to 
provide respirators to multiple employees constituted a single 
violation or multiple violations on the ground that the amount of the 
total penalty would not be affected under the circumstances of that 
case. Id. at 1999.
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    \1\ The current version of Sec.  1926.62(f)(1) is virtually 
identical to the 1993 version at issue in Manganas. The provision 
now states in relevant part, "[f]or employees who use respirators 
required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that 
comply with the requirements of this paragraph."
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    In December 2007, the Commission decided GM. 2007 WL 4350896. The 
case involved citations issued in 1991 charging GM, inter alia, with 
separate violations for each of six employees not trained in accordance 
with the lockout/tagout (LOTO) standard's initial training paragraph, 
Sec.  1910.147(c)(7)(i). This paragraph states, in relevant part, that 
"[t]he employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and 
function of the energy control program are understood by employees * * 
*. (A) Each authorized employee shall receive training * * *." The 
citation also charged GM with separate violations for each of twelve 
employees not retrained in accordance with the standard's retraining 
provision, Sec.  1910.147(c)(7)(iii)(B), which requires retraining 
whenever the employer is aware of inadequacies in the employee's 
knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
    The Commission affirmed all of these per-employee violations. It 
held that the LOTO training paragraph, unlike the initial paragraph at 
issue in Ho, states that "each employee" is to be trained and 
therefore "imposes a specific duty on the employer to train each 
individual employee." 2007 WL 4350896 at 36. The Commission also noted 
that other requirements in paragraph (c)(7) clarify the individualized 
nature of the training duty, such as the requirement to record the 
employees' names and dates of training; that the preamble indicates 
that training involves consideration of employee-specific factors, and 
that "the core concept of lockout/tagout is personal protection." Id. 
at 37 (emphasis added). The Commission did not refer to the portion of 
its Ho decision that rejected reliance on "each employee" language in 
the training requirement at issue there or that refused to consider any 
requirements in the standard other than the cited initial provision in 
deciding the nature of the employer's duty.
    For similar reasons, the Commission affirmed separate violations of 
the requirement to retrain whenever the employer becomes aware of 
deviations from or inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of 
the energy control procedures. Ho (construing 29 CFR 
1910.147(c)(7)(iii)(B)). This provision, the Commission found, 
"specifically targets deviations from or inadequacies in the 
employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures, an 
occurrence that would trigger an employer's obligation to retrain only 
that particular employee." Ibid. (internal quotations omitted).
    The Commission held that because the training provisions impose a 
specific duty on the employer to train each employee, it is irrelevant 
whether the employer may choose to provide the required training 
collectively, such as holding a single training session for all 
employees. Id. at 36. Under the wording of the standard, the Commission 
concluded, "any failure to train would be a separate abrogation of the 
employer's duty to train each untrained employee." Ibid. The 
Commission distinguished the Ho decision on the ground that the 
language at issue there, requiring "a training program for all 
employees," pertained to a single group of employees collectively 
exposed to identical hazards. Ibid.

C. The Agency's Interpretation

    The Agency's position is that despite minor differences in their 
wording, all PPE and training provisions in safety and health standards 
impose the same basic duty on the employer to protect employees 
individually--by providing personal protective equipment, such as a 
respirator, or by communicating hazard information through training. 
The individualized nature of the duty to comply does not change because 
of the presence or absence of the words "each employee," or other 
words explicitly stating that the employer's duty runs to each 
individual employee. Thus, the existing PPE provisions may be cited 
separately for each employee who requires PPE but does not receive it, 
and the training provisions may be cited separately for each employee 
who requires training but does not receive it.
    The employee-specific nature of the employer's duty to provide PPE 
and training may be demonstrated in several different ways. First, the 
employer must take a separate abatement action for each individual 
employee. Where respirators are required, the employer must give a 
separate respirator to each individual employee. Where training is 
required, the employer must impart specific hazard information to each 
individual employee. The employee-specific nature of the training 
requirements is not altered because the employer may choose to conduct 
training in a group session. As the Commission held in GM, the duty to 
provide training is specific to each individual employee subject to the 
requirement. 2007 WL 4350896. Thus regardless of how the training is 
conducted, the employer must ensure that each individual employee 
receives the required information at the appropriate time.
    Second, unlike standards that do not permit per-employee citations, 
the PPE and training requirements logically permit the employer to 
comply for one employee and not another. In Hartford Roofing, the 
Commission found that installation of a motion stopping system at a 
roof edge was a single discrete action unaffected by the number of 
employees on the roof, and therefore could not be cited on a per-
employee basis. 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1368-69. The employer could not 
have complied for one employee without also complying for all other 
employees exposed to the hazard.
    By contrast, the actions necessary to comply with PPE and training 
requirements for one employee do not constitute compliance for any 
other employee. To fully comply with these requirements the employer 
must take as many abatement actions as there are employees to be 
protected. The fact that the employer may comply for one or a few 
employees, while leaving many others unprotected, strongly supports the 
availability of per-employee citations. Ho, 401 F.3d at 379 (Garza, J. 
dissenting).
    Finally, compliance with PPE and training provisions requires the 
employer to account for differences among individual employees. To 
comply with respirator requirements, the employer must, among other 
things, select respirators based on the specific respiratory hazards to 
which the employee is exposed and perform individual face-fit tests. 
E.g., Sec.  1910.134(d), (f). To comply with training requirements, the 
employer must ensure that each employee receives the required 
information. E.g., Sec.  1910.1001(j)(7)(iii) (asbestos). The employer 
must therefore account for factors such as when individual employees 
commence work subject to the training requirement and when they are 
available for training. Individual language differences also play a 
role. For example, if one employee understands only English, and 
another employee understands only Spanish, training must account for 
this difference. The actions necessary to fit a respirator to an 
individual employee's face and to ensure that hazard information is 
received by an employee therefore clearly entail consideration of 
individual factors.
 1. The Ho Decision
    The Secretary believes that the Commission majority's analysis in 
Ho is fundamentally flawed for several reasons discussed below. We 
discuss this issue because it is important to an understanding of the 
Secretary's interpretation of her standards and of the clarifying 
amendments to the PPE and training provisions. This final rule confirms 
the Secretary's interpretation of standards of this kind.
    a. The Ho majority's analysis is inconsistent with the proper 
analytical framework outlined above. The requirement to provide 
respirators because of environmental hazards involves a separate 
discrete act for each employee exposed to the hazard. Hartford Roofing, 
17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1367. Eric Ho had eleven employees performing 
Class I asbestos work; therefore, he had to provide eleven separate 
respirators and ensure that each of the eleven employees used the 
devices. Ho also had to ensure that each employee received training on 
asbestos hazards. The cited asbestos respirator and training provisions 
required analytically distinct acts for each employee, and therefore 
permitted per-employee citations.
    b. The majority's analysis does not reflect either Commission 
precedent preceding Ho, or more recent Commission caselaw. Hartford 
Roofing reflects the guiding principle distinguishing between 
requirements that apply individually to each employee, such as 
respirator provisions, and those that address hazardous conditions 
affecting employees as a group. 17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1366-67. 
Manganas recognizes the principle that a requirement to provide 
respirators should be read in light of the associated provisions 
requiring individualized actions such as individual fit-testing. 21 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1998. And GM holds that a training requirement 
containing "each employee" language, which was also contained in the 
standard cited in Ho, imposes a specific duty to train each individual 
employee and may be cited on a per-employee basis. 2007 WL 4350896 at 
24. Ibid.
    c. The majority's analysis amounts to a "magic words" test for 
determining the nature of the duty to comply with PPE and training 
requirements that is at odds with the Secretary's intention and does 
not make practical sense. There is only a minor difference between the 
language of the respirator requirement in Manganas and that in Ho. In 
Manganas the requirement to comply with the provisions of the standard 
as a whole is stated explicitly in the standard's first sentence, while 
in Ho the requirement was implicit in that sentence and was explicitly 
stated by the remaining provisions of the standard. Similarly, in GM 
the "each employee" language was in the first enumerated subsection 
of the training standard, while in Ho it was in a later subsection. As 
the preceding discussion makes clear, the agency did not intend that 
minor wording variations among various PPE and training provisions 
affect the agency's ability to cite on a per-employee basis. 
Furthermore, there is no sound reason for distinguishing among the 
various PPE and training requirements based on minor differences in 
wording when all such requirements impose the same basic duty--
provision of appropriate respirators and training to each employee 
covered by the requirements. The requirements at issue in Ho were not 
substantively different than those in Manganas and GM, and there should 
be no difference in the availability of per-employee citations under 
these requirements. Moreover, applying the Ho majority's analysis 
creates perverse incentives in that an employer who provides no 
respirators at all is eligible for only a single citation under the 
respirator provision at issue in Ho, while the employer who provides 
respirators, but fails to comply with the specific fit-test 
requirements is liable for per-employee violations.
    Although the Secretary does not acquiesce in the Ho majority's 
interpretation of the asbestos respirator and training requirements at 
issue, the agency is modifying the language of most of the initial 
respirator provisions adopted in the 1998 rule to expressly state that 
the employer must provide each employee an appropriate respirator. 
There are several reasons for this. First, although the Secretary 
believes that the respirator requirements clearly support per-employee 
citations, employers may have some uncertainty in light of the Ho 
decision. Second, although the Commission indicated in Manganas that 
language similar to that in the 1998 rule permits per-employee penalties, 
that aspect of the decision could be viewed as dicta. Finally, the 1998 
respirator language is virtually the same in all standards with respirator 
requirements, and the same wording can be used to amend all of the 
standards. The agency intends the new language to clearly convey that 
the respirator provisions in all OSHA standards impose a duty to 
provide an appropriate respirator to each individual employee who 
requires respiratory protection. The failure to provide an appropriate 
respirator to each such employee may expose the employer to per-
employee citations.
    OSHA also believes that the existing language of the training 
provisions in safety and health standards makes reasonably clear that 
the training obligation extends to each individual employee. Some of 
these provisions explicitly state that "each employee" must be 
trained. For example, the process safety management standard states 
that "each employee presently involved in operating a process * * * 
must be trained." 29 CFR 1910.119(g)(i); 29 CFR 1926.64(g) 
(construction); the logging standard states that "[t]he employer shall 
provide training for each employee," Sec.  1910.266(i); the vinyl 
chloride standard states that "[e]ach employee engaged in vinyl 
chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training," 
Sec.  1910.1017(j); and the chromium standard states that "[t]he 
employer shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge of 
[the Sec.  1926.1126(j)(2) (construction). The Commission in GM held 
that provisions that explicitly require training for "each employee" 
may be cited separately for each employee not trained. 2007 WL 4350896 
at 36. Accordingly, these provisions require no amendatory action.
    Some standards contain provisions stating that the employer must 
train "employees" exposed to the hazard addressed by the standard. 
For example, the hazardous waste operations standard states that 
"[a]ll employees [exposed to hazardous substances] shall receive 
training," Sec.  1910.120 (e)(1); while the benzene standard states 
that "the employer shall provide employees with information and 
training at the time of their initial assignment to a work area where 
benzene is present." Sec.  1910.1028(j)(3)(i). There is no substantive 
difference between the requirement to train "employees" exposed to a 
hazard and the requirement to train "each employee" exposed to the 
hazard. Under both formulations, the exposed employee is the subject of 
the training requirement, and compliance cannot be achieved unless and 
until each such employee receives the required training. Therefore 
provisions requiring the employer to provide training to employees 
exposed to a hazard, or to ensure that employees receive training, or 
that contain similar language, are plainly susceptible to per-employee 
citations in appropriate cases. GM, 2007 WL 4350896 at 36. No 
additional language is needed to clarify the intent of these 
provisions.
    A minority of training provisions state that the employer must 
"institute a training program for all [exposed] employees and ensure 
their participation in the program" or contain similar language. See 
e.g., Sec.  1910.1001(j)(7)(i) (asbestos); Sec.  1910.1018(o)(1)(i) 
(inorganic arsenic); Sec.  1910.1025(l)(1)(ii) (lead); Sec.  
1910.1027(m)(4)(i) (cadmium). The Agency disagrees with the Ho 
majority's conclusion that this language requires the employer to have 
a training program, but does not impose a specific duty to train each 
exposed employee. The requirement that the employer "institute" the 
training program and ensure employee "participation" indicates that 
the focus of the provision is on the communication of hazard 
information to each employee. Furthermore, virtually all of the 
provisions requiring a training program also contain language 
explicitly stating that "each employee" must be informed of specific 
hazard information. See Sec.  1910.1001(j)(7)(iii) (asbestos); Sec.  
1910.1018(o)(1)(ii) (inorganic arsenic); Sec.  1910.1025(l)(1)(v) 
(lead); Sec.  1910.1027(m)(4)(iii) (cadmium). Accordingly, the duty to 
"institute a training program" runs to each individual employee 
subject to the training requirement, and a discrete violation occurs 
for each such employee who does not receive training.
    Ho, however, states the Commission's current interpretation as to 
the meaning of the construction asbestos standard's training provision. 
The Ho majority considered the language in Sec.  1926.1101(k)(9)(i) to 
impose a duty to have a training program for employees collectively. 
The failure to train each of a number of individual employees on 
asbestos hazards was therefore considered a single violation. Although 
the Secretary does not accept the Ho majority's interpretation, the 
decision may be a significant impediment to the consistent and 
effective enforcement of the asbestos standard and other standards that 
contain similar wording. Accordingly, OSHA believes it is appropriate 
to amend those standards that require the employer to "institute a 
training program" to clarify that the employer's duty is to train each 
employee in accordance with the training program. The revised language 
expressly identifies the subject of the training requirement as "each 
employee" and therefore imposes a "specific duty on the employer to 
train each individual employee." GM, 2007 WL 430896 at 36. The agency 
intends the revision to clarify without question that the failure to 
train each individual employee covered by the training requirement may 
be considered a separate violation with a separate penalty.
2. Comments of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce
    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce, joined by the Associated Builders and 
Contractors, Inc. and the National Association of Home Builders, 
submitted comments challenging the Secretary's legal authority to 
promulgate the final rule. (Exs. 28.1, 40.1, 82.1). The Chamber agrees 
with OSHA that insubstantial differences in the wording of the PPE and 
training standards should not affect resolution of the unit of 
violation, and appears to question the correctness of the Commission's 
analysis in Ho. (Ex. 28.1 at 1). Nevertheless, the Chamber argues that 
the Secretary lacks authority under section 6(b) of the Act to issue a 
rule clarifying that each employee not provided PPE or training as 
required by the PPE and training standards may be considered a separate 
violation for penalty purposes. (Ex. 28.1 at 1-3). In the Chamber's 
view, section 6(b) limits the Secretary's rulemaking authority to 
defining the conditions or practices required to provide safe and 
healthful workplaces, while section 17 commits to the Commission alone 
the determination whether one or more violations of standards have 
occurred. The Administrative Procedure Act is a further limitation on 
the Secretary's authority, the Chamber argues, as section 558(b) states 
that "[a] sanction may not be imposed * * * except within jurisdiction 
delegated to the agency and as authorized by law." 5 U.S.C. 558(b) 
(1994).
    The Chamber also disagrees with the proposition in the proposed 
rule's preamble that a separate violation occurs for each employee who 
is not provided PPE or training. The Chamber maintains that there might 
be only one violation if the employer failed to cover a certain point 
in training a group of employees or failed to provide the right 
cartridge for the respirators provided a group of similarly exposed 
employees.
(Ex. 28.1 at 4, 5). In light of these asserted legal defects in the 
proposed rule, the Chamber recommends that the Secretary address the 
problem presented by the Ho case by continuing to litigate the issue 
before the Commission. (Id. at 4).
    a. OSHA disagrees with these arguments for the following reasons. 
First, the Chamber fundamentally misinterprets both the rule and the 
Act in suggesting that the amendments usurp the Commission's authority 
under Section 17 to determine the amount of penalties. As the new 
paragraphs to the introductory sections of the subparts make clear, the 
final rule does not purport to set penalty amounts. Instead it 
clarifies that the employer's substantive duty under existing PPE and 
training standards is to comply with respect to each individual 
employee who must use PPE or receive training, and it provides clear 
notice that employers may be cited on a per-employee basis for 
violations. For example, Sec.  1910.9 states "[s]tandards in this part 
requiring personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators 
and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to 
use the PPE and each failure to provide PPE may be considered a 
separate violation." (emphasis added).
    Section 6(b) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to "promulgate, 
modify or revoke any occupational safety or health standard" by 
following certain procedures, and the Secretary is exercising this 
express authority here. As explained in the preceding subsections, 
current Commission precedent indicates that the specific wording of 
some respirator and training provisions may not support per-employee 
citations while the slightly different wording of other respirator and 
training provisions does support such citations. While the Secretary 
believes that the PPE and training standards already support her 
interpretation, she is amending the standards to conform to the 
Commission's view that precise language is necessary. The amendments 
also address the Commission's concern that the current language of some 
standards may not provide fair notice. Only the Secretary has the 
authority to amend her standards in this manner.
    The Secretary's exercise of her express authority to amend her 
standards to add language the Commission has indicated is necessary is 
hardly a usurpation of the Commission's authority. To the contrary, the 
final rule amendments recognize and respect the Commission's 
adjudicative role under section 10(c) of the Act.
    The Commission's authority under section 17 to assess penalties is 
not implicated by this final rule. Where the Secretary has cited 
separate violations of the same standard, the Commission may be 
required to determine whether the standard authorizes the type of per-
instance violations charged. That issue, however, turns entirely on the 
proper interpretation of the standard's text. Hartford Roofing, 17 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1367. The Commission's role is limited to 
determining whether the Secretary's interpretation that the standard 
permits per-instance violations is reasonable. Martin v. OSHRC, 499 
U.S. 144 (1991). Where a standard is reasonably susceptible to citation 
on a per-instance basis, the Secretary's authority to propose a 
separate penalty for each such violation is clear. "The plain language 
of the Act could hardly be clearer" in authorizing a separate penalty 
for each discrete instance of a violation of a duty imposed by a 
standard. Kaspar Wire Works, Inc. v. Secretary of Labor, 268 F.3d 1123, 
1130 (DC Cir. 2001).
    The Commission's authority under section 17(j) to "assess all 
civil penalties provided in this section" does not permit it to review 
the Secretary's prosecutorial decision to cite and propose a separate 
penalty for each discrete violation of a standard. Chao v. OSHRC (Saw 
Pipes USA, Inc. and Jindal United Steel Corp.), 480 F.3d 320, 324 n. 3 
(5th Cir. 2007). The Commission's adjudicative functions are to 
determine whether the facts support the multiple violations charged, 
and to apply the statutory criteria to determine the amount of the 
penalty to be assessed for each proven violation. Id. at 325. These 
functions are not affected by the final rule, which concerns only the 
Secretary's interpretation that the PPE and training standards are 
susceptible to per-employee citations.
    Reich v. Arcadian Corp., 110 F.3d 1192 (5th Cir. 1997), does not 
support the Chamber's argument. There, the Fifth Circuit observed that 
OSHA standards address "conditions" and "practices" and that the 
unit of violation of a standard must reflect the particular hazardous 
conditions regulated. 110 F.3d at 1198. While most standards require 
abatement of hazardous conditions affecting employees collectively, the 
condition or practice to which the PPE and training standards are 
directed is the protection of individual employees. Hartford Roofing, 
17 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) at 1366-67 ("[T]he condition or practice to which 
[the general respirator] standard is directed, within the meaning of 
section 3(8) of the Act, is * * * the individual and discrete failure 
to provide an employee working in a contaminated environment with a 
proper respirator."). The Arcadian court expressly recognized that an 
individual employee may be the unit of prosecution "if the regulated 
condition or practice is unique to the employee (i.e., failure to train 
or remove a worker)". 110 F.3d at 1199 (citing Hartford Roofing, 17 
O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 1361).
    The foregoing discussion plainly disposes of the Chamber's claim 
that the final rule imposes a sanction without an express 
authorization, in violation of Sec.  558 of the APA. Nothing in the 
final rule imposes a sanction. Insofar as the rule addresses penalties, 
it does so only indirectly, by informing the public that the agency may 
exercise prosecutorial discretion to cite on a per-employee basis for 
violations of PPE and training standards. The Secretary's charging 
decision whether to issue a single citation or separate per-employee 
citations is not itself a penalty. Chao v. OSHRC, 480 F.3d at 325. 
Moreover, citations reflect only the Secretary's proposed penalty 
amounts--the Commission, not the Secretary, actually assesses 
penalties. American Bus Ass'n v. Slater, 231 F.3d 1 (DC Cir. 2000), 
cited by the Chamber, is obviously distinguishable in that the rule at 
issue there authorized the agency to levy fines in specific amounts 
directly against regulated entities for violations of bus accessibility 
requirements. In any event, section 9(a) of the OSH Act expressly 
authorizes the Secretary to issue a citation for violation of "a 
requirement * * * of any standard," and section 17 states that a 
penalty may be assessed "for each violation." Thus, the final rule 
clearly falls "within jurisdiction delegated to the agency" and does 
not violate section 558 of the APA.
    b. The Chamber's criticisms of isolated statements in the 
proposal's preamble are irrelevant to the issue of the Secretary's 
legal authority to promulgate the final rule. (Ex. 28.1 at 4, 5). The 
Chamber chiefly challenges the proposal's statement that a separate 
violation occurs for each employee not provided required PPE or 
training, arguing that in some situations, the employer's failure to 
provide PPE or training to a class of employees can be considered a 
single violative condition or practice for which only a single citation 
could be issued. (Ex. 28.1 at 4, 5). However, the Secretary clearly has 
the authority to make specific changes to the wording of her PPE and training 
standards, and to announce her interpretation of the amended rules, by following 
the procedures in section 6(b). At most, the Chamber's criticisms go to the legal 
effect of amendments in some specific circumstances. Whether the Secretary's 
interpretation will be accepted by the Commission or a court in these 
circumstances, if and when they arise, is a matter to be resolved in an 
enforcement proceeding.
    In any event, the Chamber's arguments are wholly unpersuasive on 
their merits. The Chamber asserts that there might be only one training 
violation if the employer fails to cover a certain required element in 
training a group of employees and there might be only one respirator 
violation if the employer fails to provide the right cartridge for 
respirators used by a class of employees exposed to the same hazard. 
(Ex. 28.1 at 4, 5). In these cases, the Chamber suggests that the 
violation involves a single action by the employer affecting multiple 
employees alike. Id. The Secretary rejects this reasoning for the same 
reasons she rejects the Commission majority's analysis in Ho.
    The hazardous "condition" or "practice" addressed by the PPE 
and training standards is the failure to protect each individual 
employee--through personal protective equipment or training--from the 
hazards of his or her or work environment. Hartford Roofing, 17 O.S.H. 
Cas. (BNA) at 1367. The hazardous condition addressed by the standards 
is always the same regardless of the actions taken by the employer to 
comply or not comply. It does not matter that a single action or 
decision by the employer results in several employees being exposed to 
hazardous working conditions without PPE or training--the unit of 
violation remains the individual unprotected employee. See Chao v. 
OSHRC, 380 F.3d. at 323 (although multiple recordkeeping violations may 
stem from a single company policy, each failure to record may represent 
a separate and distinct violation). Secretary of Labor v. Caterpillar 
Inc., 15 O.S.H. Cas. (BNA) 2153, 2173 (Rev. Comm'n 1993). For the same 
reason, the availability of per-employee training violations does not 
depend upon whether the employer could have conducted a single group 
training session. GM, 2007 WL 4350896 at 36.
    The Chamber's approach is also internally inconsistent. The Chamber 
appears to acknowledge that per-employee citations should have been 
available in the Ho case. (Ex. 28.1 at 1, 4). There is no logical 
distinction between the situation in Ho, where the employer failed to 
provide any respirators to employees, and a case where the employer 
provides noncomplying respirators to employees. (Ex. 28.1 at 4). In 
both cases, employees are not protected. The Chamber asserts that "it 
all depends upon whether there are different violative conditions," 
but fails to explain how or why factual differences between Ho and its 
hypothetical case would support the availability of per-employee 
citations in one case but not the other.
    c. Finally, the Chamber's proposed solution to the problem 
presented by the Ho case is no answer at all. The Chamber urges the 
Secretary to continue to litigate the issue by raising the arguments in 
the proposed rule directly to the Commission in the next appropriate 
case. Thus, the Chamber posits that while the Secretary lacks statutory 
authority to issue a rule clarifying her interpretation that the PPE 
and training standards are susceptible to per-employee citations, the 
Commission would accept this interpretation as a litigating position 
and change its doctrine. This appears wholly counterintuitive. The 
central tenet of the Secretary's position is that the statute supports 
her approach. To accept the Chamber's comments as a basis for not 
adopting a final rule would substantially weaken, if not destroy, the 
legal underpinning of the Secretary's position. For these reasons, the 
Secretary rejects both the Chamber's legal arguments and its 
recommendation for a non-regulatory course of action.

IV. Summary and Explanation of the Proposed Rule

    In this final standard, OSHA is amending the standards in 29 CFR 
Parts 1910, 1915, 1917, 1918 and 1926 to provide additional clarity and 
consistency about the individualized nature of the employer's duty to 
provide training and personal protective equipment (including eye, 
hand, face, head, foot and hearing protection, respirators, and other 
forms of PPE) under standards in these parts. The final rule revises 
existing regulatory language and adds new sections to the introductory 
subparts to Parts 1910 through 1926. The following discussion addresses 
comments to the proposed language, OSHA's response to those comments, 
the actual final rule language, and how the final rule is to be 
interpreted.
    A number of commenters offered broad support for the revisions 
(see, e.g., Exs. 3, 5, 18.1, 21.1, 29.1, 32.1, 39.1, 44.1, 83.1, 84.1). 
ORC Worldwide remarked that the rulemaking is an appropriate action to 
eliminate confusion and ensure consistent and effective enforcement of 
OSHA's standards (Ex. 29.1). The American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) added that the rule will 
remove any doubt that employers are obligated to provide required PPE 
and training to each worker and that employers who fail to do so for 
each individual employee are subject to per-instance citations for each 
employee left unprotected (Ex. 32.1). The American Industrial Hygiene 
Association (AIHA) urged OSHA to "[m]ove forward with the completion 
of this proposed rule in as timely a manner as possible to avoid any 
potential delays in the protection of workers" (Ex. 18.1).
    A number of commenters also opposed the rulemaking (see, e.g., Exs. 
2, 19.1, 20.1, 22, 25.1, 26.1, 27.1, 28.1, 30, 38.1, 40.1, 41.1, 45.1, 
48.1, 49.1, 51.1, 79 pp 35-46, 79 pp 73-77, 79 pp 87-92, 80.1, 81.1, 
82.1). Several commenters expressed concern about OSHA's authority to 
promulgate the standards (see, e.g., Exs. 28.1, 40.1, 80.1, 82.1). 
OSHA's response to these concerns is in the legal authorities section 
of this preamble. A number of commenters also expressed concerns about 
the cost impact of the standards on employers. These concerns are 
addressed in the economic analysis sections below. Remaining objections 
and recommendations are discussed in the following sections.

New Sections Added to Subpart A of Parts 1910 Through 1918, and Subpart 
C of Part 1926

    OSHA has added a new section to Subpart A of Parts 1910, 1915, 1917 
and 1918, and to Subpart C of Part 1926. These subparts contain general 
information about the scope and applicability of the standards in each 
part. The proposed new sections contain two paragraphs, which are 
identical for each new section. The first paragraph expressly states 
that, for standards in the part requiring employers to provide PPE, 
employers must provide PPE to each employee required to use the PPE, 
and each failure to provide PPE to an employee imposes a separate 
compliance duty, and thus may be considered a separate violation. The 
new paragraph applies to all standards in the part that require 
provision of PPE, regardless of their wording. For example, Sec.  
1910.132 requires employers to provide PPE when needed, and also 
recognizes that an employer may allow an employee who voluntarily 
provides appropriate PPE he or she owns to use that PPE in place of the 
employer-provided equipment. See Sec.  1910.132(h)(6). The underlying 
obligation to provide PPE to each employee is the employer's, and each 
employee who lacks required PPE may be considered a separate violation. 
The second paragraph expressly states that standards in the part requiring 
training on hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that 
employees receive training or that the employer train employees, provide 
training to employees or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty to each employee covered by the requirement. 
Each failure to adequately train an employee may be considered a 
separate violation.
    The new sections reflect the agency's intent, as discussed in the 
preceding sections of this preamble, that standards requiring the 
employer to protect employees by providing personal protective 
equipment or imparting hazard information through training impose a 
specific duty to protect each individual employee covered by the 
requirement. The new sections are placed in the introductory subparts 
of each part because the principle expressed in each section applies 
generally to all PPE and training standards in the part. OSHA intends 
the new sections to apply regardless of differences in wording between 
the PPE and training provisions in the various parts. The new sections 
provide unmistakable notice to employers that they are responsible for 
protecting each employee covered by the PPE and training standards, and 
consequently, that they may be subject to per-employee citations and 
proposed penalties for violations.
    The AFL-CIO, supported by the Building and Construction Trades 
Department, proposed two changes to these general language sections 
(Ex. 32.1, 39.1, 70 pp. 82-83, 83.1, 84.1). As proposed, these sections 
read as follows:

    (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part 
requiring the employer to provide personal protective equipment 
(PPE), including respirators, because of hazards to employees impose 
a separate compliance duty to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required 
to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may 
be considered a separate violation.
    (b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on 
hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that 
employees receive training or that the employer train employees, 
provide training to employees, or institute or implement a training 
program, impose a separate compliance duty to each employee covered 
by the requirement.
    The employer must train each affected employee in the manner 
required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee may 
be considered a separate violation.

The AFL-CIO's first concern was that the first sentence of paragraph 
(a), by singling out respirators as an example of the PPE involved, 
"[c]ould lead to the view that the requirement focuses more narrowly 
on respirators and not on the employer's more expansive duty to provide 
all forms of PPE to each worker" (Ex. 32.1). It suggested that new 
text be inserted after the word "including," which listed various 
specific types of PPE, such as foot, hand, and eye protection. Second, 
the AFL-CIO suggested inserting the words "with respect" after the 
word "duty" in the first sentence of paragraphs (a) and (b) to make 
clear that the employer's separate compliance duty was owed to each 
employee.
    The Agency agrees with these recommendations in large part and has 
made corresponding changes in the final rule. It is not OSHA's intent 
to limit the PPE duties referenced in these sections to respirators 
only. But rather than include a list of types of PPE, which might 
itself be read as limiting, the final rule merely inserts the words 
"and other types of PPE" after the word "respirators" in the first 
sentence of paragraph (a). The final rule also includes the words 
"with respect" where suggested by the unions.

Alternative Approach

    The Blueoceana Company (Ex. 77.) expressed a concern that OSHA's 
proposal to include these general language sections did not provide 
enough clarity in OSHA's regulations, and that the Agency should change 
the language of each training and PPE standard to make the requirement 
to provide PPE and training to each employee clear within each of those 
standards. Specifically, Blueoceana recommended that:

    While we assume that all such PPE and Training regulations will 
be included within the embrace of any final rule, it would have been 
much "cleaner" to go directly to the source of any regulatory 
ambiguity and rectify such defects right where they exist. As 
proposed, the "per employee rule" will leave, unmolested, the 
dichotomies complained of in Ho, and will cause employers and 
employees to then look quizzically at the "newly finalized" 
sections while scratching their heads (Ex. 77).

    OSHA does not believe that it is necessary to change each PPE and 
training standard to clarifiy the agency's interpretation. Most 
employers already understand that they must provide required PPE and 
training to each covered employee, so there is not widespread confusion 
on this matter. The final paragraphs make clear that they apply to all 
of the standards, and it will be quite clear that they apply throughout 
all the standards. This is also an approach used successfully in other 
rules. For example, in the PPE payment standard, the Agency requires 
employers to pay for PPE throughout each part by language stated in 
only one standard in the part (72 FR 64342, November 15, 2007). The 
Agency is unaware of any confusion caused by the approach used in PPE 
payment, and it does not expect any confusion for this clarification of 
the training and PPE standards. Nevertheless, in its future PPE and 
training standards, or when existing standards are modified, the Agency 
will attempt to make the requirement to protect each employee clear, so 
as to avoid additional confusion about the matter.

OSHA's Egregious Policy

    A number of commenters expressed a concern about OSHA's instance-
by-instance citation policy and the impact of the rulemaking on that 
policy (see, e.g., Exs. 2, 14.1, 19.1, 22, 25.1, 27.1, 30, 36, 37.1, 
38.1, 40.1, 41.1, 42.1, 45.1, 49.1, 51.1, 77, 79 pp 87-92, 80.1, 82.1). 
For example, the American Association of Homes and Services for the 
Aging (AAHSA) remarked that:

    [t]he Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") 
states that the practice of "grouping" violations into a single 
citation is the more common method of dealing with multiple 
violations, whereas "per instance" violations are generally used 
to deter "flagrant violators." This principle is documented in 
OSHA's CPL 2.80 Directive, entitled "Handling of Cases to be 
Proposed for Violation-by-Violation Penalties," released on October 
21, 1990 (the "Directive"). Specifically, the Directive provides 
that only flagrant violations of the Occupational Safety and Health 
Act (the "Act") are appropriate bases for "per instance" 
violations. Despite the plain meaning of the Directive, the 
Clarification does not distinguish between flagrant violations for 
which "per instance" citations are appropriate and non-flagrant or 
unintentional violations for which "grouping" is appropriate. As a 
result, the standards should be revised to make this distinction 
(Ex. 36.1).

    Con-Way Inc. remarked that "The proposed rule effectively 
penalizes the employer multiple times for one infraction. There is no 
limitation within the language to make it apply to only egregious 
circumstances as OSHA has indicated. And that's a problem" (Ex. 79, p 
89). The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) added that:

    The failure to provide appropriate PPE or provide adequate 
training on how to use PPE can be an egregious act by an employer with 
little or no regard for employee safety and health. In practicality and 
in most workplaces, however, violations of PPE standards are largely 
technical in nature and do not result in harm to an employee. Violations 
often can reflect unintended mistakes in its use by employees, a supervisor's 
mistaken understanding, or an individual's failure to follow an 
employer's or SH&E professional's best efforts to help that employee 
be protected. In such cases, where the overall intent of the 
employer is to meet or even exceed the OSHA standard and the overall 
approach in the workplace reflects a commitment to safety and 
health, a final rule should protect such employers against the 
application of the "per employee" penalty (Ex. 37.1).

    The National Maritime Safety Association (NMSA) remarked: "We note 
that nowhere in the proposed rule is there a reference to the OSHA 
Compliance Directive `Handling of Cases to be Proposed for Violation by 
Violation Penalties' policy. If OSHA truly intends for this regulation 
to apply to flagrant or egregious violators then the proposed rules 
must state this in unequivocal language. Moreover, relevant Compliance 
Directives should be appropriately promulgated and implemented" (Ex. 
80.1). The Associated Builders and Contractors, Inc. (ABC) suggested 
OSHA incorporate its instance-by-instance policies directly into the 
rulemaking to ensure OSHA's egregious policies would not be changed in 
the future, stating that:

    The final rule's regulatory language, as opposed to the 
preamble, needs to be revised to make absolutely clear that the more 
expansive interpretation is not intended and cannot arise out of 
this rulemaking, i.e., that any (and every) PPE training violation 
will not be "considered a separate violation." The codified 
regulatory language, not the preamble, should specify the particular 
circumstances under which an employer's failure to train will be 
considered as separate violations. This could be done, for example, 
by expressly incorporating the specific criteria set forth in CPL 
02-00-080 (formerly CPL 2.80) that identifies the conditions under 
which the Commission would consider as a flagrant violation has 
occurred (Ex. 40.1).

    A few commenters incorrectly believed that the final rule 
amendments would require OSHA inspectors to issue instance-by-instance 
citations and penalties (see, e.g., Exs. 2, 14.1, 30, 38.1, 41.1, 49.1, 
51.1). Michal L. Illes (Ex. 2) recommended that any instance-by-
instance penalty system for training should be limited to employers 
with 50 or more employees. The Printing Industries of America/Graphic 
Arts Technical Foundation (PIA/GATF) stated that:

    While OSHA compliance inspectors may have the flexibility to 
group multiple violations under a single penalty or propose 
aggregate, per-instance violations, the proposed language does not 
provide inspectors with enough guidance at the time of an inspection 
regarding when to apply the per-instance penalties versus a single 
penalty. OSHA should reserve issuing per-instance violations for 
only the worst-case offenders that require strong deterrents to 
violating health and safety standards. The proposed language seems 
to direct an OSHA inspector to the per-instance approach regardless 
of the circumstances or the degree of violation. This potential 
practice could cause unnecessary economic and time constraints on 
small businesses that have not committed flagrant violations of the 
Administration's health and safety standards (Ex. 38.1).

    OSHA wants to make it absolutely clear that this final rule simply 
clarifies that the PPE and training standards are legally susceptible 
to per-employee citations. Nothing in the final rule addresses the 
circumstances in which the Secretary will or will not issue per-
employee citations in particular cases. The issuance of per-employee 
citations, like other types of per-instance citations, is a matter of 
prosecutorial discretion wholly outside the scope of this rulemaking.
    At present, OSHA's policy on the issuance of per-instance citations 
and proposed penalties is outlined in Directive CPL 2.80, Handling of 
Cases To Be Proposed for Violation-By-Violation Penalties. The 
directive contains instructions to OSHA personnel on the criteria to be 
considered in determining whether to charge a separate violation and 
propose a separate penalty for each discrete instance of a violation of 
a standard or regulation. The directive covers the issuance of per-
employee citations and proposed penalties for violation of PPE and 
training standards. The per-employee citations in the Ho and GM cases 
were issued pursuant to CPL 2.80.
    OSHA does not believe that it is appropriate to refer in this final 
rule to Directive CPL 2.80, or to discuss the circumstances in which 
per-employee citations might be issued for PPE and training violations. 
As explained above, the agency's discretion to issue such citations is 
not a subject of this rulemaking. Furthermore, there is no ambiguity in 
the current directive as to its application to per-employee PPE and 
training violations. Thus, there is no need for further clarification 
on this point.
    Several additional factors militate against including references to 
the directive in the final rule. The directive reflects the agency's 
current enforcement policy; it is not a standard or regulation and 
should not be construed as such. The Agency must have the flexibility 
to modify its enforcement and policies in order to deploy its 
enforcement resources efficiently, to meet its public policy goals, and 
to respond to changing conditions and unforeseen circumstances. To fix 
agency enforcement policies in a rulemaking such as this would limit 
that flexibility. Moreover, the directive applies to any number of OSHA 
standards, not just the PPE and training standards being modified in 
this rulemaking. For example, per-instance citations under OSHA's 
injury and illness recordkeeping regulation and machine guarding 
requirements are covered by the directive. There is no reason to affect 
the future enforcement of those rules in this action, which is limited 
to PPE and training requirements.

Revisions to Specific Respirator Paragraphs

    OSHA proposed revisions to the initial respiratory protection 
paragraph in a number of standards in parts 1910, 1915 and 1926 to add 
language explicitly stating that the employer must provide an 
appropriate respirator to each employee required to use a respirator 
and implement a respiratory protection program for each such employee. 
The affected standards include the general respirator standard, Sec.  
1910.134, most general industry toxic-substance health standards in 
Subpart Z of part 1910, the shipyard employment asbestos standard, 
Sec.  1915.1101, and the construction industry methylenedianiline, 
lead, asbestos, and cadmium standards, Sec. Sec.  1926.60, 62, 1101, 
and 1127.
    Section 1910.134 contains general respiratory protection 
requirements for General Industry (part 1910), Shipyards (part 1915), 
Marine Terminals (part 1917), Longshoring (part 1918), and Construction 
(part 1926). The existing section 1910.134(a)(2) states:

    [r]espirators shall be provided by the employer when such 
equipment is necessary to protect the health of the employee. The 
employer shall provide the respirators which are applicable and 
suitable for the purposes intended. The employer shall be 
responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory 
protection program which shall include the requirements outlined in 
paragraph (c) of this section.

    OSHA proposed to revise the first and last sentences of paragraph 
(a)(2) of section Sec.  1910.134. As proposed, the first sentence read, 
"[r]espirators shall be provided by the employer to each employee when 
such equipment is necessary to protect the health of such employee" 
(emphasis added). As proposed, the last sentence read, "[t]he employer 
shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory 
protection program, which shall include the requirements outlined in paragraph (c) 
of this section, for each employee required by this section to use a 
respirator" (emphasis added). This language has been carried through 
to the final rule, with one change discussed below. Section 1910.134, 
as revised in this rulemaking, will apply to construction under section 
1926.103.
    AAHSA noted that the proposed new language in the last sentence, 
when read literally, created an anomaly (Ex. 36.1). That is, the 
language requires employers to establish and maintain "a respiratory 
protection program * * * for each employee. * * *" It is not OSHA's 
intent that employers create separate programs for each of their 
employees; rather employers need have only one program covering all of 
their employees who wear respirators. OSHA has corrected this problem 
in the final rule by dividing the proposed sentence into two sentences, 
the last of which reads "The program shall cover each employee 
required by this section to use a respirator."
    The National Paint and Coating Association was concerned that the 
proposed revision's requirement to provide respirators to each employee 
could be read to require that a separate respirator be assigned to each 
employee (Ex. 22). OSHA does not believe that this is a plausible 
construction of the language or that employers would be misled by this 
change. Rather, the plain language merely evinces the intent to ensure 
that appropriate respiratory protection is provided to each employee 
when needed on the worksite, and there is no requirement imposed by 
this language to assign particular respirators to particular employees.
    OSHA proposed similar revisions to the initial respirator 
paragraphs of toxic substance standards in parts 1910, 1915 and 1926. 
The initial respiratory protection paragraph of the construction 
asbestos standard, which is virtually identical to all respirator 
sections revised in this rule, states that "[f]or employees who use 
respirators required by this section, the employer must provide 
respirators that comply with the requirements of this paragraph." 
Sec.  1926.1101(h)(1). The standard also states that, "[t]he employer 
must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with 
Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d), (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through 
(m)." Sec.  1926.1101(h)(2).
    OSHA proposed to revise the first sentence of paragraph (h)(1) of 
section 1926.1101 to state, "[f]or employees who use respirators 
required by this section, the employer must provide each employee an 
appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this 
paragraph" (emphasis added). The Agency proposed revising paragraph 
(h)(2)(i) to state, "[t]he employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) though (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m) for each employee required by 
this section to use a respirator" (emphasis added). Identical language 
revisions were proposed for the initial respirator paragraphs in other 
toxic-substance health standards; only the section and paragraph 
numbers were different. These revisions are carried through in the 
final rule with the change to "which covers each employee" to 
eliminate the potential ambiguity described above.
    The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) suggested that 
these amendments might create an ambiguity (Ex. 43.1, 59). Focusing on 
the requirement that employers select an "appropriate" respirator 
that "complies with the requirements of this paragraph," NAHB 
suggested that the word "appropriate" might impose some requirement 
in addition to being in compliance with the requirements of the 
paragraph. However, OSHA intends no such additional requirement; a 
respirator is "appropriate" if it complies with the requirements of 
the paragraph. The word "appropriate" is included to emphasize the 
employer's duty to provide an adequately protective respirator as 
delineated by the standard.
    OSHA believes that all of these revisions are appropriate in light 
of the Ho majority's narrow interpretation of the asbestos respirator 
provision. OSHA is adding explicit "each employee" language to 
section 1910.134 and to the initial respirator paragraphs of toxic-
substance health standards to address the Commission's concern that 
this language is necessary to inform employers of their specific duty 
to provide a respirator to each individual employee required to use a 
respirator. The revisions will improve these standards by conforming 
them to each other and to the revised section 1910.134, and contribute 
to a greater awareness of the importance of full compliance with these 
important requirements.

Revisions to Specific Training Paragraphs

    The final rule carries through the proposed revisions to those 
training provisions in safety and health standards that require the 
employer to institute or provide a training program for employees 
exposed to hazards. The Commission had indicated that the requirement 
in section 1926.1101(k)(9)(i) to "institute a training program for all 
employees who are likely to be exposed in excess of a PEL and for all 
employees who perform Class I through IV asbestos operations, and shall 
ensure their participation in the program" is not sufficiently 
explicit as to the employer's duty to ensure that each employee is 
trained. A number of other standards include similarly worded training 
provisions. Accordingly, the final rule revises section 
1926.1101(k)(9)(i) to state, in relevant part, "[t]he employer shall 
train each employee who is likely to be exposed in excess of a PEL, and 
each employee who performs Class I through IV asbestos operations, in 
accordance with the requirements of this section" (emphasis added). 
Similar revised language is adopted for training sections in other 
standards that contain similar wording to section 1926.1101(k)(9)(i). 
The amended training provisions will conform to the training provision 
that the Commission in GM interpreted to permit per-employee citations.
    The Association of Environmental Contractors (AEC) objected to this 
language (Ex. 34.1). Its members are asbestos abatement contractors who 
have negotiated a collective bargaining agreement with a local union 
under which the union provides the training required. Its concern is 
that training provided by the union, which is otherwise compliant with 
the standard, might not be acceptable because it was not provided by 
the employer. This concern is unfounded. The intent of the new language 
is to impose a duty on employers to ensure each employee is properly 
trained, not to require each employer to actually conduct the training. 
The employer's duty to train each employee may be discharged by 
ensuring employees have received adequate training provided by a union 
or other third party, and indeed OSHA has long taken this position in 
interpreting similar language under the Hazard Communication Standard 
(Letter to Frank Pelligrini, May 11, 1988). There is no need to change 
the proposed language to accommodate AEC's comment.
    Stericycle argued that this language "[i]mplies individual 
customized training rather than attending group training sessions." 
(Ex. 35.1.) OSHA disagrees, and does not believe that the new language 
can reasonably be read to exclude group training. Notably, no other 
participant in this rulemaking has suggested this interpretation of the
provision. Regardless, it is OSHA's intent that employers may satisfy 
this requirement through group training, provided that each employee in 
the group receives and understands the training.

State Plan Issue

    The Public Risk Management Association (PRIMA), an organization of 
risk management professionals for public entities and local 
governments, argued against the proposal on the grounds that it would 
discourage states from pursuing authorization to administer a state 
plan under section 18 of the OSH Act. States would be discouraged, 
PRIMA argues, because "[t]hey may be subjecting themselves and their 
political subdivisions to prohibitive substantial financial penalties 
for a good faith effort toward compliance." (Ex. 26.1; see also Exs. 
66.1, Ex. 79 p. 97.)
    OSHA disagrees for a number of reasons. Initially, as explained in 
detail elsewhere in the preamble, the standard does nothing to change 
regulated entities' compliance obligations. The standard places no new 
duties on public entities covered under a state plan, and leaves both 
federal and state plan enforcement policy unaffected. Thus, the 
standard should not affect states' decisions on participation one way 
or the other. Moreover, while PRIMA is concerned with the potential 
that public employers would be subjected to large penalties for 
citations made on a per-employee basis, CPL 2.80 provides that state-
plan states need not extend the egregious policy to public sector 
programs (Ex. 70). Indeed, OSHA does not require state plans to impose 
monetary sanctions on public employers if other adequate remedies are 
available. 29 CFR 1956.11(c)(2)(x). Finally, there is no evidence that 
any states have been discouraged from seeking or maintaining state-plan 
status. To the contrary, PRIMA conceded at the hearing that it was not 
aware of any state-plan states that were reconsidering their status as 
a result of this rulemaking, (Ex. 79 p. 99), and the Kentucky OSH 
Program submitted a comment in support of the proposal (Ex. 21.1).

Multi-Employer Worksites

    Two comments were received regarding application of per-instance 
(or per-employee) citations to an employer under the multi-employer 
citation policy. The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) 
noted that this rule "could extend citations to the general 
contractor" (Ex. 42.1). The American Society of Safety Engineers 
(ASSE) commented that the impact of the rulemaking is "ambiguous" 
with respect to a worksite where either the "general contractor, or a 
subcontractor is overseeing provision of PPE or training" (Ex. 37.1).
    As explained above, this rulemaking does not address the 
circumstances in which per-employee citations might be issued. The 
final rule does not broaden or narrow the application of the Agency's 
current multi-employer citation policy. For more discussion on this 
issue, see the final rule for "Employer Payment for Personal 
Protective Equipment" (72 FR 64342, 64363).
    This rulemaking does not impose any new substantive requirements 
for employers and serves only to clarify the duty to provide personal 
protective equipment and training to each employee. Therefore, the 
application of OSHA's multi-employer citation policy (CPL 02-00-124) is 
not affected.

Employer Liability for Employee Misconduct

    Several rulemaking participants expressed concern that the proposed 
rule would increase employers' liabilities for citations when employees 
failed to adhere to work rules requiring the proper use of PPE, even 
when such employees were provided appropriate PPE and properly trained 
in its use (Exs. 16, 20.1, 25.1, 42.1, 48.1, 80.1). Representative of 
these is a submission by the American Health Care Association, which 
stated that:

    It is difficult to determine whether, when employees are not 
using PPE or are using it incorrectly, that it is due to 
insufficient training on the part of the employer or if it is the 
fault of the employee(s) involved. * * * [D]ocumentation that 
training has occurred, that PPE is supplied, and that employees 
stated that they understood the training upon its completion should 
be adequate evidence to OSHA that the employer is in compliance (Ex. 
25.1).

    Similarly, the National Maritime Safety Association (NMSA) stated 
that, during OSHA investigations, it is possible that a "[c]ompliance 
officer can casually observe employees in an otherwise compliance 
workplace * * * improperly using or not using PPE at all." NMSA argued 
that, under the new standard, employers could be cited for each of 
these employees who "[s]imply were lax and for a brief period in time 
failed to catch the attention of a supervisor who normally would have 
corrected their lapse." (Ex. 80.1) Finally, in their pre-hearing 
submission, ASSE stated that "* * * [v]iolations often can reflect 
unintended mistakes in its use by employees, a supervisor's mistaken 
understanding, or an individual's failure to follow an employer's or * 
* * [safety and health] professional's best efforts to help that 
employee be protected." (Ex. 37.1)
    These comments appear to address situations in which an individual 
employee's failure to use required PPE may result from unpreventable 
employee misconduct; that is, misconduct that occurs despite the 
existence of an adequately communicated and enforced work rule that 
would have prevented the violation. Unpreventable employee misconduct 
is an affirmative defense to a violation of a standard. Thus, if the 
employer proves that the elements of the defense are satisfied with 
respect to a citation alleging a violation for an individual employee's 
failure to use required PPE, the employer is not liable. Nothing in the 
final rule affects the applicability of the affirmative defense of 
unpreventable employee misconduct to a citation issued on a per-
employee basis. Therefore, OSHA does not agree with these commenters 
that the final rule will increase employers' liabilities for citations 
in situations involving employee misconduct in following an employer's 
established work rules.

PPE and Training for Short-Term Employees

    In its submission to the record, the Finishing Contractors 
Association raised a concern with respect to providing PPE and training 
of short-term employees, stating that:

    As union contractors who hire temporary employees off the bench 
to supplement their regular crew, should the contractors be required 
to provide PPE and training for these employees who may be with the 
company a couple of weeks? Such a requirement provides an economic 
burden, particularly on the smaller contractors. These temporary 
employees, perhaps, should use their own safety equipment from their 
previous job, unless this is their first assignment. * * * It is 
also difficult for these contractors to honor their commitment to 
provide updated training for these temporary workers on fast-paced, 
contracted jobs, since time is of the essence. (Ex. 48.1)

    This comment appears both to question the nature of a short-term 
employer's duty to comply with PPE and training standards and to 
suggest that the final rule could impose additional costs on these 
employers. Insofar as the comment relates to the cost of the rule, it 
is addressed in section VI below. The following discussion addresses 
the commenter's question about the applicability of the amendments to 
short-term employers.
    OSHA's PPE and training standards require employers to ensure that 
their employees are provided appropriate PPE and are adequately trained in 
its use. The final rule clarifies that employers have this obligation 
for each employee who is required to use PPE, but does not otherwise 
fundamentally alter the obligation to provide PPE and ensure that 
employees are properly trained. OSHA's PPE and training requirements 
apply to all employers covered under the Act, including those with 
short-term employees, whether referred to as temporary employees, piece 
workers, seasonal employees, hiring hall employees, labor pool 
employees, or transient employees. If an employer-employee relationship 
is established, then the employer must ensure that PPE is provided, 
used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition, as required 
by 29 CFR 1910.132(a) (for general industry) and 29 CFR 1926.95(a) (for 
construction). However, as does commonly occur with short-term 
employees, both the general industry and construction standards permit 
employers to allow employees to use their own PPE provided that the PPE 
is appropriate for the hazards present at the worksite and is 
effectively maintained (see 1910.132(b) and 1926.95(b)). Where 
employers hire short-term employees, this final rule does not affect 
the employer's obligations to ensure that PPE is provided to each 
employee and that each employee is trained in its use.

Implied Ownership of PPE

    One rulemaking participant, Stericycle, believed that the proposed 
language clarifying that PPE is to be provided to each employee implied 
that employees would own the PPE (Ex. 35.1). They suggested language be 
added to make clear that employers may "maintain custody" of PPE to 
ensure its availability. OSHA does not believe such clarification is 
necessary in the final rule since the Agency is simply clarifying its 
intent that PPE and training requirements apply to each employee 
covered by the requirements. The final rule does not affect ownership 
of PPE and employers are free to maintain ownership of PPE that they 
provide and pay for. For a further discussion of the ownership issue, 
employers may consult the preamble to the PPE payment final rule (72 FR 
64359).

V. Final Economic Analysis

    OSHA has determined that the final standard is not an economically 
significant regulatory action under Executive Order (E.O.) 12866. E.O. 
12866 requires regulatory agencies to conduct an economic analysis for 
rules that meet certain criteria. The most frequently used criterion 
under E.O. 12866 is that the rule will impose annual costs to the 
economy of $100 million or more. Neither the benefits nor the costs of 
this rule exceed $100 million. OSHA has also determined that the final 
standard is not a major rule under the Congressional Review provisions 
of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act.
    The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (RFA), as amended in 1996, 
requires OSHA to determine whether the Agency's regulatory actions will 
have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. 
OSHA's analysis, based on the analysis in this section of the Preamble 
as well as in the later section "OMB Review Under the Paperwork 
Reduction Act" below, indicates that the final rule will not have a 
significant impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    The final rule inserts two new paragraphs in the general industry 
health and safety standards (Part 1910), the shipyard employment 
standards (Part 1915), the marine terminal standards (Part 1917), the 
longshoring standards (Part 1918), and the construction standards (Part 
1926). The new provisions, indentical in each part, clarify OSHA's 
position that personal protective equipment and training standards 
impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered 
by the PPE or training requirement, and each failure to provide 
necessary PPE or training may be considered a separate violation.
    In addition, the Agency has also editorially revised provisions for 
respiratory protection, respiratory programs, and employee training 
across many existing standards. These editorial revisions emphasize the 
employer's responsibility to provide protection to each employee. For 
example, the existing language of Sec. 1910.134 (a) (2) "Respirators 
shall be provided by the employer when such equipment is necessary to 
protect the health of the employee" is replaced in the final rule by: 
"A respirator shall be provided to each employee when such equipment 
is necessary to protect the health of such employee."
    There have been no changes in the final rule from the proposed rule 
that would have any new effect on costs. In the proposed rule, OSHA 
tentatively found that the proposed additions and changes to the 
affected rules would have no costs for two reasons. First, OSHA 
preliminarily concluded that the proposal would not represent any 
change in OSHA policy but instead, as explained in detail in the 
Summary and Explanation, would simply "make explicit the Agency's 
policy and warn employers of the potential cost and penalties of 
violations." Where there exists no change, there can be no costs. 
Second, OSHA pointed out that "These changes again do not impose any 
additional employer responsibility for providing respiratory 
protection, respiratory programs, or training for employees." OSHA 
also pointed out that the Agency examines the economic feasibility of 
its standards assuming full compliance, and therefore the costs of 
compliance with existing PPE and training standards have already been 
considered. Therefore, OSHA reasoned, though the proposed rule "may 
change the frequency or number of violations and amount of fines 
assessed, these are not material for estimating new costs to comply 
with a standard" (73 FR 48343).
    After careful consideration of the rulemaking comments, OSHA finds 
no basis to depart from these preliminary conclusions. Many commenters 
objected that the rule would have substantial costs (see, e.g., Exs. 
1.1, 7.1. 13.1, 26.1, 30.1, 40.1, 51.1, 66.1, and 81.1) or expressed a 
special concern that the proposed rule could have significant costs for 
small entities, perhaps sufficient to require a regulatory flexibility 
analysis (see, e.g., Exs. 5, 38.1, 41.1. 42.1, 43.1, and 74). Some of 
these commenters simply provided a generic statement that the proposed 
rule would have costs or economic impacts with no details as to why 
they thought this would be the case, or why they objected to OSHA's 
arguments concerning costs and impacts (see, e.g., Exs. 7.1, 11.1, 
13.1, 38.1, 40.1, 51.1, and 66.1). However some commenters also offered 
specific reasons for holding that the proposed regulation would have 
costs or significant impacts.
    Some commenters expressed concerns that actually represent 
objections to the costs of the underlying rules--specifically, that 
assuring all employees are trained represents a substantial cost and 
undue burden on firms in industries with high turnover (Exs. 33, 48.1, 
and 81.1). For example, as noted above, one commenter argued "As union 
contractors who hire temporary employees off the bench to supplement 
their regular crew, should the contractors be required to provide PPE 
and training for employees who may be with their company for only a 
couple of weeks? Such a requirement provides an economic burden, 
particularly on the smaller contractors." Such comments represent 
objections to the costs and economic impacts of the underlying rules, 
which have already been analyzed and found technologically and
economically feasible based on full compliance. This rule does not 
change any obligation of employers, or add compliance costs not already 
accounted for in the underlying rules.
    Some commenters were concerned with costs of penalties, or the 
economic impact or significance of such penalties (see, e.g., Exs. 5, 
26, 41.1, 43.1, and 48.1). None of these commenters addressed OSHA's 
point concerning penalty costs mentioned in the proposed rule. First, 
the changes to these rules are a clarification and not a change to 
existing policies. Second, penalty costs are totally avoidable--simply 
comply with the rule as OSHA has assumed employers will in all of its 
analyses, and there are no additional costs for penalties. In addition, 
it should be noted that penalty costs, while costs to employers, do 
not, by and large represent true costs to the economy, but only 
represent transfer from firms that choose not to comply with OSHA 
regulations to the government. However, even ignoring these points, the 
actual penalty costs of noncompliance and the number of firms directly 
affected are likely to be minimal. An average of seven firms a year 
have been subject to penalties based on a per-employee fine. Further, 
many of these firms have not been small firms. Thus even if one 
disagrees with OSHA's view that the amendments are only a 
clarification, that compliance costs have already been accounted for, 
and that penalties need not be incurred, the costs are minimal and the 
number of firms affected cannot rise to the level of a substantial 
number of small firms that would be needed for a regulatory flexibility 
analysis to be required.
    Some commenters concerned with penalty costs also pointed out that 
affected firms would have both higher penalties and higher legal costs, 
since firms would be more likely to incur legal costs to fight higher 
penalties (Exs. 42.1 and 43.1). OSHA views this argument as irrelevant 
because there are no new costs for a rule that simply clarifies 
existing policy. Further, even if this point is ignored, the legal 
costs of fighting penalties are no more relevant than the penalties 
themselves for purposes of feasibility analysis. They are not 
compliance costs, are totally avoidable, and do not rise to the level 
of affecting a substantial number of firms.
    One commenter (Ex. 42.1) was concerned that this regulation would 
cause some employers to incur significant new recordkeeping costs. 
Since the rule imposes no new obligations and simply clarifies existing 
policy in a regulatory framework, OSHA considers this argument to be of 
dubious merit. In most cases, the underlying PPE and training standards 
require no recordkeeping. To the extent that recordkeeping for training 
or PPE is normal and customary in these industries, OSHA sees no 
difference between the records appropriate for showing that every 
employee has received adequate PPE or training, and records appropriate 
for showing that each employee has received adequate PPE or training. 
The same exact records will suffice for either, if an employer chooses 
to keep such records.
    Finally, one commenter (Ex. 43.1), expanding on the possibility of 
new costs, more generally argued that employers would incur costs 
because, in order to avoid higher penalties, they would "overprotect" 
their employees, providing unnecessary PPE or training. However, 
"overprotection" if it exists, is, by definition, not a requirement 
of any standard, and is therefore not properly considered a cost of 
compliance for the purposes of determining economic feasibility. 
Furthermore, commenters have not provided any evidence that could be 
used as a basis for estimating such costs or determining how many firms 
might "overprotect" their employees as a result of this final rule.
    Having considered the comments arguing that this regulation imposes 
new costs, or has significant economic impacts on a substantial number 
of firms, OSHA finally concludes that this set of changes to existing 
rules represents no new requirements, imposes no new costs, and raises 
no new analytic issues not already considered in the development of the 
rules being modified.

VI. Regulatory Flexibility Certification

    In accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq. (as amended), OSHA examined the regulatory requirements of the 
final rule to determine if they will have a significant economic impact 
on a substantial number of small entities. As indicated in section V. 
("Final Economic Analysis") of this preamble, the final rule is 
expected to have no effect on compliance costs and regulatory burden 
for any employer, large or small. Accordingly, the Agency certifies 
that the final rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities.

VII. Environmental Impact Assessment

    OSHA has reviewed the final rule in accordance with the 
requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 
(42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the regulations of the Council on 
Environmental Quality (40 U.S.C. part 1500), and the Department of 
Labor's NEPA procedures (29 CFR part 11). The Agency finds that the 
final rule will have no major negative impact on air, water or soil 
quality, plant or animal life, the use of land, or other aspects of the 
environment.

VIII. Federalism

    OSHA has reviewed this final rule in accordance with the Executive 
Order on Federalism (Executive Order 13132, 64 FR 43255, August 10, 
1999), which requires that agencies, to the extent possible, refrain 
from limiting state policy options, consult with states prior to taking 
any actions that would restrict state policy options, and take such 
actions only when there is clear constitutional authority and the 
presence of a problem of national scope. Executive Order 13132 provides 
for preemption of state law only if there is a clear congressional 
intent for the Agency to do so. Any such preemption is to be limited to 
the extent possible.
    Section 18 of the OSH Act (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.) expresses 
Congress' intent to preempt state laws where OSHA has promulgated 
occupational safety and health standards. Under the OSH Act, a state 
can avoid preemption on issues covered by federal standards only if it 
submits, and obtains federal approval of, a plan for the development of 
such standards and their enforcement (State Plan state). 29 U.S.C. 667. 
Occupational safety and health standards developed by such State Plan 
states must, among other things, be at least as effective in providing 
safe and healthful employment and places of employment as the federal 
standards. Subject to these requirements, State Plan states are free to 
develop and enforce under state law their own requirements for safety 
and health standards.
    This final rule complies with Executive Order 13132. As Congress 
has expressed a clear intent for Federal preemption on issues addressed 
by OSHA standards in states without OSHA-approved State Plans, this 
rule preempts state law in the same manner as any OSHA standard. States 
with OSHA-approved State Plans are free to develop policy options on 
issues addressed herein, provided their standards are at least as 
protective as this final rule.

IX. Unfunded Mandates

    For the purposes of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995, 2 
U.S.C. 1501, et seq., as well as E.O. 12875, this final rule does not 
include any Federal mandate that may result in increased
expenditures by State, local, and tribal governments, or increased 
expenditures by the private sector of more than $100 million.

X. OMB Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

    This final rule does not contain any new collection of information 
requirements that are subject to review by OMB under the Paperwork 
Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and OMB regulations at 5 
CFR part 1320.
    Several commenters suggested that the rule could increase paperwork 
burdens on employers (See, e.g., Exs. 40.1, 42.1, 80.1, 81.1). The 
Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) remarked that "This 
proposal has substantial economic impact on small business owners 
within the construction industry. Requiring a contractor to prove that 
he or she provided appropriate PPE and training for each employee would 
result in a considerable amount of recordkeeping, which would overly 
burden small employers" (Ex. 42.1). Associated Builders and 
Contractors, Inc. (ABC) recommended that OSHA "[i]nclude specific 
guidance on what evidence OSHA will require (or otherwise expect) 
employers to provide in order to document that the requisite training 
has in fact been provided" (Ex. 40.1).
    As OSHA has stated numerous times throughout this preamble, these 
standards do not make any changes to the substantive requirements of 
the standards and thus do not impose any new duties on employers, 
including the duty to keep training and PPE records. The recordkeeping 
requirements of individual PPE and training requirements located in 
many of OSHA's standards vary on this matter: Some require training 
records, some require training certifications, and some do not require 
records at all. These requirements continue unchanged and OSHA 
therefore reiterates its finding that the rulemaking imposes no new 
paperwork burdens.

XI. State Plan States

    When federal OSHA promulgates a new standard or more stringent 
amendment to an existing standard, the 26 states or U.S. territories 
with their own OSHA-approved occupational safety and health plans must 
revise their standards to reflect the new standard or amendment, or 
show OSHA why there is no need for action, e.g., because an existing 
state standard covering this area is already "at least as effective" 
as the new federal standard or amendment. 29 CFR 1953.5(a). The state 
standard must be at least as effective as the final federal rule, must 
be applicable to both the private and public (state and local 
government employees) sectors, and must be completed within six months 
of the publication date of the final federal rule. When OSHA 
promulgates a new standard or a standards amendment which does not 
impose additional or more stringent requirements than an existing 
standard, states are not required to revise their standards, although 
OSHA may encourage them to do so. The 26 states and territories with 
OSHA-approved State Plans are: Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut 
(plan covers only State and local government employees), Hawaii, 
Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New 
Mexico, New Jersey (plan covers only State and local government 
employees), New York (plan covers only State and local government 
employees), North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Virgin Islands (plan covers only 
State and local government employees), Washington, and Wyoming.
    With regard to this final rule, while it does not impose any 
additional or more stringent requirements, it adds language clarifying 
that the personal protective equipment and training requirements of 
OSHA's standards impose a compliance duty with respect to each employee 
covered by the requirements. State Plan states must ensure that their 
PPE and training standards are at least as effective as the federal 
standards as amended by this final rule. States must adopt revisions, 
if necessary, within six months of the publication of this rule.

XII. Authority and Signature

    This document was prepared under the direction of Thomas M. 
Stohler, Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety 
and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., 
Washington, DC 20210. It is issued under sections 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657), 
section 941 of the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (33 
U.S.C. 901 et seq.), section 3704 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.), Secretary of Labor's Order No. 
5-2007, and 29 CFR part 1911.

    Signed at Washington, DC, this 4th day of December, 2008.
Thomas M. Stohler,
Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

List of Subjects

29 CFR Part 1910

    Chemicals, Gases, Hazardous substances, Occupational safety and 
health, Protective equipment.

29 CFR Part 1915

    Chemicals, Gases, Hazardous substances, Longshore and harbor 
workers, Occupational safety and health, Protective equipment.

29 CFR Part 1917

    Chemicals, Gases, Hazardous substances, Longshore and harbor 
workers, Occupational safety and health, Protective equipment.

29 CFR Part 1918

    Chemicals, Gases, Hazardous substances, Longshore and harbor 
workers, Occupational safety and health, Protective equipment.

29 CFR Part 1926

    Chemicals, Construction industry, Gases, Hazardous substances, 
Occupational safety and health, Protective equipment.

The Final Standard

0
Parts 1910, 1915, 1917, 1918 and 1926 of Title 29 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations are hereby amended as follows:

PART 1910--[AMENDED]

Subpart A--[Amended]

0
1. The authority citation for subpart A of 29 CFR part 1910 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 
FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 
50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), and 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), as 
applicable.
    Sections 1910.7, 1910.8, and 1910.9 also issued under 29 CFR 
Part 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also issued under 31 U.S.C. 9701, 29 
U.S.C. 9a, 5 U.S.C. 553; Pub. L. 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-222); and 
OMB Circular A-25 (dated July 8, 1993) (58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993).


0
2. A new section 1910.9 is added, to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.9  Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring 
the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including 
respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees 
impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered 
by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee 
required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.
    (b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards 
and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive 
training or that the employer train employees, provide training to 
employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the 
manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.

Subpart G--[Amended]

0
3. The authority citation for subpart G of 29 CFR part 1910 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's 
Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 
5-2002 (67 FR 50017), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31159) as applicable; and 29 
CFR part 1911.


0
4. In section 1910.95, paragraph (k)(1) is revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.95  Occupational noise exposure.

* * * * *
    (k) * * *
    (1) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to noise 
at or above an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 decibels in 
accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall 
institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the 
program.
* * * * *

Subpart I--[Amended]

0
5. The authority citation for subpart I of 29 CFR part 1910 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 
FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 
50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), as 
applicable, and 29 CFR Part 1911.


0
6. In section 1910.134, paragraph (a)(2) is revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.134  Respiratory protection.

* * * * *
    (a) * * *
    (2) A respirator shall be provided to each employee when such 
equipment is necessary to protect the health of such employee. The 
employer shall provide the respirators which are applicable and 
suitable for the purpose intended. The employer shall be responsible 
for the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory protection 
program, which shall include the requirements outlined in paragraph (c) 
of this section. The program shall cover each employee required by this 
section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

Subpart L--[Amended]

0
7. The authority citation for subpart L of 29 CFR part 1910 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 
FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 
50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), as 
applicable, and 29 CFR Part 1911.


0
8. In section 1910.156, paragraph (f)(1)(i) is revised to read as 
follows:


Sec.  1910.156  Fire brigades.

* * * * *
    (f)* * *
    (1)* * *
    (i) The employer must ensure that respirators are provided to, and 
used by, each fire brigade member, and that the respirators meet the 
requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134 for each employee required by this 
section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

Subpart Z--[Amended]

0
9. The authority citation for subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of 
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 
FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 
50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), as 
applicable.
    All of subpart Z issued under section 6(b) of the Occupational 
Safety and Health Act, except those substances that have exposure 
limits listed in Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 of 29 CFR 1910.1000. The 
latter were issued under section 6(a) (29 U.S.C. 655(a)).
    Section 1910.1000, Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 also issued under 5 
U.S.C. 553, Section 1910.1000 Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 but not under 
29 CFR part 1911 except for the arsenic (organic compounds), 
benzene, cotton dust, and chromium (VI) listings.
    Section 1910.1001 also issued under section 107 of the Contract 
Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3704) and 5 U.S.C. 
553.
    Section 1910.1002 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553 but not under 
29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911.
    Sections 1910.1018, 1910.1029 and 1910.1200 also issued under 29 
U.S.C. 653.
    Section 1910.1030 also issued under Pub. L. 106-430, 114 Stat. 
1901.


0
10. In section 1910.1001, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text, 
(g)(2)(i), and (j)(7)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1001  Asbestos.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with 29 CFR 134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (j) * * *
    (7) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to 
airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the PEL and/or 
excursion limit in accordance with the requirements of this section. 
The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee 
participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
11. In section 1910.1003, paragraphs (c)(4)(iv) and (d)(1) are revised 
to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1003   13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.).

* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (4) * * *
    (iv) Each employee engaged in handling operations involving the 
carcinogens addressed by this section must be provided with, and 
required to wear and use, a half-face filter type respirator for dusts, 
mists, and fumes. A respirator affording higher levels of protection than 
this respirator may be substituted.
* * * * *
    (d) * * *
    (1) Respiratory program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134 (b), (c), (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii) and (iv), and (d)(3)), and (e) through (m), which 
covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
12. In section 1910.1017, paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) are revised to 
read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1017  Vinyl chloride.

* * * * *
    (g) Respiratory protection. (1) General. For employees who use 
respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each 
employee an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements 
of this paragraph.
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance Sec.  1910.134 (b) through (d) (except 
(d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (f) through (m) which 
covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
13. In section 1910.1018, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, and 
(h)(2)(i), and (o)(1)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1018  Inorganic arsenic.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (o) * * *
    (l) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to 
exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to 
respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye 
irritation from inorganic arsenic, in accordance with the requirements 
of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and 
ensure employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
14. In section 1910.1025, paragraphs (f)(1) introductory text, 
(f)(2)(i), and (l)(1)(ii) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1025  Lead.

* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (l) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (ii) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to 
exposure to lead at or above the action level, or for whom the 
possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, in accordance with the 
requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training 
program and ensure employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
15. In section 1910.1026, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text and 
(g)(2) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1026  Chromium (VI).

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. Where respiratory protection is required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respiratory protection is required during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is 
required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134, which covers each 
employee required to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
16. In section 1910.1027, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text, 
(g)(2)(i), and (m)(4)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1027  Cadmium.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (m) * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially 
exposed to cadmium in accordance with the requirements of this section. 
The employer shall institute a training program, ensure employee 
participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of 
such program.
* * * * *

0
17. In section 1910.1028, paragraph (g)(1) introductory text and 
(g)(2)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1028  Benzene.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii), 
(d)(3)(iii)(b)(1) and (2)), and (f) through (m), which covers each 
employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
18. In section 1910.1029, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text, (g)(2) 
and (k)(1)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1029  Coke oven emissions.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except 
(d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required 
by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (k) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is employed in a 
regulated area in accordance with the requirements of this section. The 
employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee 
participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
19. In section 1910.1030, paragraph (g)(2)(i) is revised to read as 
follows:


Sec.  1910.1030  Bloodborne pathogens.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee with occupational 
exposure in accordance with the requirements of this section. Such 
training must be provided at no cost to the employee and during working 
hours. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure 
employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
20. In section 1910.1043, paragraphs (f)(1) introductory text, 
(f)(2)(i), and (i)(1)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1043  Cotton dust.

* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who are required to use respirators by 
this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (i) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee exposed to cotton dust 
in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall 
institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the 
program.
* * * * *

0
21. In section 1910.1044, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, (h)(2), 
and (n)(1)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1044  1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who are required to use respirators by 
this section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respirator Program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee 
required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (n) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who may be exposed to 
DBCP in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer 
shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in 
the program.
* * * * *

0
22. In section 1910.1045, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, 
(h)(2)(i), and (o)(1)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1045  Acrylonitrile.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii), 
(d)(3)(iii)(b)(1), and (2)), and (f) through (m), which covers each 
employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (o) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee exposed to AN above the 
action level, each employee whose exposures are maintained below the 
action level by engineering and work practice controls, and each 
employee subject to potential skin or eye contact with liquid AN in 
accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall 
institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the 
program.
* * * * *

0
23. In section 1910.1047, paragraph (g)(1) introductory text and (g)(2) 
are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1047  Ethylene oxide.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) 
(except (d)(i)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee 
required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
24. In section 1910.1048, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text and 
(g)(2)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1048  Formaldehyde.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii), 
(d)(3)(iii)(b)(1), and (2)), and (f) through (m), which covers each 
employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
25. In section 1910.1050, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text and 
(h)(2) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1050  Methylenedianiline.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134 (b) through (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each

[[Page 75587]]

employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
26. In section 1910.1051, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, 
(h)(2)(i), and (l)(2)(ii) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1051  Butadiene.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii), 
(d)(3)(iii)(B)(1), and (2)), and (f) through (m), which covers each 
employee required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (l) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (ii) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially 
exposed to BD at or above the action level or the STEL in accordance 
with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a 
training program, ensure employee participation in the program, and 
maintain a record of the contents of such program.
* * * * *

0
27. In section 1910.1052, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text and 
(g)(2)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1910.1052  Methylene chloride.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.13(b) through (m) (except (d)(1)(iii)), 
which covers each employee required by this section to use a 
respirator.
* * * * *

PART 1915--[AMENDED]

0
28. The authority citation for part 1915 is revised to read as follows:

    Authority: Section 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' 
Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 941); Sections. 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as 
applicable; 29 CFR Part 1911.

Subpart A--[Amended]

0
29. A new section 1915.9 is added, to read as follows:


Sec.  1915.9  Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring 
the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including 
respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees 
impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered 
by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee 
required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.
    (b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards 
and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive 
training or that the employer train employees, provide training to 
employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the 
manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.

Subpart Z--[Amended]

0
30. In section 1915.1001, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, 
(h)(3)(i), and (k)(9)(i), are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1915.1001  Asbestos.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used in the following circumstances:
* * * * *
    (3) * * *
    (i) Where respirator use is required by this section, the employer 
shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with 
Sec.  1910.134(b), (d), (e), and (f), which covers each employee 
required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (k) * * *
    (9) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is likely to be 
exposed in excess of a PEL and each employee who performs Class I 
through IV asbestos operations in accordance with the requirements of 
this section. Training shall be provided at no cost to the employee. 
The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee 
participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
31. In section 1915.1026, paragraphs (f)(1) introductory text and 
(f)(2) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1915.1026  Chromium (IV).

* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) General. Where respiratory protection is required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respiratory protection is required during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respiratory Protection Program. Where respirator use is 
required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134, which covers each 
employee required to use a respirator.
* * * * *

PART 1917--[AMENDED]

0
32. The authority citation for part 1917 is revised to read as follows:

    Authority: Section 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' 
Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 941); Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as 
applicable; 29 CFR Part 1911.

Subpart A--[Amended]

0
33. A new section 1917.5 is added, to read as follows:


Sec.  1917.5  Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring 
the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including 
respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees 
impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered 
by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee 
required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an
employee may be considered a separate violation.
    (b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards 
and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive 
training or that the employer train employees, provide training to 
employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the 
manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.

PART 1918--[AMENDED]

0
34. The authority citation for part 1918 is revised to read as follows:

    Authority: Section 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' 
Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 941); Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as 
applicable; 29 CFR Part 1911.

Subpart A--[Amended]

0
35. A new section 1918.5 is added, to read as follows:


Sec.  1918.5  Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring 
the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including 
respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees 
impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered 
by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee 
required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.
    (b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards 
and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive 
training or that the employer train employees, provide training to 
employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the 
manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.

PART 1926--[AMENDED]

Subpart C--[Amended]

0
36. The authority citation for subpart C of 29 CFR part 1926 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sec. 3704, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards 
Act (40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's 
Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), 6-96 (62 FR 111), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as applicable; and 
29 CFR part 1911.


0
37. In section 1926.20, a new paragraph (f) is added to read as 
follows:


Sec.  1926.20  General safety and health provisions.

* * * * *
    (f) Compliance duties owed to each employee. (1) Personal 
protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring the employer to 
provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and 
other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate 
compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to 
use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may be 
considered a separate violation.
    (2) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards 
and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive 
training or that the employer train employees, provide training to 
employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a 
separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the 
requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the 
manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee 
may be considered a separate violation.

Subpart D--[Amended]

0
38. The authority citation for subpart D of 29 CFR part 1926 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Section 3704 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.); Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 
657); Secretary of Labor's Orders 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (62 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008); or 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as 
applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

    Sections 1926.58, 1926.59, 1926.60, and 1926.65 also issued 
under 5 U.S.C. 553 and 29 CFR part 1911.
    Section 1926.62 of 29 CFR also issued under section 1031 of the 
Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4853).
    Section 1926.65 of 29 CFR also issued under section 126 of the 
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, as amended (29 
U.S.C. 655 note), and 5 U.S.C. 553.

0
39. In section 1926.60, paragraph (i)(1) introductory text, and (i)(2) 
are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.60  Methylenedianiline.

* * * * *
    (i) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134 (b) through (d) 
(except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee 
required by this section to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
40. In section 1926.62, paragraphs (f)(1) introductory text, (f)(2)(i), 
and (l)(1)(ii) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.62  Lead.

* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and 
(f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to 
use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (l) * * *
    (ii) The employer shall train each employee who is subject to 
exposure to lead at or above the action level on any day, or who is 
subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye 
irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), in accordance with the 
requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training 
program and ensure employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

Subpart R--[Amended]

0
41. The authority citation for subpart R of 29 CFR part 1926 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Sec. 3704, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards 
Act (Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); Sec. 4, 6, and 8, 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), No. 5-
2002 (67 FR 65008), or No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31160) as applicable; and 
29 CFR part 1911.


0
42. In section 1926.761, paragraph (b) is revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.761  Training.

* * * * *
    (b) Fall hazard training. The employer shall train each employee 
exposed to a fall hazard in accordance with the requirements of this 
section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure 
employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

Subpart Z--[Amended]

0
43. The authority citation for subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1926 is revised 
to read as follows:

    Authority: Section 3704 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety 
Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.); Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657); Secretary of Labor's Orders 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-
2000 (62 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), or 5-2007 (71 FR 31160), 
as applicable; and 29 CFR part 11.

    Section 1926.1102 of 29 CFR not issued under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 
CFR part 1911; also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553.


0
44. In section 1926.1101, paragraphs (h)(1) introductory text, (h)(2), 
and (k)(9)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.1101  Asbestos.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), 
and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this 
section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (k) * * *
    (9) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is likely to be 
exposed in excess of a PEL, and each employee who performs Class I 
through IV asbestos operations, in accordance with the requirements of 
this section. Such training shall be conducted at no cost to the 
employee. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure 
employee participation in the program.
* * * * *

0
45. In section 1926.1126, paragraphs (f)(1) introductory text and 
(f)(2) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.1126  Chromium (IV).

* * * * *
    (f) * * *
    (1) General. Where respiratory protection is required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respiratory protection is required during:
* * * * *
    (2) Respiratory protection program. Where respirator use is 
required by this section, the employer shall institute a respiratory 
protection program in accordance with Sec.  1910.134, which covers each 
employee required to use a respirator.
* * * * *

0
46. In section 1926.1127, paragraphs (g)(1) introductory text, 
(g)(2)(i), and (m)(4)(i) are revised to read as follows:


Sec.  1926.1127  Cadmium.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this 
section, the employer must provide each employee an appropriate 
respirator that complies with the requirements of this paragraph. 
Respirators must be used during:
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in 
accordance with Sec.  1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), 
and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this 
section to use a respirator.
* * * * *
    (m) * * *
* * * * *
    (4) * * *
    (i) The employer shall train each employee who is potentially 
exposed to cadmium in accordance with the requirements of this section. 
The employer shall institute a training program, ensure employee 
participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of 
the training program.
* * * * *
[FR Doc. E8-29122 Filed 12-9-08; 4:15 pm]

BILLING CODE 4510-26-P

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