Federal Registers - Table of Contents Federal Registers - Table of Contents
• Publication Date: 09/11/2007
• Publication Type: Proposed Rules
• Fed Register #: 72:51735-51743
• Standard Number: 1910
• Title: Emergency Response and Preparedness

[Federal Register: September 11, 2007 (Volume 72, Number 175)]
[Proposed Rules]               
[Page 51735-51743]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr11se07-18]                         

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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Part 1910

[Docket No. H-010]
RIN 1218-AC17

 
Emergency Response and Preparedness

AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 
Department of Labor.

ACTION: Request for information.

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SUMMARY: Elements of emergency responder health and safety are 
currently regulated by OSHA primarily under the following standards: 
The Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard; the 
personal protective equipment general requirements standard; the 
respiratory protection standard; the permit-required confined space 
standard; the fire brigade standard; and the bloodborne pathogens 
standard. Some of these standards were promulgated decades ago, and 
none was designed as a comprehensive emergency response standard. 
Consequently, they do not address the full range of hazards or concerns 
currently facing emergency responders, nor do they reflect major 
changes in performance specifications for protective clothing and 
equipment. Current OSHA standards also do not reflect all the major 
improvements in safety and health practices that have already been 
accepted by the emergency response community and incorporated into 
industry consensus standards.
    OSHA is requesting information and comment from the public to 
evaluate what action, if any, the Agency should take to further address 
emergency response and preparedness. The Agency will be considering 
emergency response and preparedness at common emergencies (e.g., fires 
or emergency medical and other rescue situations), as well as large 
scale emergencies (e.g., natural and intentional disasters). OSHA's 
areas of interest are primarily: personal protective equipment; 
training and qualifications; medical evaluation and health monitoring; 
and safety management. The agency will also be evaluating the types of 
personnel who would constitute either emergency responders or skilled 
support employees at such events, as well as the range of activities 
that might constitute emergency response and preparedness.

DATES: Comments must be submitted by the following dates:
    Hard copy: Your comments must be submitted (postmarked or sent) by 
December 10, 2007.
    Facsimile and electronic transmission: Your comments must be sent 
by December 10, 2007.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, requests for hearings and 
additional materials by any of the following methods:
    Electronically: You may submit comments, requests for hearings, and 
attachments electronically at http://www.regulations.gov, which is the 
Federal eRulemaking Portal. Follow the instructions on-line for making 
electronic submissions.
    Fax: If your submissions, including attachments, are not longer 
than 10 pages, you may fax them to the OSHA Docket Office at (202) 693-
1648.
    Mail, hand delivery, express mail, messenger or courier service: 
You must submit three copies of your comments, requests for hearings 
and attachments to the OSHA Docket Office, Docket No. S-023B, U.S. 
Department of Labor, Room N-2625, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., 
Washington, DC 20210. Deliveries (hand, express mail, messenger and 
courier service) are accepted during the Department of Labor's and 
Docket Office's normal business hours, 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., e.t.
    Instructions: All submissions must include the Agency name and the 
OSHA docket number for this rulemaking (OSHA Docket No. S-023B). 
Submissions, including any personal information you provide, are placed 
in the public docket without change and may be made available online at 
http://www.regulations.gov.
    Docket: To read or download submissions or other material in the 
docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov or the OSHA Docket Office at 
the address above. All documents in the docket are listed in the 
http://www.regulations.gov index, however, 
some information (e.g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available 
to read or download through the Web site. All submissions, including 
copyrighted material, are available for inspection and copying at the 
OSHA Docket Office.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Press Inquiries: Kevin Ropp, Director, 
OSHA Office of Communications, Room N-3647, U.S. Department of Labor, 
200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 
693-1999.
    General and Technical Information: Carol Jones, Acting Director, 
Office of Biological Hazards, OSHA Directorate of Standards and 
Guidance, Room N-3718, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution 
Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 693-2299.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

Table of Contents

I. Background
II. Request for Data, Information and Comments
    A. The Scope of Emergency Response
    B. Personal Protective Equipment
    C. Training and Qualifications
    D. Medical Evaluation and Health Monitoring
    E. Safety
    F. Additional Information
III. Public Participation
IV. Authority and Signature

I. Background

    There were more than 21 million emergency response incidents in 
2002 (see Table 1). Emergency responders include: Firefighters, 
emergency medical service personnel, hazardous material employees, and 
technical rescue specialists. Law enforcement officers are also usually 
considered emergency responders and are often called to assist in 
emergency response incidents. OSHA notes, however, that it has not 
promulgated standards specifically addressing occupational hazards that 
are inherently and uniquely related to law enforcement activities. Many 
emergency responders are cross-trained and may serve in multiple roles 
depending upon the nature of the emergency incident. The hazards that 
emergency responders face will also vary depending upon the type of 
incident. In addition to emergency responders, skilled support 
employees can also play an important role in emergency response. 
Skilled support employees are not emergency responders, but nonetheless 
have specialized training that can be important to the safe and 
successful resolution of an emergency incident, such as operating heavy 
equipment or shutting down electrical power or natural gas.
    Emergency response, which includes firefighting, is one of the most 
hazardous occupations in America. The United States Fire Administration 
has recently reported that 111 firefighters died in 2003, and that, on 
average, 100 firefighters have died each year for the last ten years 
(excluding the fatalities attributable to the terrorist attacks of 
September 11, 2001) (Ex. 1-2). Furthermore, the National Fire 
Protection Association (NFPA) reported that during the 10-year period 
of 1993-2002, approximately 594,000 firefighters were injured in the 
line of duty at emergency response incidents. The average annual rate 
of firefighter injuries is more than 59,000 per year for this period 
(Ex. 1-2).

 Table 1.--Distribution of 2002 U.S. Emergency Incidents as Reported by
                the National Fire Protection Association
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Emergency response                         Number
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fires...................................................       1,687,500
Medical Aid.............................................      12,903,000
False Alarms............................................       2,116,000
Mutual Aid/Assistance...................................         888,500
Hazmat..................................................         361,000
Other Hazardous (Arcing wires, bomb removal, etc.)......         603,500
All Other (Smoke scares, lock-outs, etc.)...............       2,744,000
                                                         ---------------
    Total...............................................     21,303,500
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 (Source: Ex. 1-3)

    While the preceding statistics concern firefighters, this Request 
for Information is intended to gather information about all emergency 
responders and skilled support employees. However, injury and illness 
rates for other facets of emergency response are difficult to determine 
due to the multiple roles of some responders (e.g., many firefighters 
are also EMTs) and a lack of specific data (e.g., injury and illness 
rates of skilled support employees, such as heavy equipment operators, 
arising directly from emergency response activities). OSHA is 
interested in receiving information about the number and types of 
responder fatalities, injuries, and illnesses incurred during emergency 
incidents.
    A recent report by the U.S. Fire Administration, A Needs Assessment 
of the U.S. Fire Service, examined the condition of the fire service 
and its ability to respond to incidents, both large and small (Ex. 1-
4). The report found that fire departments of all sizes have unmet 
needs relating to both their traditional firefighting responsibilities 
and their new homeland security-related responsibilities. In addition, 
another report by the U.S. Fire Administration and the National Fallen 
Firefighters Foundation, Firefighter Life Safety Summit Initial Report, 
found that there are many significant health and safety concerns among 
the fire service (Ex. 1-5). The report recognized the need for national 
standards on training, qualifications, medical and physical fitness, as 
well as for emergency response policies and procedures. A series of 
three joint reports by the National Institute for Occupational Safety 
and Health (NIOSH) and the RAND Corporation (RAND) have also recognized 
a need for further standards in order to improve the operational 
response to terrorist attacks and better protect the health and safety 
of emergency responders (Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons 
Learned from Terrorist Attacks; Protecting Emergency Responders (Ex. 1-
6); Volume 2: Community Views of Safety and Health Risks and Personal 
Protection Needs; and Protecting Emergency Responders (Ex. 1-7); Volume 
3: Safety Management in Disaster and Terrorism Response (Ex. 1-8)).
    Furthermore, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101) and 
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 (HSPD8), 
which were established to strengthen the preparedness of the United 
States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic 
terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies, have changed 
the Federal approach to emergency response and preparedness 
capabilities at Federal, State, and local entities (Ex. 1-9). In March 
of 2004, the Department of Homeland Security published the National 
Incident Management System (NIMS) (Ex. 1-10). This system provides a 
consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, local and tribal 
governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare 
for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, 
regardless of cause, size, or complexity. Homeland Security 
Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD5) requires all Federal 
agencies to implement NIMS, and also requires Federal agencies to make 
the NIMS a required element for receiving State and local preparedness 
grant funding (Ex. 1-11). Additionally, in January 2005, the Department 
of Homeland Security released the National Response Plan (NRP), which 
establishes a comprehensive all-hazards approach to enhance the ability 
of the United States to manage domestic incidents (Ex. 1-12). The NRP 
incorporates best practices and procedures from incident management 
disciplines--homeland security, emergency management, law enforcement, 
firefighting, public works, public health, responder and recovery worker 
health and safety, emergency medical services, and the private sector--and 
integrates them into a unified structure. The NRP forms the basis of 
how Federal departments and agencies will work together and how the 
Federal government will coordinate with State, local, and tribal governments 
and the private sector during incidents. In addition, the NRP 
establishes protocols that are applicable to emergency responders and 
skilled support employees in order to help protect the nation from 
terrorist attacks and other natural and manmade hazards; save lives; 
protect public health, safety, property, and the environment; and 
reduce adverse psychological consequences and disruptions to the 
American way of life.
    OSHA addresses the elements of emergency responder health and 
safety primarily by the following OSHA standards: The hazardous waste 
operations and emergency response standard (29 CFR 1910.120); the 
personal protective equipment general requirements standard (29 CFR 
1910.132); the respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134); the 
permit-required confined space standard (29 CFR 1910.146); the fire 
brigade standard (29 CFR 1910.156); and the bloodborne pathogens 
standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). These standards were designed to address 
the health and safety needs of employees over a broad cross-section of 
industries and workplaces. None of these standards was designed as a 
comprehensive emergency response standard, and as a result, specific 
hazards are addressed in a piecemeal manner, and important concepts in 
emergency management are not addressed at all.
    In addition, the OSHA standards do not address the full range of 
hazards or concerns currently facing emergency responders. Some of 
these standards rely on outdated performance specifications for 
protective equipment. For example, the current standard on 
firefighters' protective clothing is based on the 1975 edition of the 
NFPA 1971 standard. Current OSHA standards do not reflect many of the 
major developments in safety and health practices that have already 
been accepted by the emergency response community and incorporated into 
the consensus standards promulgated by the NFPA and other standards 
development organizations. For example, the use of an incident 
management system is currently required only by the Hazardous Waste 
Operations and Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR 1910.120). While the 
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard does cover 
hazardous materials incidents, it does not cover most types of 
emergency incidents (e.g., fires, technical rescue, structural collapse 
or natural disasters).
    In addition, coverage issues impact the Agency's activities in 
these areas. Many emergency responders are state and local government 
employees who are covered by requirements in State or local laws, 
either under the authority of an OSHA-approved state plan or through 
voluntarily established State protection programs rather than under 
Federal rules. In the case of the Hazardous Waste Operations and 
Emergency Response Standard, State and local employees in States 
without an OSHA-approved plan are also covered under an Environmental 
Protection Agency standard (40 CFR 311) that incorporates the OSHA 
requirements by reference.
    State and local government employees are excluded from OSHA 
coverage under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the 
``OSH Act''). However, pursuant to Section 18 of the OSH Act, there are 
26 States and territories operating their own workplace safety and 
health programs under plans approved by OSHA (``State plans''), which 
are required to extend their coverage to public sector (State and local 
government) employees and employers in those jurisdictions, including 
many emergency responders.
    The 21 States and one territory covering both private sector and 
State and local government employment have primary responsibility for 
the OSHA program in their jurisdictions. All State plans, including the 
4 covering only State and local government, are responsible for 
adopting and enforcing standards which are ``at least as effective as'' 
Federal OSHA standards, and for providing compliance assistance to 
employers and employees under their jurisdiction. Some State plans have 
adopted different or supplemental standards or guidance regarding 
emergency response and preparedness that exceed the existing Federal 
OSHA standards. Some States have established public employer employee 
protection programs without OSHA State Plan approval and funding. Many 
other public sector employers still rely on the OSHA standards as an 
important guide in safety and health matters, even though they are not 
legally required to do so.
    OSHA has significant experience and expertise on matters related to 
emergency responder health and safety. OSHA personnel, as well as 
personnel from the OSHA-approved State plans, routinely respond to 
emergencies to provide technical assistance and assure employee safety. 
Following the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center on September 
11, 2001, OSHA helped establish a strong and effective public-private 
partnership to help ensure protection for the employees at the site. At 
the national level, the Department of Labor, OSHA, has been designated 
the coordinating agency for employee safety and health under the 
National Response Plan (NRP). Additionally, many of the OSHA-approved 
State plans are working to establish a parallel role within their State 
emergency response structure and have implemented or assisted in the 
development of emergency preparedness and homeland security related 
initiatives and guidance materials at the State level.
    The Agency has developed a wide range of technical assistance and 
guidance documents about the issue of emergency response as well as 
emergency responder health and safety 
(http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/emergencypreparedness/index.html). 
The OSHA Training Institute offers a variety of courses on topics essential to the safety and health of both 
uniformed emergency responders and skilled support employees 
(http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/ote/index.html). In addition, OSHA, in collaboration 
with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 
has developed a pre-event hazards awareness course for Disaster Site 
Workers who may respond as skilled support employees to natural or man-
made emergencies (e.g., heavy equipment operators, construction 
workers, and electrical power or natural gas utility employees). This 
course is taught by OSHA Training Institute Education Centers and OSHA-
authorized trainers.
    On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of 
the southeastern United States; the City of New Orleans was 
particularly affected. The emergency response to Hurricane Katrina 
underscored the importance of planning and preparedness, as well as the 
multidisciplinary nature of emergency response. OSHA expects that the 
lessons learned from this incident will be represented in the responses 
to this Request for Information alongside the lessons learned from both 
more common events as well as other events of national significance.
    OSHA is requesting information and comment from the public to 
evaluate what action, if any, the Agency should take to further address 
emergency response and preparedness.

II. Request for Data, Information and Comments

    The following questions have been provided to facilitate the 
collection of the needed information and to make it easier for the 
public to comment on relevant issues. The questions are grouped into 
five broad categories: The scope of emergency response; personal 
protective equipment; training and qualifications; medical evaluation 
and health monitoring; and safety. However, commenters are encouraged 
to address any aspect of emergency response and preparedness that they 
feel would assist the Agency in considering appropriate action on the 
matter. The Agency is particularly interested in ways to incorporate 
flexibility into its standards to make them more suited to the demands 
of emergency response activities. A detailed response to questions, as 
well as your rationale or reasoning for the position, rather than 
simply replying ``yes'' or ``no,'' is requested. Also, relevant data 
that may be useful to OSHA's deliberations, or in conducting an 
analysis of impacts of future Agency actions, should be submitted. In 
order to assess the costs, benefits or feasibility of any possible 
regulatory intervention, the Agency needs specific quantitative 
information on various safety measures being discussed. Therefore, for 
those instances where you recommend a specific intervention, any data 
in terms of costs and benefits that helps form the recommendation would 
be valuable. The usefulness of your response will be increased if they 
are tied to the categories and sections. Please label your responses 
with the lettered category and question number.

A. The Scope of Emergency Response

    The terms ``emergency response'' and ``emergency responder'' have 
been defined and used differently in various government laws and 
regulations as well as industry consensus standards and reports. 
Additionally, emergency response work is unlike many other types of 
employment, in that the actual work site and hazards will vary based 
upon the location and nature of the incident. As the Agency considers 
the issue of emergency response, it is important to define the scope 
and nature of work activities that might be called emergency response 
and preparedness, as well as the types of employees and work activities 
that might be associated with emergency response and preparedness.
    1. Emergency response and preparedness activities occur at both 
common incidents (e.g., fires, car accidents, or structural collapses) 
and rare or unexpected incidents (e.g., natural disasters, terrorist 
attacks, or special events that require enhanced preparedness). If the 
Agency takes action on emergency response and preparedness, should it 
consider either all types of emergency incidents (e.g., both common and 
rare events) or should certain types of incidents be excluded? If you 
believe a limited range is appropriate, what types of incidents or 
activities should be included or excluded?
    2. Emergency response and preparedness activities have historically 
included a range of events from pre-planning for an emergency, to the 
actual emergency response, and, ultimately, to remediation/recovery. 
Should OSHA consider the full continuum of activities to be considered 
``emergency response and preparedness''? If not, what is an appropriate 
range of activities for the Agency to consider, and why?
    3. What are the factors that should indicate when the emergency 
response to an event has fully transitioned into remediation/recovery?
    4. What types of work tasks (e.g., interior structural 
firefighting, exterior firefighting, pre-hospital emergency medical 
work, technical rescue, heavy equipment operation) should be considered 
emergency response or skilled support work? What are the hazards 
associated with each type of work task? Are there any specific work 
tasks that should be excluded from consideration (e.g., work that is 
inherently and exclusively performed by law enforcement officers)?
    5. Are there any new data that describe the nature, magnitude, or 
impact of emergency response and preparedness operations (e.g., type 
and number of incidents, type and quantity of employees considered 
emergency responders, financial costs, or occupational injuries, 
illnesses, and fatalities) that OSHA should consider when evaluating 
the issue of emergency response and preparedness? In particular, are 
there relevant data on skilled support employees at emergency incidents 
or during preparedness activities?
    6. Many emergency responders are State, county or municipal 
employees in States with OSHA-approved safety and health plans who are 
subject to the requirements of the State Plan-equivalent of the current 
OSHA standards in the same manner as private sector employees. As OSHA 
considers the necessity for further action on the safety and health of 
emergency responders, are there issues or concerns that are specific to 
such employers or employees that the Agency should consider? If your 
State has promulgated standards or issued guidance on emergency 
response and preparedness that differs from the existing OSHA standards 
and guidance, please describe the action taken as well as the impact 
and effect on the user community. Are there any concerns specific to 
the State agencies administering OSHA approved safety and health plans 
regarding OSHA's consideration of action in this area?
    7. In States that do not have OSHA-approved workplace safety and 
health plans, to what extent are OSHA standards used as guidance for 
emergency responders who are public sector employees or as guidance for 
voluntary State public sector protection programs (e.g., personal 
protective clothing and equipment, training, and safety procedures)?

B. Personal Protective Equipment

    Since a great deal of emergency response work occurs in an 
uncontrolled and dynamic work environment, personal protective 
equipment is a particularly important aspect of assuring the responding 
employees' health and safety. This section addresses a variety of types 
of personal protective equipment that emergency responders might use, 
depending on the nature of the hazards they face. The Agency is 
particularly interested in determining appropriate national consensus 
standards on the design and construction of such equipment as it 
considers the issue of emergency response and preparedness.
    8. The current OSHA standard for firefighters' protective clothing 
is based upon the 1975 edition of ``NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective 
Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting.'' The NFPA standard specifies 
the minimum design, performance, and certification requirements, and 
test methods for structural firefighting protective ensembles that 
include protective coats, protective trousers, protective coveralls, 
helmets, gloves, footwear, and interface components. The OSHA standard 
still allows treated fabrics as an acceptable outer shell material in 
firefighters' protective clothing, rather than fabrics that are 
inherently flame resistant. More recent editions of NFPA 1971, recently 
renamed the Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire 
Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, require the use of fabrics that 
are inherently flame resistant. Inherently flame resistant fabrics are 
made from fibers where the flame resistance is an intrinsic property of 
the material, whereas treated materials are only made flame resistant by the 
application of a secondary chemical that can wear off or wash off over 
time (Ex. 1-13). Is the 1975 edition of NFPA 1971 still an appropriate 
standard for firefighters' protective clothing? Is the current edition 
of the NFPA standard, including the requirement for inherently flame 
resistant material, appropriate to consider? Should OSHA consider other 
standards, such as those issued by the International Standards 
Organization (ISO)?
    9. With the exception of the shipyard fire protection standard (29 
CFR 1915.505), OSHA standards do not require the use of a personal 
alert safety system (PASS) device by firefighters in order to help 
locate missing, trapped, or incapacitated firefighters. Is such a 
device necessary and appropriate for firefighters' safety in non-
shipyard situations? If so, under what circumstances is it to be used? 
Is the current edition of ``NFPA 1982, Standard on Personal Alert 
Safety Systems (PASS)'' an appropriate standard to consider (Ex. 1-14)? 
This standard specifies the NFPA minimum design, performance, and 
certification requirements and test methods for all PASS to be used by 
firefighters and other emergency services personnel who engage in 
rescue, firefighting, and other hazardous duties. Are there additional 
features of a personnel accountability system, other than these safety 
devices, that should be an element of an emergency response system? Are 
there emergency response situations, other than firefighting, that 
should necessitate the use of a PASS device? Are emergency responders 
at your workplace provided with PASS devices? What are the costs of 
PASS devices or an alternate system? What is the expected service life 
of such a device in your work environment? Are there any data on their 
effectiveness?
    10. It has been OSHA policy to enforce the use of ``NFPA 1976, 
Standard on Protective Ensemble for Proximity Fire Fighting'' compliant 
protective clothing and equipment for proximity firefighting (e.g., jet 
fuel fires) (Standard Interpretations 04/03/1997--Appropriate 
protective clothing for aircraft firefighting) The NFPA 1976 standard 
has recently been subsumed in the NFPA 1971 standard on firefighter's 
protective clothing (Ex. 1-13). This standard contains the NFPA minimum 
design, performance, and certification requirements and the test 
methods for proximity protective ensembles, including protective coats, 
protective trousers, protective coveralls, helmets, gloves, footwear, 
and interface components. Does the NFPA 1971 standard adequately 
protect employees performing such proximity firefighting tasks? If not, 
what other standards should OSHA consider?
    11. Under the respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), 
OSHA requires that all self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) be 
certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
(NIOSH) (42 CFR part 84). Because NIOSH does not test SCBA for exposure 
to heat and flame, is this certification adequate? Would it be 
appropriate for all SCBAs used for firefighting or emergency response 
to be certified by NIOSH and also certified as compliant with the 
current edition of ``NFPA 1981, Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained 
Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Emergency Services'' (Ex. 1-15)? NFPA 1981 
specifies the minimum requirements for the design, performance, 
testing, and certification of open-circuit SCBA and combination open-
circuit self-contained breathing apparatus and supplied air respirators 
(SCBA/SAR) for fire and emergency services personnel and includes tests 
for heat and flame resistance. NIOSH requires this in its new Chemical, 
Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) certification (42 CFR part 
84). Are the SCBA currently used in your workplace compliant with the 
NFPA 1981 standard?
    12. Emergency response to weapons of mass destruction such as 
chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) agents has 
increasingly become viewed as a component of a local emergency 
response. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has adopted 
NIOSH and NFPA standards for CBRN personal protective equipment (PPE). 
For example, DHS requires CBRN chemical protective clothing to meet 
``NFPA 1994, Standard on Protective Ensembles for CBRN Terrorism 
Incidents'' (Ex. 1-16). This standard specifies the NFPA minimum 
requirements for the design, performance, testing, documentation, and 
certification of protective ensembles designed to protect fire and 
emergency services personnel from chemical/biological terrorism agents. 
These standards provide more detailed and stringent performance testing 
requirements for PPE than the OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations and 
Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR 1910.120), which requires only 
minimal testing for chemical resistance and garment integrity. Under 
what circumstances is protective clothing tested to meet the NIOSH and 
NFPA standards necessary (e.g., all emergency responses, or emergency 
response to a known or suspected CBRN agent, or only during remediation 
or recovery)? Similarly, the Department of Homeland Security has 
adopted ``NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for 
Hazardous Materials Emergencies'' for use against toxic industrial 
chemical (TICs) and toxic industrial materials (TIMs) (Ex. 1-17). Are 
there emergency response situations that would necessitate the use of 
chemical protective clothing that was certified to NFPA chemical 
protective clothing standards, which involves more thorough testing 
than chemical protective clothing currently specified under the 
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard? Are there 
any other standards on chemical protective clothing that OSHA should 
consider?
    13. Emergency medical service providers may be exposed to hazards 
not common to other employees that have exposure to blood or body 
fluids (e.g., jagged metal or broken glass from motor vehicle 
accidents). Currently, OSHA's bloodborne pathogens standard (29 CFR 
1910.1030) and respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134) 
require personal protective equipment such as gloves, gowns, eye 
protection, respirators, and surgical masks. Is there any PPE for pre-
hospital emergency medical service personnel (EMS), not currently 
required by the bloodborne pathogens standard or the respiratory 
protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134), which may be necessary to 
protect EMS employees (e.g., ``NFPA 1999, Standard on Protective 
Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations'') (Ex. 1-18)? NFPA 1999 
specifies the NFPA minimum design, performance, testing, and 
certification requirements for emergency medical clothing used by fire 
and EMS personnel during EMS operations. Is such equipment currently 
used in your workplace? What would such PPE cost and what is the 
expected life of the equipment?
    14. Is there any PPE for emergency responders providing technical 
rescue services (e.g., vehicle extrication, high-angle rescue, swift-
water rescue) that may be necessary for protecting employees providing 
such services? If so, under what circumstances should the use of such 
equipment be considered necessary? Please describe specific tasks and 
associated equipment that OSHA should consider. What would such PPE 
cost and what is the expected life of the equipment?
    15. Employees performing urban search and rescue (USAR) tasks may 
be exposed to a variety of physical hazards from building debris as 
well as incidental exposure to thermal, chemical, or biological 
hazards. The Department of Homeland Security has adopted ``NFPA 1951, 
Standard on Protective Ensemble for Technical Rescue Incidents '' for 
emergency responders conducting USAR operations (Ex. 1-19). NFPA 1951 
establishes the NFPA minimum requirements for garments, head 
protection, gloves, and footwear, for fire and emergency services 
personnel operating at technical rescue incidents involving building or 
structural collapse, vehicle/person extrication, confined space entry, 
trench/cave-in rescue, rope rescue, and similar incidents. What PPE may 
be necessary for protecting these emergency responders? Is NFPA 1951 an 
appropriate standard for OSHA to consider on the subject? Are there 
other standards that OSHA should consider? What equipment is being used 
currently in your workplace? What does the PPE cost, and how many 
responders are equipped with it? What is the expected life of the 
equipment?
    16. Is there any other PPE, not already identified, that may be 
necessary for emergency responders or skilled support personnel? What 
is the equipment, what would it cost, and how many responders would 
need to be equipped with it? What is the expected life of the 
equipment?

C. Training and Qualifications

    The knowledge, skills and abilities of emergency responders and 
skilled support employees will depend largely on the training and 
qualifications for required work tasks. Training and qualifications 
typically include both initial training as well as any periodic 
training (e.g., annual refresher training) that may be necessary to 
maintain an appropriate level of functional capability.
    17. The OSHA Fire Brigade standard (29 CFR 1910.156(c)) contains 
broadly worded requirements on training and education and requires the 
quality of such training to be ``similar to'' a number of State fire 
training schools. Is this standard adequate to ensure firefighters are 
appropriately trained to perform required tasks safely? If not, what 
level of initial training and qualification is necessary to safely 
perform fire fighting tasks? Is ``NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter 
Professional Qualifications'' an appropriate standard to consider (Ex. 
1-20)? NFPA 1001 identifies the minimum job performance requirements 
for two levels of progression of firefighters whose duties are 
primarily structural in nature. Are there other standards or 
recommendations that OSHA should consider? What amount and type of 
periodic refresher training should be considered the minimum necessary 
for firefighters? What is the appropriate format for acquiring this 
training? What are the training practices in your workplace?
    18. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway 
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), develops the National Standard 
Curricula for all levels of EMS personnel. What level of initial 
occupational health and safety training and qualification is necessary 
to safely perform emergency medical services? Are there any additional 
initial training requirements beyond the NHTSA standards appropriate 
for OSHA to consider (e.g., training on emergency vehicle operation or 
incident scene safety)? What amount and type of periodic refresher 
training is necessary for EMS personnel? What are the current training 
practices in your workplace?
    19. OSHA does not currently require any specific training for 
rescue technicians. What level of initial training and qualification is 
necessary to safely perform technical rescue tasks? Is ``NFPA 1006, 
Standard for Rescue Technician Professional Qualifications'' an 
appropriate standard to consider (Ex. 1-21)? NFPA 1006 establishes the 
NFPA minimum requirements necessary for fire service and other 
emergency response personnel who perform technical rescue operations. 
These include rope rescue, surface water rescue, vehicle and machinery 
rescue, confined space rescue, structural collapse rescue, and trench 
rescue. Are there other standards or recommendations that OSHA should 
consider? What amount and type of annual refresher training should be 
considered the minimum necessary for such emergency responders? What is 
the appropriate format for acquiring this training (e.g., does this 
require travel to a specialized training facility)? What are the 
current training practices in your workplace?
    20. Skilled support work at emergency incidents is work that is not 
performed by an emergency responder (e.g., firefighter or EMS provider) 
but is nonetheless a critical element of a safe and successful 
emergency response, such as heavy equipment operation, utility shut-
off, and cutting and removal of iron work. The role of skilled support 
employees at emergency incidents is only directly addressed in the 
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (HAZWOPER) 
(29 CFR 1910.120), which does not apply to all types of emergency 
incidents. The standard requires skilled support employees that are 
needed on a temporary basis for immediate emergency support work to be 
given an initial briefing on necessary information but does not require 
them to receive the full training provisions of the standard (29 CFR 
1910.120(q)(4)). What level of initial training and qualification is 
necessary to safely perform skilled support jobs? Should specific 
training for skilled support personnel, other than the initial 
briefing, be considered? Should refresher training on an annual or 
other basis for such responders be considered? The OSHA Training 
Institute has developed a 16-hour Disaster Site Worker Course 
(7600) which emphasizes knowledge, precautions and personal 
protection essential to maintaining an employee's personal safety and 
health at a disaster site. Should skilled support personnel take the 
OSHA Disaster Site Worker training course, or something similar, before 
responding to a disaster or is just-in-time training sufficient and 
appropriate? What are the current training practices in your workplace?
    21. OSHA standards do not address the training or qualifications 
for either emergency responders who operate emergency apparatus or 
those personnel who may have to work on an active roadway during an 
emergency response (e.g., responding to a car crash). Traffic accidents 
involving emergency apparatus, as well as incidents where emergency 
responders are struck by passing vehicles at incident scenes, 
constitute a major source of injuries for emergency responders (Ex. 1-
22). Is there any training or qualifications on emergency vehicle 
safety or incident scene safety (e.g., ``NFPA 1002, Standard for Fire 
Apparatus Driver/Operator Professional Qualifications'') that should be 
considered for emergency responders as a whole or for individual groups 
of emergency responders, such as emergency vehicle drivers (Ex. 1-23)? 
What is the appropriate format for acquiring this training? What are 
the current training practices in your workplace?
    22. The Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 
(29 CFR 1910.120), which does not apply to all types of emergency 
incidents, requires that incident commanders have specialized training 
beyond that of other employees. However, the Fire Brigade standard (29 
CFR 1910.156) does not require any additional or specialized training 
for fire officers that will manage or supervise the emergency response 
incident. Should the training and qualifications for fire officers be 
different than for firefighters? If so, what level of training is 
appropriate for officers? Is ``NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer 
Professional Qualifications,'' an appropriate standard to consider in 
evaluating this issue (Ex. 1-24)? NFPA 1021 identifies the performance 
requirements necessary to perform the duties of a fire officer and 
specifically identifies four levels of training that progress with 
increasing rank and increasing responsibility. Are there other 
standards or recommendations OSHA should consider? What are the current 
training practices in your workplace?
    23. OSHA's Fire Brigade standard (29 CFR 1910.156) does not 
distinguish between industrial fire brigades and other types of fire 
departments that may respond to a wider range of emergency incidents at 
a variety of locations. Should the minimum training and qualifications 
for industrial fire brigade members be different than for other 
firefighters? If so, what is an appropriate training standard for OSHA 
to consider (e.g., ``NFPA 1081, Standard for Industrial Fire Brigade 
Member Professional Qualifications'') (Ex. 1-25)? NFPA 1081 identifies 
the NFPA minimum job performance requirements necessary to carry out 
the duties of an individual who is a member of an organized industrial 
fire brigade providing services at a specific facility or site. Are 
there other standards or recommendations for fire brigades OSHA should 
consider? What are the current training practices in your workplace?
    24. During an emergency response the Hazardous Waste Operations and 
Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR 1910.120), which does not cover all 
emergency incidents, requires that the individual in charge of the 
incident command system (ICS) designate a safety official. The safety 
official has the authority to alter, suspend, or terminate any 
activities that are deemed to be an imminent danger to employees. The 
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard does not 
establish minimum training and qualifications for a safety official, 
but the person must be knowledgeable in the operations being 
implemented and able to identify and evaluate hazards with respect to 
the operational safety. While the Hazardous Waste Operations and 
Emergency Response Standard uses the term ``safety official,'' the 
National Response Plan (NRP) and National Incident Management System 
(NIMS) use the term ``safety officer.'' In practical application, is 
there a distinction between these two individuals or do they 
essentially perform the same function? The NIMS describes the duties 
and functions of the safety officer at an emergency incident as 
monitoring incident operations and advising the Incident Commander on 
all matters relating to operational safety, including the health and 
safety of emergency responder personnel. The NIMS also does not specify 
the minimum training and qualifications to assume the role of safety 
officer. What are the minimum training and qualifications that a safety 
officer needs? Aside from responsibilities at an emergency incident, 
should a safety officer have a role in the management of an emergency 
response and preparedness program? If so, what should be a safety 
officer's non-emergency duties and functions and how would they relate 
to emergency response and preparedness?
    25. Recently, there has been a greater emphasis on assuring 
continuity of incident management from the local and state responder 
level to the national level at incidents of national significance 
managed under the National Response Plan (e.g., large natural 
disasters). What training at the state and local level, if any, is 
necessary to facilitate seamless emergency operations at a joint field 
office (JFO) or area field office (AFO)?
    26. What is the best way for OSHA to specify training for a given 
emergency response role? For example:
     By specifying a minimum number of hours of training;
     By specifying training content based on job tasks;
     By specifying that training be adequate to demonstrate 
specified competencies;
     By a combination of these methods; or
     By some other method.
    Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has been 
working on a national credentialing system to verify training and 
qualifications. Should the Agency consider credentialing systems in its 
evaluation of training and qualifications?

D. Medical Evaluation/Health Monitoring

    Emergency responders work in an environment where they may be 
exposed to a variety of physical, chemical, or biological hazards. The 
personal protective clothing and equipment that they use, as well as 
the inherent nature of their work, can pose an additional physiologic 
burden on emergency responders. Medical evaluation and health 
monitoring is an important factor in assuring the health and safety of 
emergency responders.
    27. OSHA requires that hepatitis B vaccinations be made available 
to employees potentially occupationally exposed to blood or other body 
fluids in its bloodborne pathogen standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). Are 
other vaccinations necessary for emergency responders? If so, which 
vaccinations? What would these vaccinations cost? Would they need to be 
repeated at some point? Would they be recommended for all emergency 
responders or a particular subset? What are the current vaccination 
practices in your workplace?
    28. There are currently available vaccinations for anthrax and 
smallpox, and other vaccinations could be developed in the future for 
diseases such as hepatitis C. Employers can determine, based upon their 
own risk assessment, if such vaccines are necessary and should be 
offered to their employees. If vaccines other than the hepatitis B 
vaccination are determined by the employer to be necessary for 
emergency responders, should OSHA consider non-disease specific 
administrative and recordkeeping procedures similar to those required 
for the hepatitis B vaccine (29 CFR 1910.1030(f))? These procedures 
could include requirements that the vaccine be made available at no 
cost to the employee, available to the employee at a reasonable time 
and place, and subject to appropriate medical screening. Are there any 
elements of an assessment process that should be implemented before an 
employer can determine that a vaccine is necessary, for example, a 
determination by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) or other 
appropriate medical recommendation?
    29. Medical evaluations for emergency responders are currently 
regulated under the Fire Brigade (29 CFR 1910.156), Respiratory 
Protection (29 CFR 1910.134), and Hazardous Waste Operations and 
Emergency Response (29 CFR 1910.120) standards. The Fire Brigade 
Standard requires that employers not permit employees with known heart 
disease, epilepsy, or emphysema to perform emergency response work 
unless approved by a physician. The respiratory protection standard 
requires that a physician or other licensed health care professional 
evaluate an employees' ability to use a respirator. Such an evaluation 
may consist solely of a medical questionnaire. The Hazardous Waste
Operations and Emergency Response Standard has more extensive 
requirements for an annual medical evaluation. Is ``NFPA 1582, 
Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments'' an 
appropriate medical evaluation for firefighters (Ex. 1-26)? NFPA 1582 
contains descriptive requirements for a comprehensive occupational 
medical program to ensure that fire department members are medically 
capable of performing their required duties. Are there other medical 
evaluation standards that are appropriate for either firefighters or 
emergency responders who perform tasks other than firefighting? For 
emergency responders who do not perform firefighting tasks, what 
elements of a medical evaluation are necessary to assure that they are 
physically capable of performing essential job tasks while wearing an 
array of possibly physically burdensome personal protective clothing 
and equipment? How often should a medical evaluation for emergency 
responders be conducted? Please address the following types of medical 
evaluation: Pre-placement, return-to-work, annual fitness for duty 
evaluation, and periodic medical surveillance. What is the cost to the 
employer of these recommended medical evaluations for emergency 
responders? How is the medical evaluation of emergency responders 
addressed in your workplace?
    30. The physiologic burden caused by performing emergency response 
activities and wearing PPE can be extreme (e.g., over-exertion, heat 
stress or dehydration). Additionally, cardiovascular fatalities 
represent a large percentage of firefighters' fatalities. Is on-scene 
rehabilitation and providing appropriate assistance (e.g., monitoring 
workers' temperature, blood pressure, hydration levels) an appropriate 
method of preventing or reducing the number of these injuries and 
fatalities? Is ``NFPA 1584, Rehabilitation of Members Operating at 
Incident Scene Operations and Training Exercises'' an appropriate 
standard for such practices (Ex. 1-27)? NFPA 1584 describes recommended 
practices for developing and implementing an incident scene 
rehabilitation program, including: Medical evaluations, re-hydration, 
and protection from environmental conditions. Are there other methods 
of protection that are available, such as adjusting work/rest regimens 
or physical training? Are there other standards or recommendations that 
OSHA should consider? Should defibrillators (either a defibrillator or 
an automated external defibrillator (AED)) be available at emergency 
incident scenes in case an emergency responder or skilled support 
worker has a cardiac event? Do you currently have a defibrillator or 
AED at emergency events?

E. Safety

    The safety of emergency responders and skilled support employees is 
affected by the employer's policies and procedures established to 
govern emergency response operations. Also, the tools and equipment 
used by emergency responders may affect their ability to detect and 
monitor hazards as well as communicate those hazards to others at the 
emergency scene.
    31. The use of an incident management system as a means to assure 
the health and safety of employees is required by the OSHA Hazardous 
Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (29 CFR 1910.120) for 
emergency response to hazardous materials incidents and OSHA's Fire 
Brigades in Shipyards standard (29 CFR 1915.505). Is an incident 
management system appropriate for managing all other emergency 
incidents?
    32. The NIMS specifies that a unified command structure be employed 
for all employees at an incident when there are multiple jurisdictions 
and agencies involved. Since each employer is responsible for the 
health and safety of his or her employees at emergency incidents and 
may affect the safety and health of other employers' employees, how can 
a safety management structure be developed that incorporates a multi-
employer response that is commanded within a single incident command 
system for all types of incidents?
    33. The NIMS describes the duties and functions of the safety 
officer at an emergency incident. However, the NIMS does not address 
non-emergency functions for the safety officer that may be necessary to 
assure the health and safety of emergency responders and skilled 
support personnel when an emergency does occur (e.g., assuring training 
requirements are met, assuring that protective clothing and equipment 
is adequately maintained, or reviewing and updating standard operating 
procedures). What are the non-emergency duties and functions that are 
necessary to assure the proper management of an emergency response and 
preparedness program? Is a designated safety program manager or 
administrator needed?
    34. Do emergency responders need hazard detection and monitoring 
equipment capabilities, such as 4-gas monitors, thermal imaging 
cameras, or chemical, biological, and radiological detection equipment? 
If so, for each type of job task what abilities and equipment are 
needed? How much would these devices typically cost to own and operate? 
What are the devices' expected service life?
    35. Should emergency response organizations establish written 
standard operating procedures (SOPs) or standard operating guidelines 
(SOGs) for expected emergency response activities? If so, what types of 
issues should be addressed in the SOPs or SOGs? How should employers 
determine what activities are within the expected range of operations 
and what activities might be outside the range of expected planning? 
How should employers plan and prepare for special hazards within their 
area of operations (e.g., high-rise buildings, industrial facilities, 
or open-pit mines)?
    36. How can communication at emergency incidents be maintained? Is 
a certain type of communications hardware, such as radio systems, or 
handheld radios, needed by all emergency responders? What training in 
communications is needed? Is there evidence that portable radios are 
necessary for either each individual emergency responder or each team 
of emergency responders? If new equipment and training would be 
necessary, how much would they cost?
    37. The Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 
(29 CFR 1910.120) gives the incident commander broad authority in 
managing risk by determining the scope of operations possible at a 
given incident. The ``two in/two out'' provision of the Respiratory 
Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134 (g)(4)) for interior structural 
firefighting implies, but does not directly address, the concept of 
risk management. How can OSHA more thoroughly address the concept of 
risk management at emergency incidents? What guidance should be given 
in weighing the health and safety of emergency responders against 
victim's lives, against property loss, or in situations where concerns 
about immediate safety may have negative consequences for long-term 
health, such as lung damage? How should risk management guidelines 
address the various phases of an emergency response from rescue, 
incident stabilization, through remediation/recovery? How does your 
workplace address the concept of risk management during emergency 
response and preparedness activities?
    38. Are there specific features of an occupational health and 
safety program not addressed in previous questions that are necessary 
for emergency responder health and safety (e.g., any elements contained 
in ``NFPA 1500, Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program'' 
such as life-safety rope systems) (Ex. 1-28)? NFPA 1500 provides the NFPA 
requirements for a fire service occupational safety and health program for 
fire departments. The Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 
Standard (29 CFR 1910.120(b)) requires that employers develop and implement 
a written safety and health program for their employees involved in hazardous 
waste operations (e.g., safety and health training, medical surveillance, 
necessary interface between general program and site specific 
activities). Would a health and safety program similar to that required 
in 29 CFR 1910.120(b) be appropriate for emergency response activities?
    39. Are there any other issues or concerns related to the health or 
safety of all emergency responders, or any particular group of 
emergency responders, that should be considered? Are there any issues 
related to the health and safety of skilled support personnel at 
emergency incidents that should be considered?

F. Additional Information

    40. In addition to the specific questions above, the Agency is 
seeking general information on the cost of safety and health measures 
undertaken by municipal emergency response agencies (e.g., fire 
departments) and any other first responders or skilled support 
employees. From what levels of government are revenues derived to 
support emergency response and preparedness? What other sources of 
revenue are available? How are increased costs of operation dealt with 
(e.g., reduction in service, increase in response time, or increased 
revenue sources)? How are these issues different for smaller emergency 
response operations or rural areas than for larger or mid-sized 
operations? How often are emergency response operations contracted out 
to specialists, either by companies or communities?
    41. Are there any existing OSHA standards, guidelines, or 
recommendations that, when viewed in conjunction with other Federal, 
State or local codes and/or the recommendation of consensus standards 
organizations such as, but not limited to NFPA, ANSI or ASTM, create 
conflict or uncertainty in the practice of emergency responding, safety 
and health planning, in the selection of protective equipment, in the 
procurement of emergency response equipment, or in the provision of 
training? If so, what could OSHA do to remedy these situations?

III. Public Participation

    You may submit comments in response to this document by (1) hard 
copy, (2) fax transmission (facsimile), or (3) electronically through 
the Federal Rulemaking Portal. Because of security-related problems, 
there may be a significant delay in the receipt of comments by regular 
mail. Contact the OSHA Docket Office at (202) 693-2350 for information 
about security procedures concerning the delivery of materials by 
express delivery, hand delivery and messenger service.
    All comments and submissions are available for inspection and 
copying at the OSHA Docket Office at the above address. Comments and 
submissions are also available at http://www.regulations.gov. OSHA 
cautions you about submitting personal information such as social 
security numbers and birth dates. Contact the OSHA Docket Office at 
(202) 693-2350 for information about accessing materials in the docket.
    Electronic copies of this Federal Register notice, as well as news 
releases and other relevant documents, are available at OSHA's Web 
page: http://www.osha.gov/index.html.


IV. Authority and Signature

    This document was prepared under the direction of Edwin G. Foulke, 
Jr., Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, 
U.S. Department of Labor. It is issued pursuant to sections 4, 6, and 8 
of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 
657), 29 CFR 1911, and Secretary's Order 5-2002 (67 FR 65008).

    Signed at Washington, DC, this 4th day of September, 2007.
Edwin G. Foulke, Jr.,
Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

Table of Exhibits

1-1 Emergency Response and Preparedness Request for Information
1-2 Fire Fighter Fatalities in the United States in 2003, U.S. Fire 
Administration Report FA-283, August 2004
1-3 NFPA Report: Fire Loss in the United States During 2002 and U.S. 
Fire Department Profile Through 2002)
1-4 U.S. Fire Administration, A Needs Assessment of the U.S. Fire 
Service, (USFA Report FA-240, December 2002 authorized by U.S. 
Public Law 106-398, Sec. 33(b))
1-5 U.S. Fire Administration and the National Fallen Firefighters 
Foundation, Firefighter Life Safety Summit Initial Report (April 
2004)
1-6 NIOSH/RAND Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons Learned from 
Terrorist Attacks; Protecting Emergency Responders
1-7 NIOSH / RAND Volume 2: Community Views of Safety and Health 
Risks and Personal Protection Needs
1-8 NIOSH / RAND Volume 3: Safety Management in Disaster and 
Terrorism Response
1-9 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8 
(HSPD8)
1-10 The National Incident Management System (NIMS)
1-11 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 
(HSPD5)
1-12 National Response Plan
1-13 NFPA 1971, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire 
Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting
1-14 NFPA 1982, Standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS)
1-15 NFPA 1981, Standard on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing 
Apparatus (SCBA) Emergency Services
1-16 NFPA 1994, Standard on Protective Ensembles for First 
Responders to CBRN Terrorism Incidents
1-17 NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazardous 
Materials Emergencies
1-18 NFPA 1999, Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency 
Medical Operations
1-19 NFPA 1951, Standard on Protective Ensemble for Technical Rescue 
Incidents
1-20 NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional 
Qualifications
1-21 NFPA 1006, Standard for Rescue Technician Professional 
Qualifications
1-22 U.S. Fire Administration, Firefighter Fatality Retrospective 
Study. April 2002 FA-220
1-23 NFPA 1002, Standard for Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator 
Professional Qualifications
1-24 NFPA 1021, Standard for Fire Officer Professional 
Qualifications
1-25 NFPA 1081, Standard for Industrial Fire Brigade Member 
Professional Qualifications
1-26 NFPA 1582, Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire 
Departments
1-27 NFPA 1584, Rehabilitation of Members Operating at Incident 
Scene Operations and Training Exercises
1-28 NFPA 1500, Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health 
Program

 [FR Doc. E7-17771 Filed 9-10-07; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4510-26-P

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