Federal Registers - Table of Contents Federal Registers - Table of Contents
• Publication Date: 06/30/1993
• Publication Type: Final Rules
• Fed Register #: 58:35076-35306
• Standard Number: 1926
• Title: Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicable to Construction Work.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Part 1926

Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicable
to Construction Work

AGENCY:  Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of
Labor.

ACTION:  Final Rule; Incorporation and designation of existing
standards applicable to construction work to codify them as construction
standards.

SUMMARY:  OSHA is incorporating the regulatory text of the General
Industry Safety and Health Standards (part 1910) that have been identified as
applicable to construction work into the Safety and Health Regulations for
Construction (29 CFR part 1926). For some time, elements of both labor and
management within the construction industry have requested the Agency to
develop a single set of OSHA regulations for the exclusive use of that
industry. OSHA prepared this document in response to the concerns of the
affected parties and because the Agency recognizes the need for uniform
enforcement information.  This action will assist employers and employees in
obtaining more up-to-date information on their construction safety and health
obligations.

EFFECTIVE DATE: June 30, 1993.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. James F. Foster, U.S. Department
of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Room N-3647, 200
Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202)219-8151.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

OSHA has recognized, since early in its existence, that there are
circumstances where the safety and health standards for construction
employment (29 CFR part 1926) are less comprehensive than the safety and
health standards for general industry employment (29 CFR part 1910).  In a
number of cases, the Agency has determined that it is appropriate to cite a
construction employer for violation of a part 1910 standard, to effectuate
the purposes of the OSH Act.  (See 29 CFR 1910.5(c), incorporated into the
Construction Standards as  29 CFR 1926.20(d).)

By 1978, a number of part 1910 standards had been identified as applicable
to construction.  As a result, both employers and employees requested that
OSHA issue a single volume which would present all of the regulations,
whether from part 1910 or from part 1926, that the Agency considered
applicable to construction employment.  The parties requesting consolidation
stated that notifying employers of the applicable part 1910 standards would
facilitate compliance.

On February 9, 1979, OSHA issued a Notice of Enforcement Policy and
Republication of Standards (44 FR 8577) which reprinted the entire text of 29
CFR part 1926, together with certain General Industry Safety and Health
Standards contained in 29 CFR part 1910 which had been identified as
applicable to construction employment. On April 6, 1979, the Agency issued a
correction notice (54 FR 20940).  Subsequently, to promote uniform
enforcement, OSHA addressed the application of part 1910 standards to
construction employment in field directives CPL 2- 1.68 (2-28-79) and CPL
2-45A CH-1 (8-18-83).

In addition, in 1983 the Agency produced and distributed OSHA Publication
2207, Construction Industry Standards, which presented the part 1910 and part
1926 standards covered by the February 9, 1979, and April 6, 1979, notices.
This OSHA publication was reprinted in 1986, and revised in 1987.  The volume
was available through the Government Printing Office and from the Agency
itself in limited quantities.

More recently, a number of parties, including the Advisory Committee on
Construction Safety and Health (See Transcript of 6-20-90 meeting, pp.
165-169), have suggested that OSHA consolidate all regulations applicable to
construction in a single volume, either by revising 29 CFR part 1926 or by
updating and reprinting OSHA Publication 2207.  In response to these
suggestions, the Agency revised and reissued Publication 2207 in 1991.  The
initial printing run of the 1991 volume has now sold out.

In this notice, in order to provide construction employers and employees
with a more comprehensive compilation of applicable safety and health
standards, OSHA is revising its part 1926 regulations by adding identified
part 1910 standards to part 1926, complete with their own part 1926
designations.

Most of the General Industry standards incorporated through this action have
long been applied to construction employment.  A few recent standards, such
as the standards for Process Safety Management (PSM), 29 CFR 1910.119, and
Hazardous Waste Operations, 29 CFR 1910.120, are being added to part 1926 at
this time because OSHA has determined that their inclusion is necessary for
the protection of construction workers.

For example, the Agency is aware that employees who perform construction
work at petrochemical facilities may be exposed to process hazards.  The
inclusion of the PSM standard, incorporated here as 29 CFR 1926.64, provides
clear notice that employers must comply with that standard to protect
employees performing construction work from exposure to the process hazards
covered by the standard.

Also, OSHA is adding an Appendix A to 29 CFR 1926.55, "Gases, vapors, fumes,
dusts and mists," to set out the 1970 American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for airborne
contaminants.  A reference to the new Appendix A is being added to 29 CFR
1926.55(a).  Existing 29 CFR 1926.55(a) requires employers to protect each
employee performing construction work from exposures that exceed the 1970
ACGIH TLVs. The existing standard simply references the ACGIH document, so
employers have had to look outside 29 CFR part 1926 to determine what TLVs
apply to their operations.  Recognizing that, with the passage of time, it
has become increasingly difficult to obtain the 1970 ACGIH document, OSHA has
included the 1970 TLVs in the 1983, 1986, and 1987 editions of OSHA
Publication 2207.  The Agency believes that spelling out the TLVs in Appendix
A will facilitate compliance with 29 CFR 1926.55(a).  The substantive
provisions of the standard are unchanged.

In addition, the list of TLVs in 29 CFR 1926.55, Appendix A, will be
annotated as necessary to indicate that, where a particular substance is
regulated both by a TLV listed in Appendix A and by a standard incorporated
into new 29 CFR part 1926, subpart Z, the subpart Z standard prevails.

OSHA is also adding an Appendix A at the end of 29 CFR part 1926 to set out
the section numbers for the part 1910 standards incorporated into part 1926,
along with the part 1926 designations for the incorporated part 1910
standards.  This list is essentially the same as that published in 1979,
updated to reflect amendments and revisions to the part 1910 standards since
that date.  OSHA is adding the Appendix so construction industry employers
and employees can readily identify the General Industry Standards that have
been incorporated into the Construction Industry Standards.

While every effort has been made to identify those General Industry
standards which are most likely to be applicable to construction work, OSHA
notes that other part 1910 standards may, under some circumstances, also be
applicable.  A special procedure has been established by the National Office
to address any such situations.

Insofar as enforcement experience and other information indicate that part
1910 standards not included in the list are applicable to construction, part
1926 will be modified accordingly, through the issuance of technical
amendments.

Exemption From Notice and Comment Procedures

With regard to this action, OSHA has determined that it is not required to
follow procedures for public notice and comment rulemaking under either
section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553) or under section
6(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 655(b)).  This
action does not affect the substantive requirements or coverage of the
standards themselves. This incorporation does not modify or revoke existing
rights or obligations, nor does it establish new ones.  This action simply
provides additional information on the existing regulatory burden. OSHA,
therefore, finds that notice and public procedure are impracticable and
unnecessary within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B).  For the same
reasons, OSHA also finds that, in accordance with 29 CFR 1911.5, good cause
exists for dispensing with the public notice and comment procedures
prescribed in section 6(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

Exemption From Delayed Effective Date Requirement

Under 5 U.S.C. 553, OSHA finds that there is good cause for making this
Appendix effective upon publication in the Federal Register.  This
incorporation simply provides additional information on the existing
regulatory burden without increasing that burden.

List of Subjects in 29 CFR Part 1926

Construction industry, Electric power, Fire prevention, Hazardous
substances, Motor vehicle safety, Noise control, Occupational safety and
health, Radiation protection, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Signs
and symbols.

Authority

Accordingly, pursuant to sections 4, 6 and 8 of the Occupational Safety and
Health Act of 1970, (29 U.S.C. 653, 655 and 657); section 107 of the Contract
Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C.
333); section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553); Secretary
of Labor's Order 1-90 (55 FR 9033); and 29 CFR part 1911. 29 CFR part 1926 is
amended as set forth below.

Signed at Washington, DC, this 16th day of June, 1993.

David C. Zeigler,

Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor

PART 1926 - SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION

The following list reflects only new table of contents entries for sections
that are being added to part 1926 by this document.  The new section headings
read as follows:

Subpart C - General Safety and Health Provisions

Sec.

* * * * 1926.33  Access to employee exposure and medical records. 1926.34
Means of egress. 1926.35  Employee emergency action plans.

Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Control

* * * * 1926.64  Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.
1926.65  Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1926.66  Criteria
for design and construction for spray booths.

Subpart E - Personal Protective Equipment and Life Saving Equipment

1926.95  Criteria for personal protective equipment. 1926.96  Occupational
foot protection. 1926.97  Protective clothing for fire brigades. 1926.98
Respiratory protection for fire brigades.

Subpart F - Fire Protection and Prevention

* * * * Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment 1926.156  Fixed extinguishing
systems, general. 1926.157  Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

Other Fire Protection Systems 1926.158  Fire detection systems. 1926.159
Employee alarm systems.

Subpart I -  Tools - Hand and Power

* * * * 1926.306  Air receivers. 1926.307  Mechanical power-transmission
apparatus.

Subpart L -  Scaffolding

* * * * 1926.453  Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
(towers).

Subpart Y - Commercial Diving Operations General 1926.1071  Scope and
application. 1926.1072  Definitions.

Personnel Requirements 1926.1076  Qualifications of dive team.

General Operations Procedures 1926.1080  Safe practices manual. 1926.1081
Pre-dive procedures. 1926.1082  Procedures during dive. 1926.1083  Post-dive
procedures.

Specific Operations Procedures 1926.1084  SCUBA diving. 1926.1085
Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1086  Mixed-gas diving. 1926.1087
Liveboating.

Equipment Procedures and Requirements 1926.1090  Equipment.

Recordkeeping 1926.1091  Recordkeeping requirements. 1926.1092  Effective
date.

Appendix A to Subpart Y - Examples of

Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions
Appendix B to Subpart Y - Guidelines for Scientific Diving

Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1926.1100 - 1926.1101  [Reserved]
1926.1102  Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1103
4-Nitrobiphenyl. 1926.1104  alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1105  [Reserved]
1926.1106  Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1107  3,3-Dichlorobenzidine (and
its salts). 1926.1108  bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1109  beta-Naphthylamine.
1926.1110  Benzidine. 1926.1111  4-Aminodiphenyl. 1926.1112  Ethyleneimine.
1926.1113  beta-Propiolactone. 1926.1114  2-Acetylaminofluorene. 1926.1115
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. 1926.1116  N-Nitrosodimethylamine. 1926.1117
Vinyl chloride. 1926.1118  Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1128  Benzene. 1926.1129
Coke oven emissions. 1926.1144  1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. 1926.1145
Acrylonitrile. 1926.1147  Ethylene oxide. 1926.1148  Formaldehyde.

Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for
	General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

Subpart C - General Safety and Health Provisions

Authority: Section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C.
657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 9-83 (48 FR 35736) and 29 CFR part 1911.

1. In 1926.20, new paragraphs (c) through (e) are added to read as follows:

1926.20

General safety and health provisions and applicability of standards.

* * * * *

(c) The standards contained in this part shall apply with respect to
employments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia,
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam,
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Island, Outer Continental Shelf
lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, Johnston Island, and
the Canal Zone.

(d)(1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a condition,
practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall prevail over any
different general standard which might otherwise be applicable to the same
condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process.

(2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its terms to
any employment and place of employment in any industry, even though
particular standards are also prescribed for the industry to the extent that
none of such particular standards applies.

(e) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons larger
than employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part only to
employees and their employment and places of employment.

2. In 1926.32, paragraphs (g) through (r) are redesignated as paragraphs (h)
through (s), and new paragraph (g) is added.  The text of new paragraph (g)
reads as follows:

1926.32

Definitions. * * * * * (g) Construction work.  For purposes of this section,
 Construction work means work for construction, alteration, and/or repair,
including painting and decorating.

* * * * *
	3. New 1926.33 is added to read as follows:

1926.33 Access to employee exposure and medical records.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide employees and their
designated representatives a right of access to relevant exposure and medical
records; and to provide representatives of the Assistant Secretary a right of
access to these records in order to fulfill responsibilities under the
Occupational Safety and Health Act. Access by employees, their
representatives, and the Assistant Secretary is necessary to yield both
direct and indirect improvements in the detection, treatment, and prevention
of occupational disease. Each employer is responsible for assuring compliance
with this section, but the activities involved in complying with the access
to medical records provisions can be carried out, on behalf of the employer,
by the physician or other health care personnel in charge of employee medical
records. Except as expressly provided, nothing in this section is intended to
affect existing legal and ethical obligations concerning the maintenance and
confidentiality of employee medical information, the duty to disclose
information to a patient/employee or any other aspect of the medical-care
relationship, or affect existing legal obligations concerning the protection
of trade secret information.

(b) Scope and application.

(1) This section applies to each general
industry, maritime, and construction employer who makes, maintains, contracts
for, or has access to employee exposure or medical records, or analyses
thereof, pertaining to employees exposed to toxic substances or harmful
physical agents.

(2) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and
analyses thereof, of such employees, whether or not the records are mandated
by specific occupational safety and health standards.

(3) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and
analyses thereof, made or maintained in any manner, including on an in-house
of contractual (e.g., fee-for-service) basis. Each employer shall assure that
the preservation and access requirements of this section are complied with
regardless of the manner in which the records are made or maintained.

(c) Definitions - (1) Access means the right and opportunity to examine and
copy.

(2) Analysis using exposure or medical records means any compilation of data
or any statistical study based at least in part on information collected from
individual employee exposure or medical records or information collected from
health insurance claims records, provided that either the analysis has been
reported to the employer or no further work is currently being done by the
person responsible for preparing the analysis.

(3) Designated representative means any individual or organization to whom
an employee gives written authorization to exercise a right of access. For
the purposes of access to employee exposure records and analyses using
exposure or medical records, a recognized or certified collective bargaining
agent shall be treated automatically as a designated representative without
regard to written employee authorization.

(4) Employee means a current employee, a former employee, or an employee
being assigned or transferred to work where there will be exposure to toxic
substances or harmful physical agents. In the case of a deceased or legally
incapacitated employee, the employee's legal representative may directly
exercise all the employee's rights under this section.

(5) Employee exposure record means a record containing any of the following
kinds of information:

(i) Environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substance
or harmful physical agent, including personal, area, grab, wipe, or other
form of sampling, as well as related collection and analytical methodologies,
calculations, and other background data relevant to interpretation of the
results obtained;

(ii) Biological monitoring results which directly assess the absorption of a
toxic substance or harmful physical agent by body systems (e.g., the level of
a chemical in the blood, urine, breath, hair, fingernails, etc) but not
including results which assess the biological effect of a substance or agent
or which assess an employee's use of alcohol or drugs;

(iii) Material safety data sheets indicating that the material may pose a
hazard to human health; or

(iv) In the absence of the above, a chemcial inventory or any other record
which reveals where and when used and the identity (e.g., chemical, common,
or trade name) of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent.

(6)(i) Employee medical record means a record concerning the health status
of an employee which is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other
health care personnel or technician, including:

(A) Medical and employment questionnaires or histories (including job
description and occupational exposures),

(B) The results of medical examinations (pre-employment, pre-assignment,
periodic, or episodic) and laboratory tests (including chest and other X-ray
examinations taken for the purposes of establishing a base-line or detecting
occupational illness, and all biological monitoring not defined as an
"employee exposure record"),

(C) Medical opinions, diagnoses, progress notes, and recommendations,

(D) First aid records,

(E) Descriptions of treatments and prescriptions, and

(F) Employee medical complaints.

(ii) "Employee medical record" does not include medical information in the
form of:

(A) Physical specimens (e.g., blood or urine samples) which are routinely
discarded as a part of normal medical practice; or

(B) Records concerning health insurance claims if maintained separately from
the employer's medical program and its records, and not accessible to the
employer by employee name or other direct personal identifier (e.g., social
security number, payroll number, etc.); or

(C) Records created solely in preparation for litigation which are
privileged from discovery under the applicable rules of procedure or
evidence; or

(D) Records concerning voluntary employee assistance programs (alcohol, drug
abuse, or personal counseling programs) if maintained separately from the
employer's medical program and its records.

(7) Employer means a current employer, a former employer, or a successor
employer.

(8) Exposure or exposed means that an employee is subjected to a toxic
substance or harmful physical agent in the course of employment through any
route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.), and
includes past exposure and potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure,
but does not include situations where the employer can demonstrate that the
toxic substance or harmful physical agent is not used, handled, stored,
generated, or present in the workplace in any manner different from typical
non-occupational situations.

(9) Health professional means a physician, occupational health nurse,
industrial hygienist, toxicologist, or epidemiologist, providing medical or
other occupational health services to exposed employees.

(10) Record means any item, collection, or grouping of information
regardless of the form or process by which it is maintained (e.g., paper
document, microfiche, microfilm, X-ray film, or automated data processing).

(11) Specific chemical identity means the chemical name, Chemical Abstracts
Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the
precise chemical designation of the substance.

(12)(i) Specific written consent means a written authorization containing
the following:

(A) The name and signature of the employee authorizing the release of
medical information,

(B) The date of the written authorization,

(C) The name of the individual or organization that is authorized to release
the medical information,

(D) The name of the designated representative (individual or organization)
that is authorized to receive the released information,

(E) A general description of the medical information that is authorized to
be released,

(F) A general description of the purpose for the release of the medical
information, and

(G) A date or condition upon which the written authorization will expire (if
less than one year).

(ii) A written authorization does not operate to authorize the release of
medical information not in existence on the date of written authorization,
unless the release of future information is expressly authorized, and does
not operate for more than one year from the date of written authorization.

(iii) A written authorization may be revoked in writing prospectively at any
time.

(13) Toxic substance or harmful physical agent means any chemical substance,
biological agent (bacteria, virus, fungus, etc.), or physical stress (noise,
heat, cold, vibration, repetitive motion, ionizing and non-ionizing
radiation, hypo - or hyperbaric pressure, etc.) which:

(i) Is listed in the least printed edition of the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical
Substances (RTECS); or

(ii) Has yielded positive evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard in
testing conducted by, or known to, the employer; or

(iii) Is the subject of a material safety data sheet kept by or known to the
employer indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health.

(14) Trade secret means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device,
or information or compilation of information that is used in an employer's
business and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage
over competitors who do not know or use it.

(d) Preservation of records. (1) Unless a specific occupational safety and
health standard provides a different period of time, each employer shall
assure the preservation and retention of records as follows:

(i) Employee medical records. The medical record for each employee shall be
preserved and maintained for at least the duration of employment plus thirty
(30) years, except that the following types of records need not be retained
for any specified period:

(A) Health insurance claims records maintained separately from the
employer's medical program and its records,

(B) First aid records (not including medical histories) of one-time
treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns,
splinters, and the like which do not involve medical treatment, loss of
consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job, if
made on-site by a non-physician and if maintained separately from the
employer's medical program and its records, and

(C) The medical records of employees who have worked for less than (1) year
for the employer need not be retained beyond the term of employment if they
are provided to the employee upon the termination of employment.

(ii) Employee exposure records. Each employee exposure record shall be
preserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years, except that:

(A) Background data to environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring,
such as laboratory reports and worksheets, need only be retained for one (1)
year as long as the sampling results, the collection methodology (sampling
plan), a description of the analytical and mathematical methods used, and a
summary of other background data relevant to interpretation of the results
obtained, are retained for at least thirty (30) years; and

(B) Material safety data sheets and paragraph (c)(5)(iv) records concerning
the identity of a substance or agent need not be retained for any specified
period as long as some record of the identity (chemical name if known) of the
substance or agent, where it was used, and when it was used is retained for
at least thirty (30) years;(1) and

__________________

(1) Material safety data sheets must be kept for those chemicals currently
in use that are effected by the Hazard Communication Standard in accordance
with 29 CFR 1926.59(g).

(C) Biological monitoring results designated as exposure records by specific
occupational safety and health standards shall be preserved and maintained as
required by the specific standard.

(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records. Each analysis using
exposure or medial records shall be preserved and maintained for at least
thirty (30) years.

(2) Nothing in this section is intended to mandate the form, manner, or
process by which an employer preserves a record as long as the information
contained in the record is preserved and retrievable, except that chest X-ray
films shall be preserved in their original state.

(e) Access to records - (1) General. (i) Whenever an employee or designated
representative requests access to a record, the employer shall assure that
access is provided in a reasonable time, place, and manner. If the employer
cannot reasonably provide access to the record within fifteen (15) working
days, the employer shall within the fifteen (15) working days apprise the
employee or designated representative requesting the record of the reason for
the delay and the earliest date when the record can be made available.

(ii) The employer may require of the requester only such information as
should be readily known to the requester and which may be necessary to locate
or identify the records being requested (e.g., dates and locations where the
employee worked during the time period in question).

(iii) Whenever an employee or designated representative requests a copy of a
record, the employer shall assure that either:

(A) A copy of the record is provided without cost to the employee or
representative,

(B) The necessary mechanical copying facilities (e.g., photocopying) are
made available without cost to the employee or representative for copying the
record, or

(C) The record is loaned to the employee or representative for a reasonable
time to enable a copy to be made.

(iv) In the case of an original X-ray, the employer may restrict access to
on-site examination or make other suitable arrangements for the temporary
loan of the X-ray.

(v) Whenever a record has been previously provided without cost to an
employee or designated representative, the employer may charge reasonable,
non-discriminatory administrative costs (i.e., search and copying expenses
but not including overhead expenses) for a request by the employee or
designated representative for additional copies of the record, except that

(A) An employer shall not charge for an initial request for a copy of new
information that has been added to a record which was previously provided;
and

(B) An employer shall not charge for an initial request by a recognized or
certified collective bargaining agent for a copy of an employee exposure
record or an analysis using exposure or medical records.

(vi) Nothing in this section is intended to preclude employees and
collective bargaining agents from collectively bargaining to obtain access to
information in addition to that available under this section.

(2) Employee and designated representative access - (i) Employee exposure
records. (A) Except as limited by paragraph (f) of this section, each
employer shall, upon request, assure the access to each employee and
designated representative to employee exposure records relevant to the
employee. For the purpose of this section, an exposure record relevant to the
employee consists of:

(1) A record which measures or monitors the amount of a toxic substance or
harmful physical agent to which the employee is or has been exposed;

(2) In the absence of such directly relevant records, such records of other
employees with past or present job duties or working conditions related to or
similar to those of the employee to the extent necessary to reasonably
indicate the amount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physical
agents to which the employee is or has been subjected, and

(3) Exposure records to the extent necessary to reasonably indicate the
amount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physical agents at
workplaces or under working conditions to which the employee is being
assigned or transferred.

(B) Requests by designated representatives for unconsented access to
employee exposure records shall be in writing and shall specify with
reasonable particularity:
	(1) The records requested to be disclosed; and
	(2) The occupational health need for gaining access to these records.

(ii) Employee medical records. (A) Each employer shall, upon request, assure
the access of each employee to employee medical records of which the employee
is the subject, except as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D) of this
section.

(B) Each employer shall, upon request, assure the access of each designated
representative to the employee medical records of any employee who has given
the designated representative specific written consent. Appendix A to this
section contains a sample form which may be used to establish specific
written consent for access to employee medical records.

(C) Whenever access to employee medical records is requested, a physician
representing the employer may recommend that the employee or designated
representative:

(1) Consult with the physician for the purposes of reviewing and discussing
the records requested,

(2) Accept a summary of material facts and opinions in lieu of the records
requested, or

(3) Accept release of the requested records only to a physician or other
designated representative.

(D) Whenever an employee requests access to his or her employee medical
records, and a physician representing the employer believes that direct
employee access to information contained in the records regarding a specific
diagnosis of a terminal illness or a psychiatric condition could be
detrimental to the employee's health, the employer may inform the employee
that access will only be provided to a designated representative of the
employee having specific written consent, and deny the employee's request for
direct access to this information only. Where a designated representative
with specific written consent requests access to information so withheld, the
employer shall assure the access of the designated representative to this
information, even when it is known that the designated representative will
give the information to the employee.

(E) A physician, nurse, or other responsible health care personnel
maintaining medical records may delete from requested medical records the
identity of a family member, personal friend, or fellow employee who has
provided confidential information concerning an employee's health status.

(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records. (A) Each employee shall,
upon request, assure the access of each employee and designated
representative to each analysis using exposure or medical records concerning
the employee's working conditions or workplace.

(B) Whenever access is requested to an analysis which reports the contents
of employee medical records by either direct identifier (name, address,
social security number, payroll number, etc.) or by information which could
reasonably be used under the circumstances indirectly to identify specific
employees (exact age, height, weight, race, sex, date of initial employment,
job title, etc.), the employer shall assure that personal identifiers are
removed before access is provided. If the employer can demonstrate that
removal of personal identifiers from an analysis is not feasible, access to
the personally identifiable portions of the analysis need not be provided.

(3) OSHA access. (i) Each employer shall, upon request, and without
derogation of any rights under the Constitution or the Occupational Safety
and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq., that the employer chooses to
exercise, assure the prompt access of representatives of the Assistant
Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health to employee exposure
and medical records and to analyses using exposure or medical records. Rules
of agency practice and procedure governing OSHA access to employee medical
records are contained in 29 CFR 1913.10.

(ii) Whenever OSHA seeks access to personally identifiable employee medical
information by presenting to the employer a written access order pursuant to
29 CFR 1913.10(d), the employer shall prominently post a copy of the written
access order and its accompanying cover letter for at least fifteen (15)
working days.

(f) Trade secrets. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this
section, nothing in this section precludes an employer from deleting from
records requested by a health professional, employee, or designated
representative any trade secret data which discloses manufacturing processes,
or discloses the percentage of a chemical substance in mixture, as long as
the health professional, employee, or designated representative is notified
that information has been deleted. Whenever deletion of trade secret
information substantially impairs evaluation of the place where or the time
when exposure to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent occurred, the
employer shall provide alternative information which is sufficient to permit
the requesting party to identify where and when exposure occurred.

(2) The employer may withhold the specific chemical identity, including the
chemical name and other specific identification of a toxic substance from a
disclosable record provided that:

(i) The claim that the information withheld is a trade secret can be
supported;

(ii) All other available information on the properties and effects of the
toxic substance is disclosed;

(iii) The employer informs the requesting party that the specific chemical
identity is being withheld as a trade secret; and

(iv) The specific chemical identity is made available to health
professionals, employees and designated representatives in accordance with
the specific applicable provisions of this paragraph.

(3) Where a treating physician or nurse determines that a medical emergency
exists and the specific chemical identity of a toxic substance is necessary
for emergency or first-aid treatment, the employer shall immediately disclose
the specific chemical identity of a trade secret chemical to the treating
physician or nurse, regardless of the existence of a written statement of
need or a confidentiality agreement. The employer may require a written
statement of need and confidentiality agreement, in accordance with the
provisions of paragraphs (f)(4) and (f)(5), as soon as circumstances permit.

(4) In non-emergency situations, an employer shall, upon request, disclose a
specific chemical identity, otherwise permitted to be withheld under
paragraph (f)(2) of this section, to a health professional, employee, or
designated representative if:

(i) The request is in writing;

(ii) The request describes with reasonable detail one or more of the
following occupational health needs for the information:

(A) To assess the hazards of the chemicals to which employees will be
exposed;

(B) To conduct or assess sampling of the workplace atmosphere to determine
employee exposure levels;

(C) To conduct pre-assignment or periodic medical surveillance of exposed
employees;

(D) To provide medical treatment to exposed employees;

(E) To select or assess appropriate personal protective equipment for
exposed employees;

(F) To design or assess engineering controls or other protective measures
for exposed employees; and

(G) To conduct studies to determine the health effects of exposure.

(iii) The request explains in detail why the disclosure of the specific
chemical identity is essential and that, in lieu thereof, the disclosure of
the following information would not enable the health professional, employee
or designated representative to provide the occupational health services
described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section:

(A) The properties and effects of the chemical;

(B) Measures for controlling workers' exposure to the chemical;

(C) Methods of monitoring and analyzing worker exposure to the chemical; and,

(D) Methods of diagnosing and treating harmful exposures to the chemical;

(iv) The request includes a description of the procedures to be used to
maintain the confidentiality of the disclosed information; and,

(v) The health professional, employee, or designated representative and the
employer or contractor of the services of the health professional or
designated representative agree in a written confidentiality agreement that
the health professional, employee or designated representative will not use
the trade secret information for any purpose other than the health need(s)
asserted and agree not to release the information under any circumstances
other than to OSHA, as provided in paragraph (f)(9) of this section, except
as authorized by the terms of the agreement or by the employer.

(5) The confidentiality agreement authorized by paragraph (f)(4)(iv) of this
section:

(i) May restrict the use of the information to the health purposes indicated
in the written statement of need;

(ii) May provide for appropriate legal remedies in the event of a breach of
the agreement, including stipulation of a reasonable pre-estimate of likely
damages; and,

(iii) May not include requirements for the posting of a penalty bond.

(6) Nothing in this section is meant to preclude the parties from pursuing
non-contractual remedies to the extent permitted by law.

(7) If the health professional, employee or designated representative
receiving the trade secret information decides that there is a need to
disclose it to OSHA, the employer who provided the information shall be
informed by the health professional prior to, or at the same time as, such
disclosure.

(8) If the employer denies a written request for disclosure of a specific
chemical identity, the denial must:

(i) Be provided to the health professional, employee or designated
representative within thirty days of the request;

(ii) Be in writing;

(iii) Include evidence to support the claim that the specific chemical
identity is a trade secret;

(iv) State the specific reasons why the request is being denied; and,

(v) Explain in detail how alternative information may satisfy the specific
medical or occupational health need without revealing the specific chemical
identity.

(9) The health professional, employee, or designated representative whose
request for information is denied under paragraph (f)(4) of this section may
refer the request and the written denial of the request to OSHA for
consideration.

(10) When a heath professional employee, or designated representative refers
a denial to OSHA under paragraph (f)(9) of this section, OSHA shall consider
the evidence to determine if:

(i) The employer has supported the claim that the specific chemical identity
is a trade secret;

(ii) The health professional employee, or designated representative has
supported the claim that there is a medical or occupational health need for
the information; and

(iii) The health professional, employee or designated representative has
demonstrated adequate means to protect the confidentiality.

(11)(i) If OSHA determines that the specific chemical identity requested
under paragraph (f)(4) of this section is not a bona fide trade secret, or
that it is a trade secret but the requesting health professional, employee or
designated representatives has a legitimate medical or occupational health
need for the information, has executed a written confidentiality agreement,
and has shown adequate means for complying with the terms of such agreement,
the employer will be subject to citation by OSHA.

(ii) If an employer demonstrates to OSHA that the execution of a
confidentiality agreement would not provide sufficient protection against the
potential harm from the unauthorized disclosure of a trade secret specific
chemical identity, the Assistant Secretary may issue such orders or impose
such additional limitations or conditions upon the disclosure of the
requested chemical information as may be appropriate to assure that the
occupational health needs are met without an undue risk of harm to the
employer.

(12) Notwithstanding the existence of a trade secret claim, an employer
shall, upon request, disclose to the Assistant Secretary any information
which this section requires the employer to make available. Where there is a
trade secret claim, such claim shall be made no later than at the time the
information is provided to the Assistant Secretary so that suitable
determinations of trade secret status can be made and the necessary
protections can be implemented.

(13) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as requiring the
disclosure under any circumstances of process or percentage of mixture
information which is trade secret.

(g) Employee information. (1) Upon an employee's first entering into
employment, and at least annually thereafter, each employer shall inform
current employees covered by this section of the following:

(i) The existence, location, and availability of any records covered by this
section;

(ii) The person responsible for maintaining and providing access to records;
and

(iii) Each employee's rights of access to these records.

(2) Each employer shall keep a copy of this section and its appendices, and
make copies readily available, upon request, to employees. The employer shall
also distribute to current employees any informational materials concerning
this section which are made available to the employer by the Assistant
Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

(h) Transfer of records. (1) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business,
the employer shall transfer all records subject to this section to the
successor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain these
records.

(2) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business and there is no successor
employer to receive and maintain the records subject to this standard, the
employer shall notify affected current employees of their rights of access to
records at least three (3) months prior to the cessation of the employer's
business.

(3) Whenever an employer either is ceasing to do business and there is no
successor employer to receive and maintain the records, or intends to dispose
of any records required to be preserved for at least thirty (30) years, the
employer shall:

(i) Transfer the records to the Director of the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) if so required by a specific
occupational safety and health standard; or

(ii) Notify the Director of NIOSH in writing of the impending disposal of
records at least three (3) months prior to the disposal of the records.

(4) Where an employer regularly disposes of records required to be preserved
for at least thirty (30) years, the employer may, with at least (3) months
notice, notify the Director of NIOSH on an annual basis of the records
intended to be disposed of in the coming year.

(i) Appendices. The information contained in appendices A and B to this
section is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not
otherwise imposed by this section nor detract from any existing obligation.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0065)

Appendix A to 1926.33 - Sample Authorization Letter for the Release of
Employee Medical Record Information to a Designated Representative
(Non-Mandatory)

I, ______________________  (full name of worker/patient), hereby authorize
_________________ (individual or organization holding the medical records) to
release to ____________________ (individual or organization authorized to
receive the medical information), the following medical information from my
personal medical records:

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

(Describe generally the information desired to be released)

I give my permission for this medical information to be used for the
following purpose:

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

but I do not give permission for any other use or re-disclosure of this
information.

(Note: Several extra lines are provided below so that you can place
additional restrictions on this authorization letter if you want to. You may,
however, leave these lines blank. On the other hand, you may want to (1)
specify a particular expiration date for this letter (if less than one year);
(2) describe medical information to be created in the future that you intend
to be covered by this authorization letter; or (3) describe portions of the
medical information in your records which you do not intend to be released as
a result of this letter.)

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

Full name of Employee or Legal Representative

_______________________________________

Signature of Employee or Legal Representative
_______________________________________

_______________________________________

Date of Signature

Appendix B to 1926.33 - Availability of NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of
Chemical Substances (RTECS) (Non-Mandatory)

Section 1926.33 applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and
analyses thereof, of employees exposed to toxic substances or harmful
physical agents (paragraph (b)(2)). The term toxic substance or harmful
physical agent is defined by paragraph (c)(13) to encompass chemical
substances, biological agents, and physical stresses for which there is
evidence of harmful health effects. The regulation uses the latest printed
edition of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) as one of the chief
sources of information as to whether evidence of harmful health effects
exists. If a substance is listed in the latest printed RTECS, the regulation
applies to exposure and medical records (and analyses of these records)
relevant to employees exposed to the substance.

It is appropriate to note that the final regulation does not require that
employers purchase a copy of RTECS, and many employers need not consult RTECS
to ascertain whether their employee exposure or medical records are subject
to the rule. Employers who do not currently have the latest printed edition
of the NIOSH RTECS, however, may desire to obtain a copy. The RTECS is issued
in an annual printed edition as mandated by section 20(a)(6) of the
Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 669(a)(6)).

The Introduction to the 1980 printed edition describes the RTECS as follows:

"The 1980 edition of the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances,
formerly known as the Toxic Substances list, is the ninth revision prepared
in compliance with the requirements of Section 20(a)(6) of the Occupational
Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-596). The original list was
completed on June 28, 1971, and has been updated annually in book format.
Beginning in October 1977, quarterly revisions have been provided in
microfiche. This edition of the Registry contains 168,096 listings of
chemical substances: 45,156 are names of different chemicals with their
associated toxicity data and 122,940 are synonyms. This edition includes
approximately 5,900 new chemical compounds that did not appear in the 1979
Registry. (p. xi)

"The Registry's purposes are many, and it serves a variety of users. It is a
single source document for basic toxicity information and for other data,
such as chemical identifiers ad information necessary for the preparation of
safety directives and hazard evaluations for chemical substances. The various
types of toxic effects linked to literature citations provide researchers and
occupational health scientists with an introduction to the toxicological
literature, making their own review of the toxic hazards of a given substance
easier. By presenting data on the lowest reported doses that produce effects
by several routes of entry in various species, the Registry furnishes
valuable information to those responsible for preparing safety data sheets
for chemical substances in the workplace. Chemical and production engineers
can use the Registry to identify the hazards which may be associated with
chemical intermediates in the development of final products, and thus can
more readily select substitutes or alternative processes which may be less
hazardous. Some organizations, including health agencies and chemical
companies, have included the NIOSH Registry accession numbers with the
listing of chemicals in their files to reference toxicity information
associated with those chemicals. By including foreign language chemical
names, a start has been made toward providing rapid identification of
substances produced in other countries. (p. xi)

"In this edition of the Registry, the editors intend to identify "all known
toxic substances" which may exist in the environment and to provide pertinent
data on the toxic effects from known doses entering an organism by any route
described. (p. xi)

"It must be reemphasized that the entry of a substance in the Registry does
not automatically mean that it must be avoided. A listing does mean, however,
that the substance has the documented potential of being harmful if misused,
and care must be exercised to prevent tragic consequences. Thus, the Registry
lists many substances that are common in everyday life and are in nearly
every household in the United States. One can name a variety of such
dangerous substances: prescription and non-prescription drugs; food
additives; pesticide concentrates, sprays, and dusts; fungicides; herbicides;
paints; glazes, dyes; bleaches and other household cleaning agents; alkalies;
and various solvents and diluents. The list is extensive because chemicals
have become an integral part of our existence."

The RTECS printed edition may be purchased from the Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402
(202-783-3238).

Some employers may desire to subscribe to the quarterly update to the RTECS
which is published in a microfiche edition. An annual subscription to the
quarterly microfiche may be purchased from the GPO (Order the "Microfiche
Edition, Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances"). Both the printed
edition and the microfiche edition of RTECS are available for review at many
university and public libraries throughout the country. The latest RTECS
editions may also be examined at the OSHA Technical Data Center, Room N2439 -
Rear, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC
20210 (202-219-7500), or at any OSHA Regional or Area Office (See, major city
telephone directories under U.S. Government - Labor Department).
	4. New 1926.34 is added to read as follows:

1926.34  Means of egress.

(a) General. In every building or structure exits shall be so arranged and
maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of the
building or structure at all times when it is occupied.  No lock or fastening
to prevent free escape from the inside of any building shall be installed
except in mental, penal, or corrective institutions where supervisory
personnel is continually on duty and effective provisions are made to remove
occupants in case of fire or other emergency.

(b) Exit marking.  Exits shall be marked by a readily visible sign.  Access
to exits shall be marked by readily visible signs in all cases where the exit
or way to reach it is not immediately visible to the occupants.

(c) Maintenance and workmanship.  Means of egress shall be continually
maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the
case of fire or other emergency.
	5. New 1926.35 is added to read as follows:

1926.35  Employee emergency action plans.

(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all emergency action
plans required by a particular OSHA standard. The emergency action plan shall
be in writing (except as provided in the last sentence of paragraph (e)(3) of
this section) and shall cover those designated actions employers and
employees must take to ensure employee safety from fire and other
emergencies.

(b) Elements. The following elements, at a minimum, shall be included in the
plan:

(1) Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape route assignments;

(2) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical
plant operations before they evacuate;

(3) Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation has
been completed;

(4) Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them;

(5) The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies; and

(6) Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can be
contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.

(c) Alarm system. (1) The employer shall establish an employee alarm system
which complies with 26.159.

(2) If the employee alarm system is used for alerting fire brigade members,
or for other purposes, a distinctive signal for each purpose shall be used.

(d) Evacuation. The employer shall establish in the emergency action plan
the types of evacuation to be used in emergency circumstances.

(e) Training. (1) Before implementing the emergency action plan, the
employer shall designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assist
in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees.

(2) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by the
plan at the following times:

(i) Initially when the plan is developed,

(ii) Whenever the employee's responsibilities or designated actions under
the plan change, and

(iii) Whenever the plan is changed.

(3) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignment
those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect the employee
in the event of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept at the workplace
and made available for employee review. For those employers with 10 or fewer
employees the plan may be communicated orally to employees and the employer
need not maintain a written plan.

Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Control
	6. New 1926.50(g) is added to read as follows:

1926.50  Medical services and first aid.
 * * * * *
  (g) Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to
injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick
drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within
the work area for immediate emergency use.

7. New paragraphs (a)(6), (d)(2), (f)(2) through (4) and (g) through (i) are
added to 1926.51 and the text of existing 1926.51 (d) and (f) are
redesignated as new paragraphs (d)(1) and (f)(1), respectively. The text of
these standards read as follows

1926.51  Sanitation.

(a) * * * * * (6) Potable water means water which meets the quality
standards prescribed in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water
Standards, published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which is approved for
drinking purposes by the State or local authority having jurisdiction.
 * * * * *
  (d) Food handling.

 * * * * *
  (2) All employee food service facilities and operations shall
be carried out in accordance with sound hygienic principles. In all
places of employment where all or part of the food service is
provided, the food dispensed shall be wholesome, free from
spoilage, and shall be processed, prepared, handled, and stored in
such a manner as to be protected against contamination.


 * * * * *
  (f) Washing facilities.

 * * * * *
  (2) General. Washing facilities shall be maintained in
a sanitary condition.


(3) Lavatories. (i) Lavatories shall be made available in all places of
employment. The requirements of this subdivision do not apply to mobile crews
or to normally unattended work locations if employees working at these
locations have transportation readily available to nearby washing facilities
which meet the other requirements of this paragraph.

(ii) Each lavatory shall be provided with hot and cold running water, or
tepid running water.
	(iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall be provided. (iv)
Individual hand towels or sections thereof, of cloth or paper, warm air
blowers or clean individual sections of continuous cloth toweling, convenient
to the lavatories, shall be provided.

(4) Showers. (i) Whenever showers are required by a particular standard, the
showers shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs (f)(4) (ii) through
(v) of this section.

(ii) One shower shall be provided for each 10 employees of each sex, or
numerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.

(iii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to the
showers shall be provided as specified in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this
section.

(iv) Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a common
discharge line.

(v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual clean towels.

(g) Eating and drinking areas. No employee shall be allowed to consume food
or beverages in a toilet room nor in any area exposed to a toxic material.

(h) Vermin control. Every enclosed workplace shall be so constructed,
equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, as to prevent the
entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. A continuing and
effective extermination program shall be instituted where their presence is
detected.

(i) Change rooms. Whenever employees are required by a particular standard
to wear protective clothing because of the possibility of contamination with
toxic materials, change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street
clothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing shall be
provided.
	8. In 1926.53, paragraphs (c) through (r) are added to read as follows:

1926.53  Ionizing radiation.

 * * * * *
  (c) Definitions applicable to this section. (1)
Radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays,
X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and
other atomic particles; but such term does not include sound or
radio waves, or visible light, or infrared or ultraviolet light.


(2) Radioactive material means any material which emits, by spontaneous
nuclear disintegration, corpuscular or electromagnetic emanations.

(3) Restricted area means any area access to which is controlled by the
employer for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure to radiation
or radioactive materials.

(4) Unrestricted area means any area access to which is not controlled by
the employer for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure to
radiation or radioactive materials.

(5) Dose means the quantity of ionizing radiation absorbed, per unit of
mass, by the body or by any portion of the body. When the provisions in this
section specify a dose during a period of time, the dose is the total
quantity of radiation absorbed, per unit of mass, by the body or by any
portion of the body during such period of time. Several different units of
dose are in current use. Definitions of units used in this section are set
forth in paragraphs (c)(6) and (7) of this section.

(6) Rad means a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body
tissues in terms of the energy absorbed per unit of mass of the tissue. One
rad is the dose corresponding to the absorption of 100 ergs per gram of
tissue (1 millirad (mrad)=0.001 rad).

(7) Rem means a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body tissue
in terms of its estimated biological effect relative to a dose of 1 roentgen
(r) of X-rays (1 millirem (mrem)=0.001 rem). The relation of the rem to other
dose units depends upon the biological effect under consideration and upon
the conditions for irradiation. Each of the following is considered to be
equivalent to a dose of 1 rem:

(i) A dose of 1 roentgen due to X- or gamma radiation;

(ii) A dose of 1 rad due to X-, gamma, or beta radiation;

(iii) A dose of 0.1 rad due to neutrons or high energy protons;

(iv) A dose of 0.05 rad due to particles heavier than protons and with
sufficient energy to reach the lens of the eye;

(v) If it is more convenient to measure the neutron flux, or equivalent,
than to determine the neutron dose in rads, as provided in paragraph
(c)(7)(iii) of this section, 1 rem of neutron radiation may, for purposes of
the provisions in this section be assumed to be equivalent to 14 million
neutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body; or, if there is
sufficient information to estimate with reasonable accuracy the approximate
distribution in energy of the neutrons, the incident number of neutrons per
square centimeter equivalent to 1 rem may be estimated from Table D-53.1:

            Table D-53.1 - Neutron Flux Dose Equivalents
Neutron energy (million electron volts (Mev)) Number of neutrons per square centimeter equivalent to a dose of 1 rem (neutrons/cm(2)) Average flux to deliver 100 millirem in 40 hours (neutrons/cm(2) per sec.)
Thermal 970 X 10(6) 670
0.0001 720 X 10(6) 500
0.005 820 X 10(6) 570
0.02 400 X 10(6) 280
0.1 120 X 10(6) 80
0.5 43 X 10(6) 30
1.0 26 X 10(6) 18
2.5 29 X 10(6) 20
5.0 26 X 10(6) 18
7.5 24 X 10(6) 17
10 24 X 10(6) 17
10 to 30 14 X 10(6) 10
(8) For determining exposures to X- or gamma rays up to 3 Mev., the dose
limits specified in this section may be assumed to be equivalent to the "air
dose". For the purpose of this section air dose means that the dose is
measured by a properly calibrated appropriate instrument in air at or near
the body surface in the region of the highest dosage rate.

(d) Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (1) Except as
provided in other paragraphs of this section, no employer shall possess, use,
or transfer sources of ionizing radiation in such a manner as to cause any
individual in a restricted area to receive in any period of one calendar
quarter from sources in the employer's possession or control a dose in excess
of the limits specified in Table D-53.2:

Table D-53.21
  Rems per calendar quarter
Whole body: Head and trunk; active blood-forming organs; lens of eyes; or gonads 1 1/4
Hands and forearms; feet and ankles 18 3/4
Skin of whole body 7 1/2
(2) An employer may permit an individual in a restricted area to receive
doses to the whole body greater than those permitted under paragraph (d)(1)
of this section, so long as:

(i) During any calendar quarter the dose to the whole body shall not exceed
3 rems; and

(ii) The dose to the whole body, when added to the accumulated occupational
dose to the whole body, shall not exceed 5 (N00918) rems, where "N" equals
the individual's age in years at his last birthday; and

(iii) The employer maintains adequate past and current exposure records
which show that the addition of such a dose will not cause the individual to
exceed the amount authorized in this subparagraph. As used in this
subparagraph Dose to the whole body shall be deemed to include any dose to
the whole body, gonad, active bloodforming organs, head and trunk, or lens of
the eye.

(3) No employer shall permit any employee who is under 18 years of age to
receive in any period of one calendar quarter a dose in excess of 10 percent
of the limits specified in Table D-53.2.

(4) Calendar quarter means any 3-month period determined as follows:

(i) The first period of any year may begin on any date in January: Provided,
That the second, third, and fourth periods accordingly begin on the same date
in April, July, and October, respectively, and that the fourth period extends
into January of the succeeding year, if necessary to complete a 3-month
quarter. During the first year of use of this method of determination, the
first period for that year shall also include any additional days in January
preceding the starting date for the first period; or

(ii) The first period in a calendar year of 13 complete, consecutive
calendar weeks; the second period in a calendar year of 13 complete,
consecutive weeks; the third period in a calendar year of 13 complete,
consecutive calendar weeks; the fourth period in a calendar year of 13
complete, consecutive calendar weeks. If at the end of a calendar year there
are any days not falling within a complete calendar week of that year, such
days shall be included within the last complete calendar week of that year.
If at the beginning of any calendar year there are days not falling within a
complete calendar week of that year, such days shall be included within the
last complete calendar week of the previous year; or

(iii) The four periods in a calendar year may consist of the first 14
complete, consecutive calendar weeks; the next 12 complete, consecutive
calendar weeks, the next 14 complete, consecutive calendar weeks, and the
last 12 complete, consecutive calendar weeks. If at the end of a calendar
year there are any days not falling within a complete calendar week of that
year, such days shall be included (for purposes of this section) within the
last complete calendar week of the year. If at the beginning of any calendar
year there are days not falling within a complete calendar week of that year,
such days shall be included (for purposes of this section) within the last
complete week of the previous year.

(e) Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (1) No employer shall
possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause
any employee, within a restricted area, to be exposed to airborne radioactive
material in an average concentration in excess of the limits specified in
Table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table 1 are for
exposure to the concentrations specified for 40 hours in any workweek of 7
consecutive days. In any such period where the number of hours of exposure is
less than 40, the limits specified in the table may be increased
proportionately. In any such period where the number of hours of exposure is
greater than 40, the limits specified in the table shall be decreased
proportionately.

(2) No employer shall possess, use, or transfer radioactive material in such
a manner as to cause any individual within a restricted area, who is under 18
years of age, to be exposed to airborne radioactive material in an average
concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to
10 CFR part 20. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may be
averaged over periods not greater than 1 week.

(3) Exposed as used in this paragraph means that the individual is present
in an airborne concentration. No allowance shall be made for the use of
protective clothing or equipment, or particle size.

(f) Precautionary procedures and personal monitoring. (1) Every employer
shall make such surveys as may be necessary for him to comply with the
provisions in this section. Survey means an evaluation of the radiation
hazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of
radioactive materials or other sources of radiation under a specific set of
conditions. When appropriate, such evaluation includes a physical survey of
the location of materials and equipment, and measurements of levels of
radiation or concentrations of radioactive material present.

(2) Every employer shall supply appropriate personnel monitoring equipment,
such as film badges, pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, or film rings, and
shall require the use of such equipment by:

(i) Each employee who enters a restricted area under such circumstances that
he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in any calendar quarter in
excess of 25 percent of the applicable value specified in paragraph (d)(1) of
this section; and

(ii) Each employee under 18 years of age who enters a restricted area under
such circumstances that he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in any
calendar quarter in excess of 5 percent of the applicable value specified in
paragraph (d)(1) of this section; and

(iii) Each employee who enters a high radiation area.
	(3) As used in this section:

(i) Personnel monitoring equipment means devices designed to be worn or
carried by an individual for the purpose of measuring the dose received
(e.g., film badges, pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, film rings, etc.);

(ii) Radiation area means any area, accessible to personnel, in which there
exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body could
receive in any 1 hour a dose in excess of 5 millirem, or in any 5 consecutive
days a dose in excess of 100 millirem; and

(iii) High radiation area means any area, accessible to personnel, in which
there exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body could
receive in any one hour a dose in excess of 100 millirem.

(g) Caution signs, labels, and signals - (1) General. (i) Symbols prescribed
by this paragraph shall use the conventional radiation caution colors
(magenta or purple on yellow background). The symbol prescribed by this
paragraph is the conventional three-bladed design:

 Figure D-2
 Radiation Symbol

For Figure D-2 see printed copy of Federal Register June 30, 1993


(2) Radiation area. Each radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with a
sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph
(g)(1) of this section and the words:

CAUTION

RADIATION AREA

(3) High radiation area. (i) Each high radiation area shall be conspicuously
posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and the
words:

CAUTION

HIGH RADIATION AREA

(ii) Each high radiation area shall be equipped with a control device which
shall either cause the level of radiation to be reduced below that at which
an individual might receive a dose of 100 millirems in 1 hour upon entry into
the area or shall energize a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal in
such a manner that the individual entering and the employer or a supervisor
of the activity are made aware of the entry. In the case of a high radiation
area established for a period of 30 days or less, such control device is not
required.

(4) Airborne radioactivity area. (i) As used in the provisions of this
section, airborne radioactivity area means:

(A) Any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive
materials, composed wholly or partly of radioactive material, exist in
concentrations in excess of the amounts specified in column 1 of Table 1 of
appendix B to 10 CFR part 20 or

(B) Any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactive
materials exist in concentrations which, averaged over the number of hours in
any week during which individuals are in the area, exceed 25 percent of the
amounts specified in column 1 of Table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.

(ii) Each airborne radioactivity area shall be conspicuously posted with a
sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph
(g)(1) of this section and the words:

CAUTION

AIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA

(5) Additional requirements - (i) Each area or room in which radioactive
material is used or stored and which contains any radioactive material (other
than natural uranium or thorium) in any amount exceeding 10 times the
quantity of such material specified in appendix C to 10 CFR part 20 shall be
conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution
symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section and the words:

CAUTION

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

(ii) Each area or room in which natural uranium or thorium is used or stored
in an amount exceeding 100 times the quantity of such material specified in
10 CFR part 20 shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the
radiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section and
the words:

CAUTION

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

(6) Containers. (i) Each container in which is transported, stored, or used
a quantity of any radioactive material (other than natural uranium or
thorium) greater than the quantity of such material specified in appendix C
to 10 CFR part 20 shall bear a durable, clearly visible label bearing the
radiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section and
the words:

CAUTION

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

(ii) Each container in which natural uranium or thorium is transported,
stored, or used in a quantity greater than 10 times the quantity specified in
appendix C to 10 CFR part 20 shall bear a durable, clearly visible label
bearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this
section and the words:

CAUTION

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

(iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (g)(6)(i) and (ii) of
this section a label shall not be required:

(A) If the concentration of the material in the container does not exceed
that specified in column 2 of Table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20, or

(B) For laboratory containers, such as beakers, flasks, and test tubes, used
transiently in laboratory procedures, when the user is present.

(iv) Where containers are used for storage, the labels required in this
subparagraph shall state also the quantities and kinds of radioactive
materials in the containers and the date of measurement of the quantities.

(h) Immediate evacuation warning signal - (1) Signal characteristics. (i)
The signal shall be a midfrequency complex sound wave amplitude modulated at
a subsonic frequency. The complex sound wave in free space shall have a
fundamental frequency (f sub(1)) between 450 and 500 hertz (Hz) modulated at
a subsonic rate between 4 and 5 hertz.

(ii) The signal generator shall not be less than 75 decibels at every
location where an individual may be present whose immediate, rapid, and
complete evacuation is essential.

(iii) A sufficient number of signal units shall be installed such that the
requirements of paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section are met at every
location where an individual may be present whose immediate, rapid, and
complete evacuation is essential.

(iv) The signal shall be unique in the plant or facility in which it is
installed.

(v) The minimum duration of the signal shall be sufficient to insure that
all affected persons hear the signal.

(vi) The signal-generating system shall respond automatically to an
initiating event without requiring any human action to sound the signal.

(2) Design objectives. (i) The signal-generating system shall be designed to
incorporate components which enable the system to produce the desired signal
each time it is activated within one-half second of activation.

(ii) The signal-generating system shall be provided with an automatically
activated secondary power supply which is adequate to simultaneously power
all emergency equipment to which it is connected, if operation during power
failure is necessary, except in those systems using batteries as the primary
source of power.

(iii) All components of the signal-generating system shall be located to
provide maximum practicable protection against damage in case of fire,
explosion, corrosive atmosphere, or other environmental extremes consistent
with adequate system performance.

(iv) The signal-generating system shall be designed with the minimum number
of components necessary to make it function as intended, and should utilize
components which do not require frequent servicing such as lubrication or
cleaning.

(v) Where several activating devices feed activating information to a
central signal generator, failure of any activating device shall not render
the signal-generator system inoperable to activating information from the
remaining devices.

(vi) The signal-generating system shall be designed to enhance the
probability that alarm occurs only when immediate evacuation is warranted.
The number of false alarms shall not be so great that the signal will come to
be disregarded and shall be low enough to minimize personal injuries or
excessive property damage that might result from such evacuation.

(3) Testing. (i) Initial tests, inspections, and checks of the
signal-generating system shall be made to verify that the fabrication and
installation were made in accordance with design plans and specifications and
to develop a thorough knowledge of the performance of the system and all
components under normal and hostile conditions.

(ii) Once the system has been placed in service, periodic tests,
inspections, and checks shall be made to minimize the possibility of
malfunction.

(iii) Following significant alterations or revisions to the system, tests
and checks similar to the initial installation tests shall be made.

(iv) Tests shall be designed to minimize hazards while conducting the tests.

(v) Prior to normal operation the signal-generating system shall be checked
physically and functionally to assure reliability and to demonstrate accuracy
and performance. Specific tests shall include:
  1. All power sources.
  2. Calibration and calibration stability.
  3. Trip levels and stability.
  4. Continuity of function with loss and return of required services such as AC or DC power, air pressure, etc.
  5. All indicators.
  6. Trouble indicator circuits and signals, where used.
  7. Air pressure (if used)
  8. Determine that sound level of the signal is within the limit of paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section at all points that require immediate evacuation.
(vi) In addition to the initial startup and operating tests, periodic
scheduled performance tests and status checks must be made to insure that the
system is at all times operating within design limits and capable of the
required response. Specific periodic tests or checks or both shall include:

(A) Adequacy of signal activation device.

(B) All power sources.

(C) Function of all alarm circuits and trouble indicator circuits including
trip levels.

(D) Air pressure (if used).

(E) Function of entire system including operation without power where
required.

(F) Complete operational tests including sounding of the signal and
determination that sound levels are adequate.

(vii) Periodic tests shall be scheduled on the basis of need, experience,
difficulty, and disruption of operations. The entire system should be
operationally tested at least quarterly.

(viii) All employees whose work may necessitate their presence in an area
covered by the signal shall be made familiar with the actual sound of the
signal - preferably as it sounds at their work location. Before placing the
system into operation, all employees normally working in the area shall be
made acquainted with the signal by actual demonstration at their work
locations.

(i) Exceptions from posting requirements. Notwithstanding the provisions of
paragraph (g) of this section:

(1) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign because
of the presence of a sealed source, provided the radiation level 12 inches
(30.48 cm) from the surface of the source container or housing does not
exceed 5 millirem per hour.

(2) Rooms or other areas in onsite medical facilities are not required to be
posted with caution signs because of the presence of patients containing
radioactive material, provided that there are personnel in attendance who
shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of any
individual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limits
established in the provisions of this section.

(3) Caution signs are not required to be posted at areas or rooms containing
radioactive materials for periods of less than 8 hours: Provided, That

(i) The materials are constantly attended during such periods by an
individual who shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure
of any individual to radiation or radioactive materials in excess of the
limits established in the provisions of this section; and

(ii) Such area or room is subject to the employer's control.

(j) Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive
materials packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations of the
Department of Transportation published in 49 CFR Chapter I, are exempt from
the labeling and posting requirements of this subpart during shipment,
provided that the inside containers are labeled in accordance with the
provisions of paragraph (g) of this section.

(i) Instruction of personnel, posting. (1) Employers regulated by the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall be governed by 10 CFR part 20 standards.
Employers in a State named in paragraph (r)(3) of this section shall be
governed by the requirements of the laws and regulations of that State. All
other employers shall be regulated by the following:

(2) All individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a radiation
area shall be informed of the occurrence of radioactive materials or of
radiation in such portions of the radiation area; shall be instructed in the
safety problems associated with exposure to such materials or radiation and
in precautions or devices to minimize exposure; shall be instructed in the
applicable provisions of this section for the protection of employees from
exposure to radiation or radioactive materials; and shall be advised of
reports of radiation exposure which employees may request pursuant to the
regulations in this section.

(3) Each employer to whom this section applies shall post a current copy of
its provisions and a copy of the operating procedures applicable to the work
conspicuously in such locations as to insure that employees working in or
frequenting radiation areas will observe these documents on the way to and
from their place of employment, or shall keep such documents available for
examination of employees upon request.

(l) Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in a
nonradiation area shall be secured against unauthorized removal from the
place of storage.

(m) Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except
by transfer to an authorized recipient, or in a manner approved by the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission or a State named in paragraph (r)(3) of this
section.

(n) Notification of incidents - (1) Immediate notification. Each employer
shall immediately notify the Assistant Secretary of Labor or his duly
authorized representative, for employees not protected by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; paragraph (r)(2) of this
section, or the requirements of the laws and regulations of States named in
paragraph (r)(3) of this section, by telephone or telegraph of any incident
involving radiation which may have caused or threatens to cause:

(i) Exposure of the whole body of any individual to 25 rems or more of
radiation; exposure of the skin of the whole body of any individual to 150
rems or more of radiation; or exposure of the feet, ankles, hands, or
forearms of any individual to 375 rems or more of radiation; or

(ii) The release of radioactive material in concentrations which, if
averaged over a period of 24 hours, would exceed 5,000 times the limit
specified for such materials in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.

(2) Twenty-four hour notification. Each employer shall within 24 hours
following its occurrence notify the Assistant Secretary of Labor or his duly
authorized representative for employees not protected by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; paragraph (r)(2) of this
section, or the requirements of the laws and applicable regulations of States
named in paragraph (r)(3) of this section, by telephone or telegraph of any
incident involving radiation which may have caused or threatens to cause:

(i) Exposure of the whole body of any individual to 5 rems or more of
radiation; exposure of the skin of the whole body of any individual to 30
rems or more of radiation; or exposure of the feet, ankles, hands, or
forearms to 75 rems or more of radiation; or

(o) Reports of overexposure and excessive levels and concentrations. (1) In
addition to any notification required by paragraph (n) of this section each
employer shall make a report in writing within 30 days to the Assistant
Secretary of Labor or his duly authorized representative, for employees not
protected by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; or
under paragraph (r)(2) of this section, or the requirements of the laws and
regulations of States named in paragraph (r)(3) of this section, of each
exposure of an individual to radiation or concentrations of radioactive
material in excess of any applicable limit in this section. Each report
required under this paragraph shall describe the extent of exposure of
persons to radiation or to radioactive material; levels of radiation and
concentration of radioactive material involved, the cause of the exposure,
levels of concentrations; and corrective steps taken or planned to assure
against a recurrence.

(2) In any case where an employer is required pursuant to the provisions of
this paragraph to report to the U.S. Department of Labor any exposure of an
individual to radiation or to concentrations of radioactive material, the
employer shall also notify such individual of the nature and extent of
exposure. Such notice shall be in writing and shall contain the following
statement: "You should preserve this report for future reference."

(p) Records. (1) Every employer shall maintain records of the radiation
exposure of all employees for whom personnel monitoring is required under
paragraph (f) of this section and advise each of his employees of his
individual exposure on at least an annual basis.

(2) Every employer shall maintain records in the same units used in tables
in paragraph (d) of this section and appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.

(q) Disclosure to former employee of individual employee's record. (1) At
the request of a former employee an employer shall furnish to the employee a
report of the employee's exposure to radiation as shown in records maintained
by the employer pursuant to paragraph (p)(1) of this section. Such report
shall be furnished within 30 days from the time the request is made, and
shall cover each calendar quarter of the individual's employment involving
exposure to radiation or such lesser period as may be requested by the
employee. The report shall also include the results of any calculations and
analysis of radioactive material deposited in the body of the employee. The
report shall be in writing and contain the following statement: "You should
preserve this report for future reference."

(r) Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees - NRC contractors operating NRC
plants and facilities - NRC Agreement State licensees or registrants. (1) Any
employer who possesses or uses source material, byproduct material, or
special nuclear material, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as
amended, under a license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and in
accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR part 20 shall be deemed to be in
compliance with the requirements of this section with respect to such
possession and use.

(2) NRC contractors operating NRC plants and facilities: Any employer who
possesses or uses source material, byproduct material, special nuclear
material, or other radiation sources under a contract with the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission for the operation of NRC plants and facilities and in
accordance with the standards, procedures, and other requirements for
radiation protection established by the Commission for such contract pursuant
to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), shall
be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section with
respect to such possession and use.
	(3) NRC-agreement State licensees or registrants:

(i) Atomic Energy Act sources. Any employer who possesses or uses source
material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material, as defined in the
Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), and has
either registered such sources with, or is operating under a license issued
by, a State which has an agreement in effect with the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission pursuant to section 274(b) (42 U.S.C. 2021(b)) of the Atomic
Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and in accordance with the requirements of
that State's laws and regulations shall be deemed to be in compliance with
the radiation requirements of this section, insofar as his possession and use
of such material is concerned, unless the Secretary of Labor, after
conference with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall determine that the
State's program for control of these radiation sources is incompatible with
the requirements of this section. Such agreements currently are in effect
only in the States of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Kansas, Kentucky,
Florida, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas,
Tennessee, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, Louisiana, Nebraska, Washington,
Maryland, North Dakota, South Carolina, and Georgia.

(ii) Other sources. Any employer who possesses or uses radiation sources
other than source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material,
as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et
seq.), and has either registered such sources with, or is operating under a
license issued by a State which has an agreement in effect with the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission pursuant to section 274(b) (42 U.S.C. 2021(b)) of the
Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and in accordance with the
requirements of that State's laws and regulations shall be deemed to be in
compliance with the radiation requirements of this section, insofar as his
possession and use of such material is concerned, provided the State's
program for control of these radiation sources is the subject of a currently
effective determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor that such program
is compatible with the requirements of this section. Such determinations
currently are in effect only in the States of Alabama, Arkansas, California,
Kansas, Kentucky, Florida, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, North
Carolina, Texas, Tennessee, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, Louisiana,
Nebraska, Washington, Maryland, North Dakota, South Carolina, and Georgia.

1926.55  Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. [Amended]

9. In 1926.55(a), the following new sentence is added to the end of the
paragraph: "See Appendix A to this section."  In addition, a new table is
added as Appendix A to the section.  The text of the new appendix reads as
follows:

Appendix A to 1926.55 - 1970 American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists' Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants

Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants for Construction

NOTE:  Because of the length of the table, explanatory Footnotes applicable
to all substances are given below as well as at the end of the table.
Footnotes specific only to a limited number of substances are also shown
within the table.

Footnote(1) [Reserved] Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table. Footnote(3) Use
Asbestos Limit 1926.58. Footnote(4) See 1926.58 Footnote(*) The PELs are
8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling
limit. Footnote(**) As determined from breathing-zone air samples.
Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by
volume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr. Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance per
cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact;
when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate. Footnote(c) [Reserved]
Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only.  Enforcement is based on
the substance name.  For an entry covering more than one metal compound,
measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CAS
numbers for the individual compounds. Footnote(e) [Reserved] Footnote(f)
[Reserved] Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1926.1128 the limit is 10
ppm TWA. Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance but
has not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existing
limit is published. Footnote(i) [Reserved] Footnote(j) Millions of particles
per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field
techniques. Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula
is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in
which other methods have been shown to be applicable. Footnote(l) [Reserved]
Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise
regulated.  Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.

The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as
follows: Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved] Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylene
decomposition products.  Because these products decompose in part by
hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in air
as fluoride to provide an index of exposure.  No TLV is recommended pending
determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations shaould
be minimal. Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates.  The
composition of these materials varies gratly and thus a single TLV for all
types of these materials is no longer applicable.  The content of benzene,
other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the
appropriate TLV. Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants.  The limiting factor is the
available oxygen which shall be at least 19.5 percent and be within the
requirements addressing explosion in part 1926.

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION
Substance CAS No (d) ppm (a) mg/m(3)(h) Skin Design -ation
Abate;
See Temephos
       
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 200 360  
Acetic acid 64-19-7 10 25  
Acetic anhydride 108-24-7 5 20  
Acetone 67-64-1 1000 2400  
Acetonitrile 75-05-8 40 70  
2-Acetylaminofluorine;
See 1926.1114
53-96-3      
Acetylene 74-86-2 E    
Acetylene dichloride;
See 1,2-Dichloroethylene Acetylene tetrabromide
79-27-6 1 14  
Acrolein 107-02-8 0.1 0.25  
Acrylamide 79-06-1   0.3 X
Acrylonitrile;
See 1926.1145
107-13-1      
Aldrin 309-00-2   0.25 X
Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 2 5 X
Allyl chloride 107-05-1 1 3  
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) 106-92-3 (C)10 (C)45  
Allyl propyl disulfide 2179-59-1 2 12  
alpha-Alumina
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1344-28-1   15
5
 
Aluminum (as Al) Metal
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7429-90-5   15
5
 
Alundum;
See alpha-Alumina
       
4-Aminodiphenyl;
See 1926.1111
92-67-1      
2-Aminoethanol;
See Ethanolamine
       
2-Aminopyridine 504-29-0 0.5 2  
Ammonia 7664-41-7 50 35  
Ammonium sulfamate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7773-06-0   15
5
 
n-Amyl acetate 628-63-7 100 525  
sec-Amyl acetate 626-38-0 125 650  
Aniline and homologs 62-53-3 5 19 X
Anisidine (o-,p-isomers) 29191-52-4   0.5 X
Antimony and compounds (as Sb) 7440-36-0   0.5  
ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea) 86-88-4   0.3  
Argon 7440-37-1 E    
Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As);
See 1926.1118
7440-38-2      
Arsenic, organic compounds (as As) 7440-38-2   0.5  
Arsine 7784-42-1 0.05 0.2  
Asbestos;
See 1926.58
       
Azinphos-methyl 86-50-0   0.2 X
Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba) 7440-39-3   0.5  
Barium sulfate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7727-43-7   15
5
 
Benomyl
Total dust
Respirable fraction
17804-35-2   15
5
 
Benzene(g);
See 1926.1128
71-43-2      
Benzidine;
See 1926.1110
92-87-5      
p-Benzoquinone;
See Quinone
       
Benzo(a)pyrene;
See Coal tar pitch volatiles
       
Benzoyl peroxide 94-36-0   5  
Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 1 5  
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as Be) 7440-41-7   0.002  
Biphenyl;
See Diphenyl
       
Bismuth telluride, Undoped
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1304-82-1   15
5
 
Bisphenol A;
See Diglycidyl ether
       
Boron oxide
Total dust
1303-86-2   15  
Boron tribromide 10294-33-4 1 10  
Boron trifluoride 7637-07-2 (C)1 (C)3  
Bromine 7726-95-6 0.1 0.7  
Bromine pentafluoride 7789-30-2 0.1 0.7  
Bromoform 75-25-2 0.5 5 X
Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene)(h) 106-99-0 1000 2200  
Butanethiol;
See Butyl mercaptan
       
2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) 78-93-3 200 590  
2-Butoxyethanol 111-76-2 50 240 X
n-Butyl-acetate 123-86-4 150 710  
sec-Butyl acetate 105-46-4 200 950  
tert-Butyl-acetate 540-88-5 200 950  
n-Butyl alcohol 71-36-3 100 300  
sec-Butyl alcohol 78-92-2 150 450  
tert-Butyl alcohol 75-65-0 100 300  
Butylamine 109-73-9 (C)5 (C)15 X
tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO(3)) 1189-85-1   (C)0.1 X
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) 2426-08-6 50 270  
Butyl mercaptan 109-79-5 0.5 1.5  
p-tert-Butyltoluene 98-51-1 10 60  
Cadmium dust fume (as Cd);
See 1910.1027
7440-43-9      
Calcium Carbonate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3   15
5
 
Calcium hydroxide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1305-62-0   15
5
 
Calcium oxide 1305-78-8   5  
Calcium silicate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1344-95-2   15
5
 
Calcium sulfate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7778-18-9   15
5
 
Camphor, synthetic 76-22-2   2  
Carbaryl (Sevin) 63-25-2   5  
Carbon black 1333-86-4   3.5  
Carbon dioxide 124-38-9 5000 9000  
Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 20 60 X
Carbon monoxide 630-08-0 50 55  
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 10 65 X
Cellulose
Total dust
Respirable fraction
9004-34-6   15
5
 
Chlordane 57-74-9   0.5 X
Chlorinated camphene 8001-35-2   0.5 X
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide 55720-99-5   0.5  
Chlorine 7782-50-5 1 3  
Chlorine trifluoride 7790-91-2 (C)0.1 (C)0.4  
Chloroacetaldehyde 107-20-0 (C)1 (C)3  
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride) 532-27-4 0.05 0.3  
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 75 350  
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile 2698-41-1 0.05 0.4  
Chlorobromomethane 74-97-5 200 1050  
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene;
See beta-Chloroprene
       
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine)(PCB) 53469-21-9   1 X
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)(PCB) 11097-69-1   0.5 X
1-Chloro-2,        
3-epoxypropane;
See Epichlorohydrin
       
2-Chloroethanol;
See Ethylene chlorohydrin
       
Chloroethylene;
See Vinyl chloride
       
Chloroform (Trichloromethane) 67-66-3 50 240  
bis(Chloromethyl) ether;
See 1926.1108
542-88-1      
Chloromethyl methyl ether;
See 1926.1106
107-30-2      
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane 600-25-9 20 100  
Chloropicrin 76-06-2 0.1 0.7  
beta-Chloroprene 126-99-8 25 90 X
2-Chloro-6 (trichloromethyl) pyridine
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1929-82-4   15
5
 
Chromic acid and        
chromates (as CrO(3)) Varies with compound   0.1  
Chromium (II) compounds (as Cr) 7440-47-3   0.5  
Chromium (III) compounds (as Cr) 7440-47-3   0.5  
Chromium metal and insol salts (as Cr) 7440-47-3   1  
Chrysene;
See Coal tar pitch volatiles
       
Clopidol
Total dust
Respirable fraction
2971-90-6   15
5
 
Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction), anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene 65966-93-2   0.2  
Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co) 7440-48-4   0.1  
Coke oven emissions;
See 1926.1129
    0.15  
Copper
Fume (as Cu)
Dusts and mists (as Cu)
7440-50-8   0.1
1
 
Corundum;
See Emery
       
Cotton dust (raw)     1  
Crag herbicide (Sesone)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
136-78-7   15
5
 
Cresol, all isomers 1319-77-3 5 22 X
Crotonaldehyde 123-73-9
4170-30-3
2 6  
Cumene 98-82-8 50 245 X
Cyanides (as CN) Varies with Compound   5  
Cyanogen 460-19-5 10    
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 300 1050  
Cyclohexanol 108-93-0 50 200  
Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 50 200  
Cyclohexene 110-83-8 300 1015  
Cyclonite 121-82-4   1.5 X
Cyclopentadiene 542-92-7 75 200  
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 94-75-7   10  
Decaborane 17702-41-9 0.05 0.3 X
Demeton (Systox) 8065-48-3   0.1 X
Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone) 123-42-2 50 240  
1,2-Diaminoethane;
See Ethylenediamine
       
Diazomethane 334-88-3 0.2 0.4  
Diborane 19287-45-7 0.1 0.1  
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (CBCP);
See 1926.1144
96-12-8      
1,2-Dibromoethane;
See Ethylene dibromide
       
Dibutyl phosphate 107-66-4 1 5  
Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2   5  
Dichloroacetylene 7572-29-4 (C)0.1 (C)0.4  
o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 (C)50 (C)300  
p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 75 450  
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine;
See 1926.1107
91-94-1      
Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 1000 4950  
1,3-Dichloro-5, 5-dimethyl hydantoin 118-52-5   0.2  
Dichlorodiphenyltri-chloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3   1 X
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 100 400  
1,2-Dichloroethane;
See Ethylene dichloride
       
1,2-Dichloroethylene 540-59-0 200 790  
Dichloroethyl ether 111-44-4 (C)15 (C)90 X
Dichloromethane;
See Methylene chloride
       
Dichloromonofluoro-methane 75-43-4 1000 4200  
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane 594-72-9 (C)10 (C)60  
1,2-Dichloropropane;
See Propylene dichloride
       
Dichlorotetrafluoro-ethane 76-14-2 1000 7000  
Dichlorvos (DDVP) 62-73-7   1 X
Dicyclopentadienyl iron
Total dust
Respirable fraction
102-54-5   15
5
 
Dieldrin 60-57-1   0.25 X
Diethylamine 109-89-7 25 75  
2-Diethylaminoethanol 100-37-8 10 50 X
Diethylene triamine 111-40-0 (C)10 (C)42 X
Diethyl ether;
See Ethyl ether
       
Difluorodibromomethane 75-61-6 100 860  
Diglycidyl ether (DGE) 2238-07-5 (C)0.5 (C)2.8  
Dihydroxybenzene;
See Hydroquinone
       
Diisobutyl ketone 108-83-8 50 290  
Diisopropylamine 108-18-9 5 20 X
4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene;
See 1926. 1115
60-11-7      
Dimethoxymethane;
See Methylal
       
Dimethyl acetamide 127-19-5 10 35 X
Dimethylamine 124-40-3 10 18  
Dimethylaminobenzene;
See Xylidine
       
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline) 121-69-7 5 25 X
Dimethylbenzene;
See Xylene
       
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2, 2-dichloroethyl phosphate 300-76-5   3  
Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 10 30 X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone;
See Diisobutyl ketone
       
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7 0.5 1 X
Dimethylphthalate 131-11-3   5  
Dimethyl sulfate 77-78-1 1 5 X
Dinitrobenzene
(all isomers)
(ortho)
(meta)
(para)


528-29-0
99-65-0
100-25-4
 
1

X
Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1   0.2 X
Dinitrotoluene 25321-14-6   1.5 X
Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide) 123-91-1 100 360 X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl) 92-52-4 0.2 1  
Diphenylamine 122-39-4   10  
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate;
See Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate
       
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether 34590-94-8 100 600 X
Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) 117-81-7   5  
Emery
Total dust
Respirable fraction
12415-34-8   15
5
 
Endosulfan 115-29-7   0.1 X
Endrin 72-20-8   0.1 X
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 5 19 X
EPN 2104-64-5   0.5 X
1,2-Epoxypropane;
See Propylene oxide
       
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol;
See Glycidol
       
Ethane 74-84-0 E    
Ethanethiol;
See Ethyl mercaptan
       
Ethanolamine 141-43-5 3 6  
2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve) 110-80-5 200 740 X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate) 111-15-9 100 540 X
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 400 1400  
Ethyl acrylate 140-88-5 25 100 X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) 64-17-5 1000 1900  
Ethylamine 75-04-7 10 18  
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone) 541-85-5 25 130  
Ethyl benzene 100-41-4 100 435  
Ethyl bromide 74-96-4 200 890  
Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone) 106-35-4 50 230  
Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 1000 2600  
Ethyl ether 60-29-7 400 1200  
Ethyl formate 109-94-4 100 300  
Ethyl mercaptan 75-08-1 0.5 1  
Ethyl silicate 78-10-4 100 850  
Ethylene 74-85-1 E    
Ethylene chlorohydrin 107-07-3 5 16 X
Ethylenediamine 107-15-3 10 25  
Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 (C)25 (C)190 X
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane) 107-06-2 50 200  
Ethylene glycol dinitrate 628-96-6 (C)0.2 (C)1 X
Ethylene glycol methyl acetate;
See Methyl cellosolve acetate
       
Ethyleneimine;
See 1926.1112
151-56-4      
Ethylene oxide;
See 1926.1147
75-21-8      
Ethylidene chloride;
See 1,1-Dichlorethane
       
N-Ethylmorpholine 100-74-3 20 94 X
Ferbam
Total dust
14484-64-1   15  
Ferrovanadium dust 12604-58-9   1  
Fibrous Glass
Total dust
Respirable fraction
    15
5
 
Fluorides (as F) Varies with compound   2.5  
Fluorine 7782-41-4 0.1 0.2  
Fluorotrichloromethane (Trichloro-fluoromethane) 75-69-4 1000 5600  
Formaldehyde;
See 1926.1148
50-00-0      
Formic acid 64-18-6 5 9  
Furfural 98-01-1 5 20 X
Furfuryl alcohol 98-00-0 50 200  
Gasoline 8006-61-9   A(3)  
Glycerin (mist)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
56-81-5   15
5
 
Glycidol 556-52-5 50 150  
Glycol monoethyl ether;
See 2-Ethoxyethanol
       
Graphite, natural
respirable dust
7782-42-5 (2) (2) (2)
Graphite, synthetic
Total dust
Respirable Fraction
    15
5
 
Guthion;
See Azinphos methyl
       
Gypsum
Total dust
Respirable fraction
13397-24-5   15
5
 
Hafnium 7440-58-6   0.5  
Helium 7440-59-7 E    
Heptachlor 76-44-8   0.5 X
Heptane (n-Heptane) 142-82-5 500 2000  
Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 1 10 X
Hexachloronaphthalene 1335-87-1   0.2 X
n-Hexane 110-54-3 500 1800  
2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone) 591-78-6 100 410  
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone) 108-10-1 100 410  
sec-Hexyl acetate 108-84-9 50 300  
Hydrazine 302-01-2 1 1.3 X
Hydrogen 1333-74-0 E    
Hydrogen bromide 10035-10-6 3 10  
Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 (C)5 (C)7  
Hydrogen cyanide 74-90-8 10 11 X
Hydrogen fluoride (as F) 7664-39-3 3 2  
Hydrogen peroxide 7722-84-1 1 1.4  
Hydrogen selenide (as Se) 7783-07-5 0.05    
Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 10 15  
Hydroquinone 123-31-9   2  
Indene 95-13-6 10 45  
Indium and compounds (as in) 7440-74-6   0.1  
Iodine 7553-56-2 (C)0.1 (C)1  
Iron oxide fume 1309-37-1   10  
Iron salts (soluble) (as Fe) Varies with compound   1  
Isomyl acetate 123-92-2 100 525  
Isomyl alcohol (primary and secondary) 123-51-3 100 360  
Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 150 700  
Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 100 300  
Isophorone 78-59-1 25 140  
Isopropyl acetate 108-21-4 250 950  
Isopropyl alcohol 67-63-0 400 980  
Isopropylamine 75-31-0 5 12  
Isopropyl ether 108-20-3 500 2100  
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE) 4016-14-2 50 240  
Kaolin
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1332-58-7   15
5
 
Ketene 463-51-4 0.5 0.9  
Lead inorganic (as Pb); 7439-92-1   0.2  
Limestone
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3   15
5
 
Lindane 58-89-9   0.5 X
Lithium hydride 7580-67-8   0.025  
LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) 68476-85-7 1000 1800  
Magnesite
Total dust
Respirable fraction
546-93-0   15
5
 
Magnesium oxide fume
Total Particulate
1309-48-4   15  
Malathion
Total dust
121-75-5   15 X
Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 0.25    
Manganese compounds (as Mn) 7439-96-5   (C)5  
Manganese fume (as Mn) 7439-96-5   (C)5  
Marble
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3   15
5
 
Mercury (aryl and inorganic)(as Hg) 7439-97-6   0.1 X
Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg) 7439-97-6   0.01 X
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg) 7439-97-6   0.1 X
Mesityl oxide 141-79-7 25 100  
Methane 74-82-8 E    
Methanethiol;
See Methyl mercaptan
       
Methoxychlor
Total dust
72-43-5   15  
2-Methoxyethanol; (Methyl cellosolve) 109-86-4 25 80 X
2- Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate) 110-49-6 25 120 X
Methyl acetate 79-20-9 200 610  
Methyl acetylene (Propyne) 74-99-7 1000 1650  
Methyl acetylene propadiene mixture (MAPP)   1000 1800  
Methyl acrylate 96-33-3 10 35 X
Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane) 109-87-5 1000 3100  
Methyl alcohol 67-56-1 200 260  
Methylamine 74-89-5 10 12  
Methyl amyl alcohol;
See Methyl Isobutyl carbinol
       
Methyl n-amyl ketone 110-43-0 100 465  
Methyl bromide 74-83-9 (C)20 (C)80 X
Methyl butyl ketone;
See 2-Hexanone
       
Methyl cellosolve;
See 2-Methoxyethanol
       
Methyl cellosolve acetate;
See 2-Methoxyethyl acetate
       
Methyl chloride 74-87-3 100 210  
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloro-ethane) 71-55-6 350 1900  
Methylcyclohexane 108-87-2 500 2000  
Methylcyclohexanol 25639-42-3 100 470  
o-Methylcyclohexanone 583-60-8 100 460 X
Methylene chloride(h)
See 56 FR 57036
75-09-2 500 1740  
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK);
See 2-Butanone
       
Methyl formate 107-31-3 100 250  
Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydrazine) 60-34-4 (C)0.2 (C)0.35 X
Methyl iodide 74-88-4 5 28 X
Methyl isoamyl ketone 110-12-3 100 475  
Methyl isobutyl carbinol 108-11-2 25 100 X
Methyl isobutyl ketone;
See Hexone
       
Methyl isocyanate 624-83-9 0.02 0.05 X
Methyl mercaptan 74-93-1 0.5 1  
Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 100 410 100
Methyl propyl ketone;
See 2-Pentanone
       
Methyl silicate 681-84-5 5 30  
alpha-Methyl styrene 98-83-9 (C)100 (C)480  
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) 101-68-8 (C)0.02 (C)0.2  
Mica;
See Silicates
       
Mineral wool
Total dust
Respirable dust
    15
5
 
Molybdenum (as Mo)
Soluble compounds
Insoluble Compounds
Total dust
7439-98-7   5

15
 
Monomethyl aniline 100-61-8 2 9 X
Monomethyl hydrazine;
See Methyl hydrazine
       
Morpholine 110-91-8 20 70 X
Naphtha (Coal tar) 8030-30-6 100 400  
Naphthalene 91-20-3 10 50  
alpha-Naphthylamine;
See 1926.1104
134-32-7      
beta-Naphthylamine;
See 1926.1109
91-59-8      
Neon 7440-01-9 E    
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni) 13463-39-3 0.001 0.007  
Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni) 7440-02-0   1  
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni) 7440-02-0   1  
Nicotine 54-11-5   0.5 X
Nitric acid 7697-37-2 2 5  
Nitric oxide 10102-43-9 25 30  
p-Nitroaniline 100-01-6 1 6 X
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 1 5 X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene 100-00-5   1 X
4-Nitrodiphenyl;
See 1926.1103
92-93-3      
Nitroethane 79-24-3 100 310  
Nitrogen 7727-37-9 E    
Nitrogen dioxide 10102-44-0 (C)5 (C)9  
Nitrogen trifluoride 7783-54-2 10 29  
Nitroglycerin 55-63-0 (C)0.2 (C)2 X
Nitromethane 75-52-5 100 250  
1-Nitropropane 108-03-2 25 90  
2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 25 90  
N-Nitrosodimethylamine;
See 1926.1116
62-79-9      
Nitrotoluene (all isomers)
o-isomer
m-isomer
p-isomer

88-72-2
99-08-1
99-99-0
5 30 X
Nitrotrichloromethane;
See Chloropicrin
       
Nitrous oxide 10024-97-2 E    
Octachloronaphthalene 2234-13-1   0.1 X
Octane 111-65-9 400 1900  
Oil mist, mineral 8012-95-1   5  
Osmium tetroxide(as Os) 20816-12-0   0.002  
Oxalic acid 144-62-7   1  
Oxygen difluoride 7783-41-7 0.05 0.1  
Ozone 10028-15-6 0.1 0.2  
Paraquat, respirable dust 4685-14-7
1910-42-5
2074-50-2
  0.5 X
Parathion 56-38-2   0.1 X
Particulates not otherwise regulated
Total dust organic and inorganic
    15  
PCB;
See Chlorodiphenyl (42% and 54% chlorine)
       
Pentaborane 19624-22-7 0.005 0.01  
Pentachloronaphthalene 1321-64-8   0.5 X
Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5   0.5 X
Pentaerythritol
Total dust
Respirable fraction
115-77-5   15
5
 
Pentane 109-66-0 500 1500  
2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone) 107-87-9 200 700  
Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene) 127-18-4 100 670  
Perchloromethyl mercaptan 594-42-3 0.1 0.8  
Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6 3 13.5  
Perlite
Total dust
Respirable fraction
93763-70-3   15
5
 
Petroleum distillates (Naphtha)(Rubber Solvent)     A(3)  
Phenol 108-95-2 5 19 X
p-Phenylene diamine 106-50-3   0.1 X
Phenyl ether, vapor 101-84-8 1 7  
Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor   1 7  
Phenylethylene;
See Styrene
       
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) 122-60-1 10 60  
Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0 5 22 X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos) 7786-34-7   0.1 X
Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride) 75-44-5 0.1 0.4  
Phosphine 7803-51-2 0.3 0.4  
Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2   1  
Phosphorus (yellow) 7723-14-0   0.1  
Phosphorus pentachloride 10026-13-8   1  
Phosphorus pentasulfide 1314-80-3   1  
Phosphorus trichloride 7719-12-2 0.5 3  
Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 2 12  
Picloram
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1918-02-1   15
5
 
Picric acid 88-89-1   0.1  
Piperazine dihydrochloride 142-64-3     X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1, 3-indandione) 83-26-1   0.1  
Plaster of paris
Total dust
Respirable fraction
26499-65-0   15
5
 
Platinum (as Pt)
Metal
Soluble Salts
7440-06-4   0.002  
Polytetrafluoroethylene
decomposition
products
    A(2)  
Portland cement
Total dust
Respirable fraction
65997-15-1  

5
10
15
Propargyl alcohol 107-19-7 1   X
beta-Propriolactone;
See 1926.1113
57-57-8      
Propionic acid 79-09-4      
n-Propyl acetate 109-60-4 200 840  
n-Propyl alcohol 71-23-8 200 500  
n-Propyl nitrate 627-13-4 25 110  
Propylene dichloride 78-87-5 75 350  
Propylene imine 75-55-8 2 5 X
Propylene oxide 75-56-9 100 240  
Propyne;
See Methyl acetylene
       
Pyrethrum 8003-34-7   5  
Pyridine 110-86-1 5 15  
Quinone 106-51-4 0.1 0.4  
RDX:
See Cyclonite
       
Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and insoluble compounds 7440-16-6   0.1  
Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds 7440-16-6   0.001  
Ronnel 299-84-3   10  
Rotenone 83-79-4   5  
Rouge
Total dust
Respirable fraction
    15
5
 
Selenium compounds (as Se) 7782-49-2   0.2  
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se) 7783-79-1 0.05 0.4  
Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel 112926-00-8 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth, containing less than 1% crystalline silica 61790-53-2 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline cristobalite, respirable dust 14464-46-1 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline quartz, respirable dust 14808-60-7 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline tripoli (as quartz), respirable dust 1317-95-9 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, crystalline tridymite, respirable dust 15468-32-3 (2) (2) (2)
Silica, fused, respirable dust 60676-86-0 (2) (2) (2)
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica) Mica (respirable dust)
Soapstone, total dust
Soapstone, respirable dust
Talc (containing asbestos)

12001-26-2
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
Talc (containing no asbestos), respirable dust
Tremolite

14807-96-6
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
Silicon
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7440-21-3   15
5
 
Silicon carbide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
409-21-2   15
5
 
Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag) 7440-22-4   0.01  
Soapstone;
See Silicates
       
Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8   0.05 X
Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2   2  
Starch
Total dust
Respirable fraction
9005-25-8   15
5
 
Stibine 7803-52-3 0.1 0.5  
Stoddard solvent 8052-41-3 200 1150  
Strychnine 57-24-9   0.15  
Styrene 100-42-5 100 420 50
Sucrose
Total dust
Respirable fraction
57-50-1   15
5
 
Sulfur dioxide 7446-09-5 5 13  
Sulfur hexafluoride 2551-62-4 1000 6000  
Sulfuric acid 7664-93-9   1  
Sulfur monochloride 10025-67-9 1 6  
Sulfur pentafluoride 5714-22-7 0.025 0.25  
Sulfuryl fluoride 2699-79-8 5 20  
Systox;
See Demeton
       
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-tri-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) 93-76-5   10  
Talc;
See Silicates
       
Tantalum, metal and oxide dust 7440-25-7   5  
TEDP (Sulfotep) 3689-24-5   0.2 X
Teflon decomposition products     A2  
Tellurium and compounds (as Te) 13494-80-9   0.1  
Tellurium hexafluoride(as Te) 7783-80-4 0.02 0.2  
Temephos
Total dust
Respirable fraction
3383-96-8   15
5
 
TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphaate) 107-49-3   0.05 X
Terphenylis 26140-60-3 (C)1 (C)9  
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2, 2-difluoroethane 76-11-9 500 4170  
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1, 2-difluoroethane 76-12-0 500 4170  
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 5 35 X
Tetrachoroethylene;
See Perchloroethylene
       
Tetrachloromethane;
SeeCarbon tetrachloride
       
Tetrachloronaphthalene 1335-88-2   2 X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) 78-00-2   0.1 X
Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 200 590  
Tetramethyl lead, (as Pb) 75-74-1   0.15 X
Tetramethyl succinonitrile 3333-52-6 0.5 3 X
Tetranitromethane 509-14-8 1 8  
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitro-phenylmethyl-nitramine) 479-45-8   1.5 X
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl) 7440-28-0   0.1 X
4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert, Butyl-m-cresol)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
96-69-5   15
5
 
Thiram 137-26-8   5  
Tin, inorganic compounds (except oxides) (as Sn) 7440-31-5   2  
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn) 7440-31-5   0.1  
Tin oxide (as Sn)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
21651-19-4   15
5
 
Titanium dioxide
Total dust
13463-67-7   15  
Toluene 108-88-3 200 750 100
Toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) 584-84-9 (C)0.02 (C)0.14  
o-Toluidine 95-53-4 5 22 X
Toxaphene;
See Chlorinated camphene
       
Tremolite;
See Silicates
       
Tributyl phosphate 126-73-8   5  
1,1,1-Trichloroethane;
See Methyl chloroform
       
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 10 45 X
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 100 535  
Trichloromethane;
See Chloroform
       
Trichloronaphthalene 1321-65-9   5 X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 50 300  
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2, 2-trifluoroethane 76-13-1 1000 7600  
Triethylamine 121-44-8 25 100  
Trifluorobromomethane 75-63-8 1000 6100  
Trimethyl benzene 25551-13-7 25 120  
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl;
See Picric acid
       
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl-methyl nitramine;
See Tetryl
       
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7   15 X
Triorthocresyl phosphate 78-30-8   0.1  
Triphenyl phosphate 115-86-6   3  
Tungsten (as W)
Insoluble compounds
Soluble compounds
7440-33-7   5
1
 
Turpentine 8006-64-2 100 560  
Uranium (as U)
Soluble compounds
Insoluble compounds
7440-61-1   0.2
0.2
 
Vanadium Respirable dust
(as V(2)O(5))
Fume (as V(2)O(5))
1314-62-1   (C)0.5
(C)0.1
 
Vegetable oil mist
Total dust
Respirable fraction
    15
5
 
Vinyl benzene;
See Styrene
       
Vinyl chloride;
See 1926.1117
75-01-4      
Vinyl cyanide;
See Acrylonitrile
       
Vinyl toluene 25013-15-4 100 480  
Warfarin 81-81-2   0.1  
Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers) 1330-20-7 100 435  
Xylidine 1300-73-8 5 25 X
Yttrium 7440-65-5   1  
Zinc chloride fume 7646-85-7   1  
Zinc oxide fume 1314-13-2   5  
Zinc oxide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1314-13-2   15
5
 
Zinc stearate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
557-05-1   15
5
 
Zirconium compounds (as Zr) 7440-67-7   5  
MINERAL DUSTS
Substance mppcf(j)
SILICA:
  Crystalline
Quartz. Threshold limit calculated from the formula


250(k)
 
  percent SiO(2)+5
Cristobalite.
  Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth
20

SILICATES (less than 1 percent crystalline silica)
  Mica
  Portland cement
  Soapstone
  Talc (non-asbestiform)
  Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit
Graphite (natural)

 
20
50
20
20
--
15
 
Inert or Nuisance Particulates:(m) 50 (or 15 mg/m(3) whichever is the the smaller) of total dust less than 1 percent SiO(2)
   
Conversion factors.  
mppcf X 35.3 = million particles  
per cubic meter = particles per c.c.  




Footnote(1) [Reserved] 
Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table. 
Footnote(3) Use Asbestos Limit 1926.58. 
Footnote(4) See 1926.58 
Footnote(*) The PELs are
8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling
limit. 
Footnote(**) As determined from breathing-zone air samples. 
Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by
volume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr. 
Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance per
cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact;
when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate. 
Footnote(c) [Reserved]
Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only.  Enforcement is based on
the substance name.  For an entry covering more than one metal compound,
measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CAS
numbers for the individual compounds. 
Footnote(e) [Reserved] 
Footnote(f) [Reserved] 
Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1926.1128 the limit is 10
ppm TWA. 
Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance but
has not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existing
limit is published. 
Footnote(i) [Reserved] 
Footnote(j) Millions of particles
per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field
techniques. 
Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula
is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances in
which other methods have been shown to be applicable. 
Footnote(l) [Reserved]
Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise
regulated.  Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.

The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as
follows: Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved] Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylene
decomposition products.  Because these products decompose in part by
hydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in air
as fluoride to provide an index of exposure.  No TLV is recommended pending
determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations shaould
be minimal. Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates.  The
composition of these materials varies gratly and thus a single TLV for all
types of these materials is no longer applicable.  The content of benzene,
other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the
appropriate TLV. Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants.  The limiting factor is the
available oxygen which shall be at least 19.5 percent and be within the
requirements addressing explosion in part 1926.
	10. In 1926.57, new paragraphs (f) - (i) are added to read as follows:

1926.57   Ventilation.

(f) "Abrasive blasting" - (1) "Definitions applicable to this paragraph" -

(i) "Abrasive." A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(ii) "Abrasive-blasting respirator." A continuous flow air-line respirator
constructed so that it will cover the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to
protect him from rebounding abrasive.

(iii) "Blast cleaning barrel." A complete enclosure which rotates on an
axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to
expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast
spray.

(iv) "Blast cleaning room." A complete enclosure in which blasting
operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to
operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(v) "Blasting cabinet." An enclosure where the operator stands outside and
operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(vi) "Clean air." Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or
discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(vii) "Dust Collector." A device or combination of devices for separating
dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(viii) "Exhaust ventilation system." A system for removing contaminated air
from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements (A) enclosure
or hood, (B) duct work, (C) dust collecting equipment, (D) exhauster, and (E)
discharge stack.

(ix) "Particulate-filter respirator." An air purifying respirator, commonly
referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or
fume from the air passing through the device.

(x) "Respirable dust." Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the
upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(xi) "Rotary blast cleaning table." An enclosure where the pieces to be
cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically
through a series of blast sprays.

(xii) "Abrasive blasting." The forcible application of an abrasive to a
surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(2) "Dust hazards from abrasive blasting." (i) Abrasives and the surface
coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during
blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable
size.  The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be
considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.

(ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of
the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the
levels specified in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.

(iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in
automatic systems.  Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be
present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and
all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American National
Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and
Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), and Subpart S of this
part.  The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build up
of static charges.  Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be
present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector
shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on
sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of
explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection
Association Explosion venting Guide. NFPA 68-1954.

(3) "Blast-cleaning enclosure." (i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be
exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be
maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.

(A) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that
by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or
dust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible
spurts of dust will not be observed.

(B) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of
the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.

(C) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the
exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the
dusty air within the enclosure.

(D) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation
windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.

(E) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at
all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected
regularly and replaced when needed.
	{1} Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed. {2} Door on
blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except
that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door
may be closed or opened from the outside only.

(4) "Exhaust ventilation system." (i) The construction, installation,
inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the
principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,
Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961.

(a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.

(b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment
shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically
thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an
appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the
system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.

(ii) In installation where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust
ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for
the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive
separator.  An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.

(iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged
through dust collecting equipment.  Dust collectors shall be set up so that
the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other
working areas.

(5) "Personal protective equipment." (i) Only respiratory protective
equipment approved by the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior
(see 30 CFR part 11) shall be used for protection of personnel against dusts
produced during abrasive-blasting operations.

(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting
operators:
	(A) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or (B) When using
silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not
physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or
(C) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting may
exceed the limits set in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part and
the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an
exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(iii) Particulate filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter
respirators, properly fitted, may be used for short, intermittent, or
occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or
unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point, when it is not feasible to
control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means.
Respirators used shall be approved (see 30 CFR part 11) for protection
against the specific type of dust encountered.

(A) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outside
abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials
having low toxicities.

(B) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection
where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are
blasted.

(iv) A respiratory protection program as defined and described in 1926.103,
shall be established wherever it is necessary to use respiratory protective
equipment.

(v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and
aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives.
 Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy pieces
of work are handled.

(A) Safety shoes shall conform to the requirements of American National
Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.

(B) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to the
operator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and to
any other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations.
This equipment shall conform to the requirements of 1926.102.

(6) Air supply and air compressors.  The air for abrasive-blasting
respirators shall be free of harmful quantities of dust, mists, or noxious
gases, and shall meet the requirements for air purity set forth in ANSI
Z9.2-1960.  The air from the regular compressed air line of the plant may be
used for the abrasive-blasting respirator if:

(i) A trap and carbon filter are installed and regularly maintained, to
remove oil, water, scale, and odor, (ii) A pressure reducing diaphragm or
valve is installed to reduce the pressure down to requirements of the
particular type of abrasive-blasting respirator, and (iii) An automatic
control is provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor in
case of overheating.

(7) "Operational procedures and general safety." Dust shall not be permitted
to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting
enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly.  Aisles and walkways
shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a
slipping hazard.

(8) "Scope." (i)(a) This paragraph applies to all operations where an
abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure,
or by centrifugal force.  It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam
cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of
abrasives.

(g) "Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations" - (1) "Definitions
applicable to this paragraph" -

(i) "Abrasive cutting-off wheels." Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness of
which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to,
and including, 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, and not more than
one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches (50.8 cm) in
diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting,
cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like.  The
wheels may be "solid" consisting of organic-bonded abrasive material
throughout, "steel centered" consisting of a steel disc with a rim of
organic-bonded material molded around the periphery, or of the "inserted
tooth" type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth or
inserts mechanically secured around the periphery.

(ii) "Belts." All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding,
polishing, or buffing purposes.

(iii) "Branch pipe." The part of an exhaust system piping that is connected
directly to the hood or enclosure.

(iv) "Cradle." A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or
polished is placed.

(v) "Disc wheels." All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasive
materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on the
side of the assembled disc.

(vi) "Entry loss." The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into a
duct or hood.  It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(vii) "Exhaust system." A system consisting of branch pipes connected to
hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means for
separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and a
discharge stack to outside.

(viii) "Grinding wheels." All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasive
wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting of
abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used for
peripheral grinding.

(ix) "Header pipe (main pipe)." A pipe into which one or more branch pipes
enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaust
system.

(x) "Hoods and enclosures." The partial or complete enclosure around the
wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.

(xi) "Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder." A grinding machine carrying
two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the inside
ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfaces
simultaneously.

(xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder.  A grinding machine carrying
an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatable
single horizontal spindle.

(xiii) "Polishing and buffing wheels." All power-driven rotatable wheels
composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, and
may be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes of
polishing, buffing, and light grinding.

(xiv) "Portable grinder." Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or
buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.

(xv) "Scratch brush wheels." All power-driven rotatable wheels made from
wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.

(xvi) "Swing-frame grinder." Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing,
or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supporting
framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.

(xvii) "Velocity pressure (vp)." The kinetic pressure in the direction of
flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It is
usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(xviii) "Vertical spindle disc grinder." A grinding machine having a
vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive disc
wheel.

(2) "Application." Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is
performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators,
exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in 1926.55 or other
pertinent sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be
provided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribed
limits.

(3) "Hood and branch pipe requirements." (i) Hoods connected to exhaust
systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placed
so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoods
in the direction of the air flow.  No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shall
be operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust and
dirt particles to be thrown into the operator's breathing zone.

(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and
special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall have
not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table D-57.1 with a
recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and
3,500 feet per minute in the main.  The entry losses from all hoods except
the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressure
for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff.  The
entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figure
D-57.1 (following paragraph (g) of this section).

TABLE D-57.1 - GRINDING AND ABRASIVE CUTTING-OFF WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm) Wheel width, inches (cm) Minimum exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
To 9 (22.86) 1½ (3.81) 220
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64) 2 (5.08) 390
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26) 3 (7.62) 500
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96) 4 (10.16) 610
ver 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2) 5 (12.7) 880
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) 6 (15.24) 1,200
For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table D-57.1, increase the
exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.

Example:

If wheel width = 4 1/2 inches (11.43 cm), then 4.5 + 4 X 610 = 686 (rounded
to 690).

(iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted on
floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have not
less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table D-57.2.

TABLE D-57.2 - BUFFING AND POLISHING WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm) Wheel width, inches (cm) Minimum exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
To 9 (22.86) 2 (5.08) 300
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64) 3 (7.62) 500
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26) 4 (10.16) 610
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96) 5 (12.7) 740
ver 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2) 6 (15.24) 1,040
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) 6 (15.24) 1,200
(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders
shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grinding
operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust
volumes as shown in Table D-57.3.


TABLE D-57.3 - HORIZONTAL SINGLE-SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm) Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 12 (30.48) 220
Over 12 to 19 (30.48 to 48.26 390
Over 19 to 30 (48.26 to 76.2) 610
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) 880
(v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grinders
shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall be
connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in
Table D-57.4.


TABLE D-57.4 - HORIZONTAL DOUBLE-SPINDLE DISC
GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm) Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 19 (48.26) 610 Over 19 to 25
(48.26 to 63.5) 880 Over 25 to 30
(63.5 to 76.2) 1,200 Over 30 to 53
(76.2 to 134.62) 1,770 Over 53 to 72
(134.62 to 182.88) 6,280
(vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grinders
shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation.
The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust
volumes as shown in Table D-57.5.

TABLE D-57.5 - VERTICAL SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm) One-half or more of disc covered Disc not covered
Number(1) Exhaust foot (3)/ min. Number(1) Exhaust foot (3)/ min.
Up to 20 (50.8) 1 500 2 780
Over 20 to 30 (50.8 to 76.2) 2 780 2 1,480
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62) 2 1,770 4 3,530
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88) 2 3,140 5 6,010
Footnote(1) Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equal
distribution provided by other means.

(vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to remove
dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected to
branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.6.

TABLE D-57.6 - GRINDING AND POLISHING BELTS
Belts width, inches (cm) Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 3 (7.62) 220
Over 3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7) 300
Over 5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78) 390
Over 7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86) 500
Over 9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94) 610
Over 11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02) 740
(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders.  Where cradles are used for
handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partial
enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of
150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of the
enclosure.  Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manner
as provided for cradles.  (See fig. D-57.3) (ix) Where the work is outside
the hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American Standard
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,
Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).

(4) "Exhaust systems." (i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and
buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American Standard
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,
Z9.2-1960.

(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shall
be tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governing
the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.

(5) "Hood and enclosure design." (i) - (A) It is the dual function of
grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator from
the hazards of bursting wheels as well as to provide a means for the removal
of dust and dirt generated.  All hoods shall be not less in structural
strength than specified in the American National Standard Safety Code for the
Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1970.

(B) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, it
is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in
question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the
operation.

(ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall be
designed in accordance with figure D-57.2.  The adjustable tongue shown in
the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted within
one-fourth inch (0.635 cm) of the wheel periphery at all times.

(iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as
indicated in figure D-57.3.

(iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits,
shall be conducted within a partial enclosure.  The opening in the enclosure
shall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an average
face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.

(v) Hoods for polishing and buffing, and scratch-brush wheels shall be
constructed to conform as closely to figure D-57.4 as the nature of the work
will permit.

(vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within a
partial enclosure similar to figure D-57.5.  The operator shall be positioned
outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure.  The face opening
of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actually
required for the performance of the operation and the average air velocity
into the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet per
minute.

(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructed
to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure D-57.1.  It is
essential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood,
and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in
order to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery.  The opening
on the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grinding
operation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.

(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encircling
the wheels and grinding chamber similar to the illustrated in figure D-57.2.
The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept as
small as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch
outlets.

(ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood so
constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and the
lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood as
shown in figure D-57.1.

(x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to the
operation as possible.  The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch
(2.54 cm) wide openings should be provided on either side.  Figure D-57.3
shows a typical hood for a belt operation.

            (For Figures and Tables, see printed copy)

(6) "Scope." This paragraph (g), prescribes the use of exhaust hood
enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generated
through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.

(h) "Spray finishing operations" - (1) "Definitions applicable to this
paragraph" - (i) "Spray-finishing operations." Spray-finishing operations are
employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized in
dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned.
Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, or
electrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing,
dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spray
washing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasing
machines or systems.

(ii) "Spray booth." Spray booths are defined and described in 1926.66(a).
(See sections 103, 104, and 105 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using
Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969).

(iii) "Spray room." A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing
operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from other
areas.

(iv) "Minimum maintained velocity." Minimum maintained velocity is the
velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimum
specified requirements for health and safety.

(2) "Location and application." Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used
to enclose or confine all operations.  Spray-finishing operations shall be
located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for Spray
Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.

(3) "Design and construction of spray booths." (i) Spray booths shall be
designed and constructed in accordance with 1926.66(b)(1) through (4) and (6)
through (10)(see sections 301-304 and 306-310 of the Standard for Spray
Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), for
general construction specifications.  For a more detailed discussion of
fundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960.

(A) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignition
shall conform to the requirements of 1926.66(b)(10) and (c). (See section 310
and chapter 4 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and
Combustible Materials NFPA No. 33-1969.) (B) In no case shall combustible
material be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaust
duct connected to it.

(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 6 1/2 feet (1.976 m) high
and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in the
booth to a booth exit or open booth front.  In booths where the open front is
the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet (0.912 m) wide.  In
booths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet (0.608
m) wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to the
exit is 25 feet (7.6 m) or less.  Where booth exits are provided with doors,
such doors shall open outward from the booth.

(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shall
conform to the requirements of 1926.66(b)(4) and (5). (See sections 304 and
305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible
Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.) (A) Overspray filters shall be installed and
maintained in accordance with the requirements of 1926.66(b)(5), (see section
305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible
Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), and shall only be in a location easily
accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.

(B) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are
installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth cross
section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.

(iv)(A) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure,
within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or other
cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavier
and adequately protected against corrosion.

(B) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or other
devices.  Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating and
maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from the
exhaust air stream.

(v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitable
non-combustible material.  If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shall
be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.

(A) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to
prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box.  Means
for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided.
Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged.  They shall terminate at least one
pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.

(B) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardous
deposits.

(vi) Pump manifolds, raisers, and headers shall be adequately sized to
insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the water
chamber.

(4) "Design and construction of spray rooms." (i) Spray rooms, including
floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustible
material.
	(ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.
(iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere in
the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with the
requirements of paragraph (h)(6)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shall
conform to the requirements for spray booths.

(5) "Ventilation." (i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with
provisions of 1926.66(d)(see chapter 5 of the Standard for Spray Finishing
Using Flammable or Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969); and in
accordance with the following:

(A) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution of
exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength or
rigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficially
imposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitate
cleaning.  Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to those
of paragraph (h)(5)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray booths
or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(A) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and joints
shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmful
quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through which
ductwork passes.

(B) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow
requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.

(C) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to
sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exerted
upon it under normal operating conditions.
	(iii) [Reserved] (A) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported
throughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in
interior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted
upon it.

(B) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practice
which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number of
turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials being
exhausted.  See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details and
explanation concerning elements of design.

(C) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed,
riveted, or welded.  For other than steel construction, equivalent securing
of joints shall be provided.

(D) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastened
together and lapped in the direction of airflow.  At least every fourth joint
shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalent
fastening security.

(E) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet
(2.736 to 3.648 m) of running length for ducts up to 12 inches (0.304 m) in
diameter, but the distance between clean-out doors may be greater for larger
pipes.  (See 8.3.21 of American National Standard Z9.1-1951.)  A clean-out
door or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan and where necessary, a
drain shall be provided.

(F) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof or
wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space or
fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall.  When ducts
pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers on
both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may be
used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches
(45.72 cm) in diameter.

(G) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shall
not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney or
flue used for conveying any products of combustion.

(6) "Velocity and air flow requirements." (i) Except where a spray booth has
an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings of
a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table D-57.7 for the
operating conditions specified.  An adequate air replacement system is one
which introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayed
and is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is not
less than that specified in Table D-57.7 when measured upstream or above the
object being sprayed.


TABLE D-57.7 - MINIMUM MAINTAINED VELOCITIES INTO SPRAY BOOTHS
Operating conditions for objects completely inside booth Crossdraft, f.p.m. Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
Design Range
Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth without operator.


Air-operated guns, manual or automatic.
Negligible.


Up to 50
50 large booth.
100 large booth.

100 small booth.
50-75
75-125

75-125
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic. Up to 100. 150 small booth.
150 large booth.
125-175
125-175
    200 small booth.. 150-250
	NOTES:

(1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray
booth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of the booth to its
height and width.

(2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design
should be sought.  Crossdrafts in excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) should
not be permitted.

(3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material
waste in addition to creating a backlash that may carry overspray and fumes
into adjacent work areas.

(4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed
"Design." However, booths operating with velocities shown in the column
headed "Range" are in compliance with this standard.

(ii)  In addition to the requirements in paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this section
the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as to
dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit of
the solvent being sprayed.  An example of the method of calculating this
volume is given below.

Example: To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solvents
used in spray finishing, see Table D-57.8. Column 1 gives the number of cubic
feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosive
limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solvent
will be diminished by the quality of solids and nonflammables contained in
the finish.

To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vapor
from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, apply
the following formula:

Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100-LEL) (cubic feet
of vapor per gallon) + LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.

(1) LEL of toluene from Table D-57.8, column 2, is 1.4 percent.

(2)
Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table D-57.8, column 1, is 30.4 cubic
feet per gallon.

(3) Dilution volume required = 4 (100 - 1.4) 30.4 + 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.

(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiply
the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallons
of solvent evaporated per minute.


TABLE D-57.8 - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF SOME COMMONLY USED SOLVENTS
Solvent Cubic feet per gallon of vapor of liquid at 70 deg. F (21.11 deg. C). Lower explosive limit in percent by volume of air at 70 deg. F (21.11 deg. C).
  Column 1 Column 2
Acetone 44.0 2.6
Amyl Acetate (iso) 21.6 (1) 1.0
Amyl Alcohol (n) 29.6 1.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso) 29.6 1.2
Benzene 36.8 (1) 1.4
Butyl Acetate (n) 24.8 1.7
Butyl Alcohol (n) 35.2 1.4
Butyl Cellosolve 24.8 1.1
Cellosolve 33.6 1.8
Cellosolve Acetate 23.2 1.7
Cyclohexnone 31.2 (1) 1.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene 42.4 5.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene 42.4 9.7
Ethyl Acetate 32.8 2.5
Ethyl Alcohol 55.2 4.3
Ethyl Lactate 28.0 (1) 1.5
Methyl Acetate 40.0 3.1
Methyl Alcohol 80.8 7.3
Methyl Cellosolve 40.8 2.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 36.0 1.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone 30.4 1.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76 deg. Naphtha) 22.4 0.9
Naphtha (100 deg. Flash) Safety Solvent - Stoddard Solvent 23.2 1.0
Propyl Acetate (n) 27.2 2.8
Propyl Acetate (iso) 28.0 1.1
Propyl Alcohol (n) 44.8 2.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso) 44.0 2.0
Toluene 30.4 1.4
Turpentine 20.8 0.8
Xylene (o) 26.4 1.0
	Footnote(1) At 212 deg. F (100 deg. C).

(iii) - (A) When an operator must position himself in a booth downstream of
the object being sprayed, an air supplied respirator or other type of
respirator approved by the bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior
or specified in ANSI Z88.2-1969 for the material being sprayed should be used
by the operator.

(B) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall be
closed when spray painting.

(7) "Make-up air." (i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacent
industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to
a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhausted
through the spray booth.

(ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closing
doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when the
booth or room is in use for spraying.  The velocity of air through such
doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute.  If the fan
characteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will be
provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may be
used.

(iii)(A) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fan
static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters are
dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.

(B) The rating of filters shall be governed by the test data supplied by the
manufacturer of the filter.  A pressure gage shall be installed to show the
pressure drop across the filters.  This gage shall be marked to show the
pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement.  Filters
shall be placed or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomes
excessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls below
that specified in Table D-57.7.

(iv)(A) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before or
at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all places
where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 deg. F.
(12.77 deg. C.) for appreciable periods of time during the operation of the
booth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for all
operating personnel affected is provided.  The replacement air during the
heating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 deg. F. (18.33 deg.
C.) at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room.  When otherwise
unheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 deg. F. below
room temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section
3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.

(B) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with the
preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room or
booth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of the
building are maintained at not less than 65 deg. F. (18.33 deg. C.) when the
exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented by
other sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.

(C) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray
booth.

(D) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of
combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the products
of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flue
terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters the
building.

(E) Where Make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion are
not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flue
to a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up air
enters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph
(h)(7)(iv)(F) of this section.

(F) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heated
by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air,
the following precautions must be taken:

{1} The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmen
in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in the
make-up air.

{2} The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners must
not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million)
of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixture
if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with all
of the make-up air supplied.

{3} A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and products
of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spray
booth or room.

(8) "Scope." Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or
confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (h). This
paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixed
tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus not
used repeatedly in the same location.

(i) "Open surface tanks" - (1) "General." (i) This paragraph applies to all
operations involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors
of such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering the surface or
adding to or imparting a finish thereto or changing the character of the
materials, and their subsequent removal from the liquid or vapor, draining,
and drying.  These operating include washing, electroplating, anodizing,
pickling, quenching, dying, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching,
degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digesting, and other
similar operation.

(ii) Except where specific construction specifications are prescribed in
this section, hoods, ducts, elbows, fans, blowers, and all other exhaust
system parts, components, and supports thereof shall be so constructed as to
meet conditions of service and to facilitate maintenance and shall conform in
construction to the specifications contained in American National Standard
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,
Z9.2-1960.

(2) "Classification of open-surface tank operations." (i) Open-surface tank
operations shall be classified into 16 classes, numbered A-1 to D-57.4,
inclusive.

(ii) "Determination of class." Class is determined by two factors, hazard
potential designated by a letter from A to D, inclusive, and rate of gas,
vapor, or mist evolution designated by a number from 1 to 4, inclusive (for
example, B.3).

(iii) Hazard potential is an index, on a scale of from A to D, inclusive, of
the severity of the hazard associated with the substance contained in the
tank because of the toxic, flammable, or explosive nature of the vapor, gas,
or mist produced there from.  The toxic hazard is determined from the
concentration, measured in parts by volume of a gas or vapor, per million
parts by volume of contaminated air (p.p.m.), or in milligrams of mist per
cubic meter of air (mg./m(3)), below which ill effects are unlikely to occur
to the exposed worker.  The concentrations shall be those in 1926.55 or other
pertinent sections of this part.

(iv) The relative fire or explosion hazard is measured in degrees Fahrenheit
in terms of the closed-cup flash point of the substance in the tank.
Detailed information on the prevention of fire hazards in dip tanks may be
found in Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, NFPA No.
34-1966, National Fire Protection Association.  Where the tank contains a
mixture of liquids, other than organic solvents, whose effects are additive,
the hygienic standard of the most toxic component (for example, the one
having the lowest p.p.m. or mg./m(3)) shall be used, except where such
substance constitutes an insignificantly small faction of the mixture.  For
mixtures of organic solvents, their combined effect, rather than that of
either individually, shall determine the hazard potential.  In the absence of
information to the contrary, the effects shall be considered as additive.  If
the sum of the ratios of the airborne concentration of each contaminant to
the toxic concentration of that contaminant exceeds unity, the toxic
concentration shall be considered to have been exceeded.  (See Note A to
paragraph (i)(2)(v) of this section.) (v) Hazard potential shall be
determined from Table D-57.9, with the value indicating greater hazard being
used.  When the hazardous material may be either a vapor with a threshold
limit value (TLV) in p.p.m. or a mist with a TLV in mg./m(3), the TLV
indicating the greater hazard shall be used (for example, A takes precedence
over B or C; B over C; C over D).

Note A:

(c(1)+TLV(1))+(c(2)+TLV(2))+(c(3)+TLV(3))+;...
             (c(N)+TLV(N))1

   where:

   c=Concentration measured at the operation in p.p.m.

TABLE D-57.9 - DETERMINATION OF HAZARD POTENTIAL
Hazard potential Toxicity group
Gas or vapor (p.p.m.) Mist
(mg./m(3))
Flash point in
degrees F. (C.)
A 0-10 0-0.1  
B 11-100 0.11-1.0 Under 100 (37.77)
C 101-500 1.1-10 100 - 200 (37.77-93.33)
D Over 500 Over 10 Over 200 (93.33)
(vi) Rate of gas, vapor, or mist evolution is a numerical index, on a scale
of from 1 to 4, inclusive, both of the relative capacity of the tank to
produce gas, vapor, or mist and of the relative energy with which it is
projected or carried upwards from the tank.  Rate is evaluated in terms of
(A) The temperature of the liquid in the tank in degrees Fahrenheit; (B) The
number of degrees Fahrenheit that this temperature is below the boiling point
of the liquid in degrees Fahrenheit;

(C) The relative evaporation of the liquid in still air at room temperature
in an arbitrary scale -- fast, medium, slow, or nil; and

(D) The extent that the tank gases or produces mist in an arbitrary scale --
high, medium, low, and nil. (See Table D-57.10, Note 2.) Gassing depends upon
electrochemical or mechanical processes, the effects of which have to be
individually evaluated for each installation (see Table D-57.10, Note 3).

(vii) Rate of evolution shall be determined from Table D-57.10.  When
evaporation and gassing yield different rates, the lowest numerical value
shall be used.

TABLE D-57.10 - DETERMINATION OF RATE OF GAS, VAPOR, OR MIST EVOLUTION(1)
Rate Liquid temperature,
deg. F (C)
Degrees below
boiling point
Relative
evaporation(2)
Gassing(3)
1. Over 200 (93.33) 0-20 Fast High
2. 150-200 (65.55-93.33) 21-50 Medium Medium
3. 94-149 (34.44-65) 51-100 Slow Low
4. Under 94 (34.44) Over 100 Nil Nil
Footnote(1) In certain classes of equipment, specifically vapor degreasers,
an internal condenser or vapor level thermostat is used to prevent the vapor
from leaving the tank during normal operation.  In such cases, rate of vapor
evolution from the tank into the workroom is not dependent upon the factors
listed in the table, but rather upon abnormalities of operating procedure,
such as carryout of vapors from excessively fast action, dragout of liquid by
entrainment in parts, contamination of solvent by water and other materials,
or improper heat balance.  When operating procedure is excellent, effective
rate of evolution may be taken as 4.  When operating procedure is average,
the effective rate of evolution may be taken as 3.

Footnote(2) Relative evaporation rate is determined according to the methods
described by A. K. Doolittle in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 27
p. 1169, (3) where time for 100-percent evaporation is as follows: Fast: 0-3
hours; Medium: 3-12 hours; Slow: 12-50 hours; Nil: more than 50 hours.

Footnote(3) Gassing means the formation by chemical or electrochemical
action of minute bubbles of gas under the surface of the liquid in the tank
and is generally limited to aqueous solutions.

(3) "Ventilation." Where ventilation is used to control potential exposures
to workers as defined in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, it shall be
adequate to reduce the concentration of the air contaminant to the degree
that a hazard to the worker does not exist.  Methods of ventilation are
discussed in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and
Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(4) "Control requirements." (i) Control velocities shall conform to Table
D-57.11 in all cases where the flow of air past the breathing or working zone
of the operator and into the hoods is undisturbed by local environmental
conditions, such as open windows, wall fans, unit heaters, or moving
machinery.

(ii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which

(A) Project over
the entire tank;

(B) Are fixed in position in such a location that the head
of the workman, in all his normal operating positions while working at the
tank, is in front of all hood openings; and

(C) Are completely enclosed on at least two sides, shall be considered to be
exhausted through an enclosing hood.

(D) The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be exhausted
through an enclosing hood shall be not less than the product of the control
velocity times the net area of all openings in the enclosure through which
air can flow into the hood.

TABLE D-57.11 - CONTROL VELOCITIES IN FEET PER MINUTE (F.P.M.) FOR UNDISTURBED LOCATIONS
Class Enclosing hood Lateral exhaust(1) Canopy hood(2)
One open side Two open sides Three open sides Four open sides
B-1 and A-2 100 150 150 Do not use Do not use
A-3(2), B-1, B-2, and C-1 75 100 100 125 175
A-3, C-2, and D-1(3) 65 90 75 100 150
B-4(2), C-3, and D-2(3) 50 75 50 75 125
A-4, C-4, D-3(3), and D-4{4}          
Footnote(1) See Table D-57.12 for computation of ventilation rate.

Footnote(2) Do not use canopy hood for Hazard Potential A processes.

Footnote(3) Where complete control of hot water is desired, design as next
highest class.

Footnote(4) General room ventilation required.

(iii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which do not project over the
entire tank, and in which the direction of air movement into the hood or
hoods is substantially horizontal, shall be considered to be laterally
exhausted.  The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be
laterally exhausted per square foot of tank area in order to maintain the
required control velocity shall be determined from Table D-57.12 for all
variations in ratio of tank width (W) to tank length (L).  The total quantity
of air in cubic feet per minute required to be exhausted per tank shall be
not less than the product of the area of tank surface times the cubic feet
per minute per square foot of tank area, determined from Table D-57.12.

(A) For lateral exhaust hoods over 42 inches (1.06 m) wide, or where it is
desirable to reduce the amount of air removed from the workroom, air supply
slots or orifices shall be provided along the side or the center of the tank
opposite from the exhaust slots.  The design of such systems shall meet the
following criteria:

{1} The supply air volume plus the entrained air shall not exceed 50 percent
of the exhaust volume.

{2} The velocity of the supply airstream as it reaches the effective control
area of the exhaust slot shall be less than the effective velocity over the
exhaust slot area.



TABLE D-57.12 - MINIMUM VENTILATION RATE IN CUBIC FEET OF AIR
PER MINUTE PER SQUARE FOOT OF TANK AREA FOR LATERAL EXHAUST
Required minimum control velocity, f.p.m. (from
Table D-57.11)
C.f.m. per sq. ft. to maintain required minimumvelocities at following ratios
(tank width (W)/tank length (L)(1),(2)
0.0-0.09 0.1-0.24 0.25-0.49 0.5-0.99 1.0-2.0
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of tank when one hood is against a wall or baffle(2).
Also for a manifold along tank centerline(3).
50 50 60 75 90 100
75 75 90 110 130 150
100 100 125 150 175 200
150 150 190 225 260 300
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of free standing tank not against wall or baffle.
50 75 90 100 110 125
75 110 130 150 170 190
100 150 175 200 225 250
150 225 260 300 340 375
Footnote(1) It is not practicable to ventilate across the long dimension of
a tank whose ratio W/L exceeds 2.0.

It is undesirable to do so when W/L exceeds 1.0. For circular tanks with
lateral exhaust along up to 1/2 the circumference, use W/L=1.0; for over
one-half the circumference use W/L=0.5.

Footnote(2) Baffle is a vertical plate the same length as the tank, and with
the top of the plate as high as the tank is wide.  If the exhaust hood is on
the side of a tank against a building wall or close to it, it is perfectly
baffled.

Footnote(3) Use W/2 as tank width in computing when manifold is along
centerline, or when hoods are used on two parallel sides of a tank.

Tank Width (W) means the effective width over which the hood must pull air
to operate (for example, where the hood face is set back from the edge of the
tank, this set back must be added in measuring tank width). The surface area
of tanks can frequently be reduced and better control obtained (particularly
on conveyorized systems) by using covers extending from the upper edges of
the slots toward the center of the tank.

{3} The vertical height of the receiving exhaust hood, including any baffle,
shall not be less than one-quarter the width of the tank.

{4} The supply airstream shall not be allowed to impinge on obstructions
between it and the exhaust slot in such a manner as to significantly
interfere with the performance of the exhaust hood.

{5} Since most failure of push-pull systems result from excessive supply air
volumes and pressures, methods of measuring and adjusting the supply air
shall be provided.  When satisfactory control has been achieved, the
adjustable features of the hood shall be fixed so that they will not be
altered.

(iv) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which project over the entire
tank, and which do not conform to the definition of enclosing hoods, shall be
considered to be overhead canopy hoods.  The quantity of air in cubic feet
per minute necessary to be exhausted through a canopy hood shall be not less
than the product of the control velocity times the net area of all openings
between the bottom edges of the hood and the top edges of the tank.

(v) The rate of vapor evolution (including steam or products of combustion)
from the process shall be estimated.  If the rate of vapor evolution is equal
to or greater than 10 percent of the calculated exhaust volume required, the
exhaust volume shall be increased in equal amount.

(5) "Spray cleaning and degreasing." Wherever spraying or other mechanical
means are used to disperse a liquid above an open-surface tank, control must
be provided for the airborne spray.  Such operations shall be enclosed as
completely as possible.  The inward air velocity into the enclosure shall be
sufficient to prevent the discharge of spray into the workroom.  Mechanical
baffles may be used to help prevent the discharge of spray.  Spray painting
operations are covered by paragraph (h) of this section.

(6) "Control means other than ventilation." Tank covers, foams, beads,
chips, or other materials floating on the tank surface so as to confine
gases, mists, or vapors to the area under the cover or to the foam, bead, or
chip layer; or surface tension depressive agents added to the liquid in the
tank to minimize mist formation, or any combination thereof, may all be used
as gas, mist, or vapor control means for open-surface tank operations,
provided that they effectively reduce the concentrations of hazardous
materials in the vicinity of the worker below the limits set in accordance
with paragraph (i)(2) of this section.

(7) "System design." (i) The equipment for exhausting air shall have
sufficient capacity to produce the flow of air required in each of the hoods
and openings of the system.

(ii) The capacity required in paragraph (i)(7)(i) of this section shall be
obtained when the airflow producing equipment is operating against the
following pressure losses, the sum of which is the static pressure:

(A) Entrance losses into the hood.

(B) Resistance to airflow in
branch pipe including bends and transformations.

(C) Entrance loss into the main pipe.

(D) Resistance to airflow in
main pipe including bends and transformations.

(E) Resistance of mechanical equipment; that is, filters, washers,
condensers, absorbers, etc., plus their entrance and exit losses.

(F) Resistance in outlet duct and discharge stack.

(iii) Two or more
operations shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one
or the combination of the substances removed may constitute a fire,
explosion, or chemical reaction hazard in the duct system.  Traps or other
devices shall be provided to insure that condensate in ducts does not drain
back into any tank.

(iv) The exhaust system, consisting of hoods, ducts, air mover, and
discharge outlet, shall be designed in accordance with American National
Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust
Systems, Z9.2-1960, or the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by the
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1970. Airflow and
pressure loss data provided by the manufacturer of any air cleaning device
shall be included in the design calculations.

(8) "Operation." (i) The required airflow shall be maintained at all times
during which gas, mist, or vapor is emitted from the tank, and at all times
the tank, the draining, or the drying area is in operation or use.  When the
system is first installed, the airflow from each hood shall be measured by
means of a pitot traverse in the exhaust duct and corrective action taken if
the flow is less than that required.  When the proper flow is obtained, the
hood static pressure shall be measured and recorded.  At intervals of not
more than 3 months operation, or after a prolonged shutdown period, the hoods
and duct system shall be inspected for evidence or corrosion or damage.  In
any case where the airflow is found to be less than required, it shall be
increased to the required value.  (Information on airflow and static pressure
measurement and calculations may be found in American National Standard
Fundamental Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,
Z9.2-1960, or in the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by the
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.)

(ii) The exhaust
system shall discharge to the outer air in such a manner that the possibility
of its effluent entering any building is at a minimum.  Recirculation shall
only be through a device for contaminant removal which will prevent the
creation of a health hazard in the room or area to which the air is
recirculated.

(iii) A volume of outside air in the range of 90 percent to 110 percent of
the exhaust volume shall be provided to each room having exhaust hoods.  The
outside air supply shall enter the workroom in such a manner as not to be
detrimental to any exhaust hood.  The airflow of the makeup air system shall
be measured on installation.  Corrective action shall be taken when the
airflow is below that required.  The makeup air shall be uncontaminated.

(9) "Personal protection." (i) All employees working in and around
open-surface tank operations must be instructed as to the hazards of their
respective jobs, and in the personal protection and first aid procedures
applicable to these hazards.

(ii) All persons required to work in such a manner that their feet may
become wet shall be provided with rubber or other impervious boots or shoes,
rubbers, or wooden-soled shoes sufficient to keep feet dry.

(iii) All persons required to handle work wet with a liquid other than water
shall be provided with gloves impervious to such a liquid and of a length
sufficient to prevent entrance of liquid into the tops of the gloves.  The
interior of gloves shall be kept free from corrosive or irritating
contaminants.

(iv) All persons required to work in such a manner that their clothing, may
become wet shall be provided with such aprons, coats, jackets, sleeves, or
other garments made of rubber, or of other materials impervious to liquids
other than water, as are required to keep their clothing dry.  Aprons shall
extend well below the top of boots to prevent liquid splashing into the
boots.  Provision of dry, clean, cotton clothing along with rubber shoes or
short boots and an apron impervious to liquids other than water shall be
considered a satisfactory substitute where small parts are cleaned, plated,
or acid dipped in open tanks and rapid work is required.

(v) Whenever there is a danger of splashing, for example, when additions are
made manually to the tanks, or when acids and chemicals are removed from the
tanks, the employees so engaged shall be required to wear either
tight-fitting chemical goggles or an effective face shield.  See 1926.102.

(vi) When, during emergencies as described in paragraph (i)(11)(v) of this
section, workers must be in areas where concentrations of air contaminants
are greater than the limit set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, or
oxygen concentrations are less than 19.5 percent, they shall be required to
wear respirators adequate to reduce their exposure to a level below these
below these limits, or to provide adequate oxygen.  Such respirators shall
also be provided in marked, quickly accessible storage compartments built for
the purpose, when there exits the possibility of accidental release of
hazardous concentrations of air contaminants.  Respirators shall be approved
by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior and shall be
selected by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified
source.  Respirators shall be used in accordance with 1926.103, and persons
who may require them shall be trained in their use.

(vii) Near each tank containing a liquid which may burn, irritate, or
otherwise be harmful to the skin if splashed upon the worker's body, there
shall be a supply of clean cold water.  The water pipe (carrying a pressure
not exceeding 25 pounds(11.325 kg)) shall be provided with a quick opening
valve and at least 48 inches (1.216 m) of hose not smaller than three-fourths
inch, so that no time may be lost in washing off liquids from the skin or
clothing.  Alternatively, deluge showers and eye flushes shall be provided in
cases where harmful chemicals may be splashed on parts of the body.

(viii) Operators with sores, burns, or other skin lesions requiring medical
treatment shall not be allowed to work at their regular operations until so
authorized by a physician.  Any small skin abrasions, cuts, rash, or open
sores which are found or reported shall be treated by a properly designated
person so that chances of exposures to the chemicals are removed.  Workers
exposed to chromic acids shall have a periodic examination made of nostrils
and other parts of the body, to detect incipient ulceration.

(ix) Sufficient washing facilities, including soap, individual towels, and
hot water, shall be provided for all persons required to use or handle any
liquids which may burn, irritate, or otherwise be harmful to the skin, on the
basis of at least one basin (or its equivalent) with a hot water faucet for
every 10 employees, See 1926.51(f).

(x) Locker space or equivalent clothing storage facilities shall be provided
to prevent contamination of street clothing.

(xi) First aid facilities specific to the hazards of the operations
conducted shall be readily available.

(10) "Special precautions for cyanide." Dikes or other arrangements shall be
provided to prevent the possibility of intermixing of cyanide and acid in the
event of tank rupture.

(11) "Inspection, maintenance, and installation." (i) Floors and platforms
around tanks shall be prevented from becoming slippery both by original type
of construction and by frequent flushing.  They shall be firm, sound, and of
the design and construction to minimize the possibility of tripping.

(ii) Before cleaning the interior of any tank, the contents shall be drained
off, and the cleanout doors shall be opened where provided. All pockets in
tanks or pits, where it is possible for hazardous vapors to collect, shall be
ventilated and cleared of such vapors.

(iii) Tanks which have been drained to permit employees to enter for the
purposes of cleaning, inspection, or maintenance may contain atmospheres
which are hazardous to life or health, through the presence of flammable or
toxic air contaminants, or through the absence of sufficient oxygen.  Before
employees shall be permitted to enter any such tank, appropriate tests of the
atmosphere shall be made to determine if the limits set by paragraph
(i)(2)(iii) of this section are exceeded, or if the oxygen concentration is
less than 19.5 percent.

(iv) If the tests made in accordance with paragraph (i)(1)(iii) of this
section indicate that the atmosphere in the tank is unsafe, before any
employee is permitted to enter the tank, the tank shall be ventilated until
the hazardous atmosphere is removed, and ventilation shall be continued so as
to prevent the occurrence of a hazardous atmosphere as long as an employee is
in the tank.

(v) If, in emergencies, such as rescue work, it is necessary to enter a tank
which may contain a hazardous atmosphere, suitable respirators, such as
self-contained breathing apparatus; hose mask with blower, if there is a
possibility of oxygen deficiency; or a gas mask, selected and operated in
accordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this section, shall be used.  If a
contaminant in the tank can cause dermatitis, or be absorbed through the
skin, the employee entering the tank shall wear protective clothing.  At
least one trained standby employee, with suitable respirator, shall be
present in the nearest uncontaminated area.  The standby employee must be
able to communicate with the employee in the tank and be able to haul him out
of the tank with a lifeline if necessary.

(vi) Maintenance work requiring welding or open flame, where toxic metal
fumes such a cadmium, chromium, or lead may be evolved, shall be done only
with sufficient local exhaust ventilation to prevent the creation of a health
hazard, or be done with respirators selected and used in accordance with
paragraph (i)(9)(iv) of this section.  Welding, or the use of open flames
near any solvent cleaning equipment shall be permitted only after such
equipment has first been thoroughly cleared of solvents and vapors.

(12) "Vapor degreasing tanks." (i) In any vapor degreasing tank equipped
with a condenser or vapor level thermostat, the condenser or thermostat shall
keep the level of vapors below the top edge of the tank by a distance at
least equal to one-half the tank width, or at least 36 inches (0.912 m),
whichever is shorter.

(ii) Where gas is used as a fuel for heating vapor degreasing tanks, the
combustion chamber shall be of tight construction, except for such openings
as the exhaust flue, and those that are necessary for supplying air for
combustion.  Flues shall be of corrosion-resistant construction and shall
extend to the outer air.  If mechanical exhaust is used on this flue, a draft
diverter shall be used.  Special precautions must be taken to prevent solvent
fumes from entering the combustion air of this or any other heater when
chlorinated or fluorinated hydrocarbon solvents (for example,
trichloroethylene, Freon) are used.

(iii) Heating elements shall be so designed and maintained that their
surface temperature will not cause the solvent or mixture to decompose, break
down, or be converted into an excessive quantity of vapor.

(iv) Tanks or machines of more than 4 square feet (0.368 m(2)) of vapor
area, used for solvent cleaning or vapor degreasing, shall be equipped with a
suitable cleanout or sludge doors located near the bottom of each tank or
still.  These doors shall be so designed and gasketed that there will be no
leakage of solvent when they are closed.

(13) "Scope." (i) This paragraph (i) applies to all operations involving the
immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors of such liquids, for the
purpose of cleaning or altering their surfaces, or adding or imparting a
finish thereto, or changing the character of the materials, and their
subsequent removal from the liquids or vapors, draining, and drying.  Such
operations include washing, electroplating, anodizing, pickling, quenching,
dyeing, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning,
stripping, rinsing, digesting, and other similar operations, but do not
include molten materials handling operations, or surface coating operations.

(ii) "Molton materials handling operations" means all operations, other than
welding, burining, and soldering operations, involving the use, melting,
smelting, or pouring of metals, alloys, salts, or other similar substances in
the molten state.  Such operations also include heat treating baths,
descaling baths, die casting stereotyping, galvanizing, tinning, and similar
operations.

(iii) "Surface coating operations" means all operations involving the
application of protective, decorative, adhesive, or strengthening coating or
impregnation to one or more surfaces, or into the interstices of any object
or material, by means of spraying, spreading, flowing, brushing, roll
coating, pouring, cementing, or similar means; and any subsequent draining or
drying operations excluding open-tank operations.

11. In subpart D, a new 1926.64 is added to read as follows:

1926.64  Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

"Purpose."  This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing
the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or
explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion
hazards.
	(a) "Application."  (1) This section applies to the following:

(i)  A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold
quantities listed in Appendix A to this section;

(ii)  A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in
1926.59(c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000
pounds (4535.9 kg) or more except for:

(A)  Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel
(e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), if
such fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous
chemical covered by this standard;

(B)  Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which are
kept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling or
refrigeration.
	(2)  This section does not apply to:

(i)  Retail facilities;

(ii)  Oil or gas well drilling or servicing operations; or,

(iii)
Normally unoccupied remote facilities. (b) "Definitions."  Atmospheric tank
means a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from
atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g. (pounds per square inch gauge, 3.45
Kpa).

"Boiling point" means the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7
pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.).  For the purposes of
this section, where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, the
10 percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard
Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may be
used as the boiling point of the liquid.

"Catastrophic release" means a major uncontrolled emission, fire, or
explosion, involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals, that presents
serious danger to employees in the workplace.

"Facility" means the buildings, containers or equipment which contain a
process.

"Highly hazardous chemical" means a substance possessing toxic, reactive,
flammable, or explosive properties and specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this
section.

"Hot work" means work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing,
or similar flame or spark-producing operations.

"Normally unoccupied remote facility" means a facility which is operated,
maintained or serviced by employees who visit the facility only periodically
to check its operation and to perform necessary operating or maintenance
tasks.  No employees are permanently stationed at the facility. Facilities
meeting this definition are not contiguous with, and must be geographically
remote from all other buildings, processes or persons.

"Process" means any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical including
any use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or the on-site movement of such
chemicals, or combination of these activities.  For purposes of this
definition, any group of vessels which are interconnected and separate
vessels which are located such that a highly hazardous chemical could be
involved in a potential release shall be considered a single process.

"Replacement in kind" means a replacement which satisfies the design
specification.

"Trade secret" means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device,
information or compilation of information that is used in an employer's
business, and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage
over competitors who do not know or use it.  Appendix D contained in 1926.59
sets out the criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.

(c) "Employee participation." (1) Employers shall develop a written plan of
action regarding the implementation of the employee participation required by
this paragraph.

(2)  Employers shall consult with employees and their representatives on the
conduct and development of process hazards analyses and on the development of
the other elements of process safety management in this standard.

(3)  Employers shall provide to employees and their representatives access
to process hazard analyses and to all other information required to be
developed under this standard.

(d) "Process safety information."  In accordance with the schedule set forth
in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the employer shall complete a
compilation of written process safety information before conducting any
process hazard analysis required by the standard.  The compilation of written
process safety information is to enable the employer and the employees
involved in operating the process to identify and understand the hazards
posed by those processes involving highly hazardous chemicals.  This process
safety information shall include information pertaining to the hazards of the
highly hazardous chemicals used or produced by the process, information
pertaining to the technology of the process, and information pertaining to
the equipment in the process.

(1) "Information pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals
in the process."  This information shall consist of at least the following:
  1. Toxicity information;
  2. Permissible exposure limits;
  3. Physical data;
  4. Reactivity data:
  5. Corrosivity data;
  6. Thermal and chemical stability data; and
  7. Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could foreseeably occur.
Note:  Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR
1926.59(g) may be used to comply with this requirement to the extent they
contain the information required by this subparagraph.
	(2) "Information pertaining to the technology of the process."

(i)  Information concerning the technology of the process shall include at
least the following:

(A)  A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram (see Appendix B
to this section);

(B)  Process chemistry;

(C)  Maximum intended inventory;

(D)  Safe upper and lower limits for such items as temperatures, pressures,
flows or compositions; and,

(E)  An evaluation of the consequences of
deviations, including those affecting the safety and health of employees.

(ii)  Where the original technical information no longer exists, such
information may be developed in conjunction with the process hazard analysis
in sufficient detail to support the analysis.

(3) "Information pertaining to the equipment in the process."

(i)
Information pertaining to the equipment in the process shall include:
	(A)  Materials of construction;
	(B)  Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's);
	(C)  Electrical classification;
	(D)  Relief system design and design basis;
	(E)  Ventilation system design;
	(F)  Design codes and standards employed;
	(G)  Material and energy balances for processes built after May 26, 1992;
and,
	(H)  Safety systems (e.g. interlocks, detection or suppression systems).

(ii)  The employer shall document that equipment complies with recognized
and generally accepted good engineering practices.

(iii)  For existing equipment designed and constructed in accordance with
codes, standards, or practices that are no longer in general use, the
employer shall determine and document that the equipment is designed,
maintained, inspected, tested, and operating in a safe manner.

(e) "Process hazard analysis."  (1) The employer shall perform an initial
process hazard analysis (hazard evaluation) on processes covered by this
standard.  The process hazard analysis shall be appropriate to the complexity
of the process and shall identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved
in the process.  Employers shall determine and document the priority order
for conducting process hazard analyses based on a rationale which includes
such considerations as extent of the process hazards, number of potentially
affected employees, age of the process, and operating history of the process.
 The process hazard analysis shall be conducted as soon as possible, but not
later than the following schedule:

(i)  No less than 25 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall
be completed by May 26, 1994;

(ii)  No less than 50 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall
be completed by May 26, 1995;

(iii)  No less than 75 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall
be completed by May 26, 1996;

(iv)  All initial process hazards analyses shall be completed by May 26,
1997.

(v)  Process hazards analyses completed after May 26, 1987 which meet the
requirements of this paragraph are acceptable as initial process hazards
analyses.  These process hazard analyses shall be updated and revalidated,
based on their completion date, in accordance with paragraph (e)(6) of this
standard.

(2)  The employer shall use one or more of the following methodologies that
are appropriate to determine and evaluate the hazards of the process being
analyzed.
	(i)  What-If;
	(ii)  Checklist;
	(iii)  What-If/Checklist;
	(iv)  Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);
	(v)  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA);
	(vi)  Fault-Tree Analysis; or (vii)  An appropriate equivalent
methodology.

(3)  The process hazard analysis shall address: (i)  The hazards
of the process;

(ii)  The identification of any previous incident which had a
likely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace;

(iii)  Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and
their interrelationships such as appropriate application of detection
methodologies to provide early warning of releases. (Acceptable detection
methods might include process monitoring and control instrumentation with
alarms, and detection hardware such as hydrocarbon sensors.);

(iv)  Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls;

(v)  Facility siting;

(vi)  Human factors; and

(vii)  A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health
effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace.

(4)  The process hazard analysis shall be performed by a team with expertise
in engineering and process operations, and the team shall include at least
one employee who has experience and knowledge specific to the process being
evaluated.  Also, one member of the team must be knowledgeable in the
specific process hazard analysis methodology being used.

(5)  The employer shall establish a system to promptly address the team's
findings and recommendations; assure that the recommendations are resolved in
a timely manner and that the resolution is documented; document what actions
are to be taken; complete actions as soon as possible; develop a written
schedule of when these actions are to be completed; communicate the actions
to operating, maintenance and other employees whose work assignments are in
the process and who may be affected by the recommendations or actions.

(6)  At least every five (5) years after the completion of the initial
process hazard analysis, the process hazard analysis shall be updated and
revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of this
section, to assure that the process hazard analysis is consistent with the
current process.

(7)  Employers shall retain process hazards analyses and updates or
revalidations for each process covered by this section, as well as the
documented resolution of recommendations described in paragraph (e)(5) of
this section for the life of the process.

(f) "Operating procedures." (1) The employer shall develop and implement
written operating procedures that provide clear instructions for safely
conducting activities involved in each covered process consistent with the
process safety information and shall address at least the following elements.

(i)  Steps for each operating phase:
	(A)  Initial startup;
	(B)  Normal operations;
	(C)  Temporary operations;
	(D)  Emergency shutdown including the conditions under which emergency
shutdown is required, and the assignment of shutdown responsibility to
qualified operators to ensure that emergency shutdown is executed in a safe
and timely manner.
	(E)  Emergency operations;
	(F)  Normal shutdown; and,
	(G)  Startup following a turnaround, or
after an emergency shutdown.

(ii)  Operating limits:

(A)  Consequences of
deviation; and

(B)  Steps required to correct or avoid deviation.

(iii)
Safety and health considerations:

(A)  Properties of, and hazards presented
by, the chemicals used in the process;

(B)  Precautions necessary to prevent exposure, including engineering
controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment;

(C)  Control measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne exposure
occurs;

(D)  Quality control for raw materials and control of hazardous chemical
inventory levels; and,

(E)  Any special or unique hazards.

(iv)  Safety
systems and their functions.

(2)  Operating procedures shall be readily
accessible to employees who work in or maintain a process.

(3)  The operating procedures shall be reviewed as often as necessary to
assure that they reflect current operating practice, including changes that
result from changes in process chemicals, technology, and equipment, and
changes to facilities.  The employer shall certify annually that these
operating procedures are current and accurate.

(4)  The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices to provide
for the control of hazards during operations such as lockout/tagout; confined
space entry; opening process equipment or piping; and control over entrance
into a facility by maintenance, contractor, laboratory, or other support
personnel.  These safe work practices shall apply to employees and contractor
employees.

(g) "Training" - (1) "Initial training." (i) Each employee presently
involved in operating a process, and each employee before being involved in
operating a newly assigned process, shall be trained in an overview of the
process and in the operating procedures as specified in paragraph (f) of this
section. The training shall include emphasis on the specific safety and
health hazards, emergency operations including shutdown, and safe work
practices applicable to the employee's job tasks.

(ii)  In lieu of initial training for those employees already involved in
operating a process on May 26, 1992, an employer may certify in writing that
the employee has the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safely
carry out the duties and responsibilities as specified in the operating
procedures.

(2) "Refresher training."  Refresher training shall be provided at least
every three years, and more often if necessary, to each employee involved in
operating a process to assure that the employee understands and adheres to
the current operating procedures of the process.  The employer, in
consultation with the employees involved in operating the process, shall
determine the appropriate frequency of refresher training.

(3) "Training documentation."  The employer shall ascertain that each
employee involved in operating a process has received and understood the
training required by this paragraph. The employer shall prepare a record
which contains the identity of the employee, the date of training, and the
means used to verify that the employee understood the training.

(h) "Contractors" - (1) "Application." This paragraph applies to contractors
performing maintenance or repair, turnaround, major renovation, or specialty
work on or adjacent to a covered process.  It does not apply to contractors
providing incidental services which do not influence process safety, such as
janitorial work, food and drink services, laundry, delivery or other supply
services.

(2) "Employer responsibilities." (i) The employer, when selecting a
contractor, shall obtain and evaluate information regarding the contract
employer's safety performance and programs.

(ii)  The employer shall inform contract employers of the known potential
fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to the contractor's work
and the process.

(iii)  The employer shall explain to contract employers the applicable
provisions of the emergency action plan required by paragraph (n) of this
section.

(iv)  The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices
consistent with paragraph (f)(4) of this section, to control the entrance,
presence and exit of contract employers and contract employees in covered
process areas.

(v)  The employer shall periodically evaluate the performance of contract
employers in fulfilling their obligations as specified in paragraph (h)(3) of
this section.

(vi)  The employer shall maintain a contract employee injury and illness log
related to the contractor's work in process areas.

(3) "Contract employer responsibilities." (i) The contract employer shall
assure that each contract employee is trained in the work practices necessary
to safely perform his/her job.

(ii)  The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is
instructed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards
related to his/her job and the process, and the applicable provisions of the
emergency action plan.

(iii)  The contract employer shall document that each contract employee has
received and understood the training required by this paragraph.  The
contract employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of the
contract employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that
the employee understood the training.

(iv)  The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee follows
the safety rules of the facility including the safe work practices required
by paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(v)  The contract employer shall advise the employer of any unique hazards
presented by the contract employer's work, or of any hazards found by the
contract employer's work.

(i) "Pre-startup safety review." (1) The employer shall perform a
pre-startup safety review for new facilities and for modified facilities when
the modification is significant enough to require a change in the process
safety information.

(2)  The pre-startup safety review shall confirm that prior to the
introduction of highly hazardous chemicals to a process:

(i)  Construction and equipment is in accordance with design specifications;

(ii)  Safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are in place
and are adequate;

(iii)  For new facilities, a process hazard analysis has been performed and
recommendations have been resolved or implemented before startup; and
modified facilities meet the requirements contained in management of change,
paragraph (l).

(iv)  Training of each employee involved in operating a process has been
completed.

(j) "Mechanical integrity" - (1) "Application." Paragraphs (j)(2) through
(j)(6) of this section apply to the following process equipment:
	(i)  Pressure vessels and storage tanks;
	(ii)  Piping systems (including piping components such as valves);
	(iii)  Relief and vent systems and devices;
	(iv)  Emergency shutdown systems;
	(v)  Controls (including monitoring devices and sensors, alarms, and
interlocks) and,
	(vi)  Pumps. 

(2) "Written procedures."  The employer shall
establish and implement written procedures to maintain the on-going integrity
of process equipment.

(3) "Training for process maintenance activities."  The employer shall train
each employee involved in maintaining the on-going integrity of process
equipment in an overview of that process and its hazards and in the
procedures applicable to the employee's job tasks to assure that the employee
can perform the job tasks in a safe manner.

(4) "Inspection and testing." (i) Inspections and tests shall be performed
on process equipment.

(ii)  Inspection and testing procedures shall follow recognized and
generally accepted good engineering practices.

(iii)  The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment shall be
consistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and good
engineering practices, and more frequently if determined to be necessary by
prior operating experience.

(iv)  The employer shall document each inspection and test that has been
performed on process equipment.  The documentation shall identify the date of
the inspection or test, the name of the person who performed the inspection
or test, the serial number or other identifier of the equipment on which the
inspection or test was performed, a description of the inspection or test
performed, and the results of the inspection or test.

(5) "Equipment deficiencies."  The employer shall correct deficiencies in
equipment that are outside acceptable limits (defined by the process safety
information in paragraph (d) of this section) before further use or in a safe
and timely manner when necessary means are taken to assure safe operation.

(6) "Quality assurance." (i) In the construction of new plants and
equipment, the employer shall assure that equipment as it is fabricated is
suitable for the process application for which they will be used.

(ii)  Appropriate checks and inspections shall be performed to assure that
equipment is installed properly and consistent with design specifications and
the manufacturer's instructions.

(iii)  The employer shall assure that maintenance materials, spare parts and
equipment are suitable for the process application for which they will be
used.

(k) "Hot work permit." (1) The employer shall issue a hot work permit for
hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process.

(2)  The permit shall document that the fire prevention and protection
requirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning the
hot work operations; it shall indicate the date(s) authorized for hot work;
and identify the object on which hot work is to be performed.  The permit
shall be kept on file until completion of the hot work operations.

(l) "Management of change." (1) The employer shall establish and implement
written procedures to manage changes (except for "replacements in kind") to
process chemicals, technology, equipment, and procedures; and, changes to
facilities that affect a covered process.

(2) The procedures shall assure that the following considerations are
addressed prior to any change:
	(i)  The technical basis for the proposed change;
	(ii)  Impact of change on safety and health;
	(iii)  Modifications to operating procedures;
	(iv)  Necessary time period for the change; and,
	(v)  Authorization
requirements for the proposed change.

(3)  Employees involved in operating a
process and maintenance and contract employees whose job tasks will be
affected by a change in the process shall be informed of, and trained in, the
change prior to start-up of the process or affected part of the
process.

(4)  If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the
process safety information required by paragraph (d) of this section, such
information shall be updated accordingly.

(5)  If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the
operating procedures or practices required by paragraph (f) of this section,
such procedures or practices shall be updated accordingly.

(m) "Incident investigation." (1) The employer shall investigate each
incident which resulted in, or could reasonably have resulted in a
catastrophic release of highly hazardous chemical in the workplace.

(2)  An incident investigation shall be initiated as promptly as possible,
but not later than 48 hours following the incident.

(3)  An incident investigation team shall be established and consist of at
least one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contract
employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other persons
with appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly investigate and
analyze the incident.

(4)  A report shall be prepared at the conclusion of the investigation which
includes at a minimum:
	(i)  Date of incident;
	(ii)  Date investigation began;
	(iii)  A description of the incident;
	(iv)  The factors that contributed to the incident; and,
	(v)  Any
recommendations resulting from the investigation.

(5)  The employer shall
establish a system to promptly address and resolve the incident report
findings and recommendations.  Resolutions and corrective actions shall be
documented.

(6)  The report shall be reviewed with all affected personnel whose job
tasks are relevant to the incident findings including contract employees
where applicable.

(7)  Incident investigation reports shall be retained for five
years.

(n)  Emergency planning and response.  The employer shall establish
and implement an emergency action plan for the entire plant in accordance
with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a).  In addition, the emergency action
plan shall include procedures for handling small releases.  Employers covered
under this standard may also be subject to the hazardous waste and emergency
response provisions contained in 29 CFR 1926.65(a), (p) and (q).

(o) "Compliance audits." (1) Employers shall certify that they have
evaluated compliance with the provisions of this section at least every three
years to verify that the procedures and practices developed under the
standard are adequate and are being followed.

(2)  The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one person
knowledgeable in the process.

(3)  A report of the findings of the audit shall be developed.

(4)
The employer shall promptly determine and document an appropriate response to
each of the findings of the compliance audit, and document that deficiencies
have been corrected.

(5)  Employers shall retain the two (2) most recent compliance audit reports.

(p) "Trade secrets." (1) Employers shall make all information necessary to
comply with the section available to those persons responsible for compiling
the process safety information (required by paragraph (d) of this section),
those assisting in the development of the process hazard analysis (required
by paragraph (e) of this section), those responsible for developing the
operating procedures (required by paragraph (f) of this section), and those
involved in incident investigations (required by paragraph (m) of this
section), emergency planning and response (paragraph (n) of this section) and
compliance audits (paragraph (o) of this section) without regard to possible
trade secret status of such information.

(2)  Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude the employer from requiring
the persons to whom the information is made available under paragraph (p)(1)
of this section to enter into confidentiality agreements not to disclose the
information as set forth in 29 CFR 1926.59.

(3)  Subject to the rules and procedures set forth in 29 CFR 1926.59(i) (1)
through (12), employees and their designated representatives shall have
access to trade secret information contained within the process hazard
analysis and other documents required to be developed by this standard.

Appendix A to 1926.64 - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxics
and Reactives  (Mandatory)

This Appendix contains a listing of toxic and reactive highly hazardous
chemicals which present a potential for a catastrophic event at or above the
threshold quantity.

Chemical Name CAS** TQ**
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 2500
Acrolein (2-Propenal) 107-02-8 150
Acrylyl Chloride 814-68-6 250
Allyl Chloride 107-05-1 1000
Allylamine 107-11-9 1000
Alkylaluminums Varies 5000
Ammonia, Anhydrous 7664-41-7 10000
Ammonia solutions (greater than 44% ammonia by weight) 7664-41-7 15000
Ammonium Perchlorate 7790-98-9 500
Ammonium Permanganate 7787-36-2 7500
Arsine (also called Arsenic Hydride) 7784-42-1 100
Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether 542-88-1 100
Boron Trichloride 10294-34-5 2500
Boron Trifluoride 7637-07-2 250
Bromine 7726-95-6 1500
Bromine Chloride 13863-41-7 1500
Bromine Pentafluoride 7789-30-2 2500
Bromine Trifluoride 7787-71-5 15000
3-Bromopropyne (also called Propargyl Bromide) 106-96-7 100
Butyl Hydroperoxide (Tertiary) 75-91-2 5000
Butyl Perbenzoate (Tertiary) 614-45-9 7500
Carbonyl Chloride (see Phosgene) 75-44-5 100
* Carbonyl Fluoride 353-50-4 2500
Cellulose Nitrate (concentration greater than 12.6% nitrogen 9004-70-0 2500
Chlorine 7782-50-5 1500
Chlorine Dioxide 10049-04-4 1000
Chlorine Pentrafluoride 13637-63-3 1000
Chlorine Trifluoride 7790-91-2 1000
Chlorodiethylaluminum (also called Diethylaluminum Chloride) 96-10-6 5000
1-Chloro-2,4-Dinitrobenzene 97-00-7 5000
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether 107-30-2 500
Chloropicrin 76-06-2 500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Bromide mixture None 1500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Chloride mixture None 1500
Commune Hydroperoxide 80-15-9 5000
Cyanogen 460-19-5 2500
Cyanogen Chloride 506-77-4 500
Cyanuric Fluoride 675-14-9 100
Diastole Peroxide (concentration greater than 70%) 110-22-5 5000
Diazomethane 334-88-3 500
Dibenzoyl Peroxide 94-36-0 7500
Diborane 19287-45-7 100
Dibutyl Peroxide (Tertiary) 110-05-4 5000
Dichloro Acetylene 7572-29-4 250
Dichlorosilane 4109-96-0 2500
Diethylzinc 557-20-0 10000
Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate 105-64-6 7500
Dilauroyl Peroxide 105-74-8 7500
Dimethyldichlorosilane 75-78-5 1000
Dimethylhydrazine, 1,1- 57-14-7 1000
Dimethylamine, Anhydrous 124-40-3 2500
2,4-Dinitroaniline 97-02-9 5000
Ethyl Methyl Ketone Peroxide (also Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide; concentration greater than 60%) 1338-23-4 5000
Ethyl Nitrite 109-95-5 5000
Ethylamine 75-04-7 7500
Ethylene Fluorohydrin 371-62-0 100
Ethylene Oxide 75-21-8 5000
Ethyleneimine 151-56-4 1000
Fluorine 7782-41-4 1000
Formaldehyde (Formalin) 50-00-0 1000
Furan 110-00-9 500
Hexafluoroacetone 684-16-2 5000
Hydrochloric Acid, Anhydrous 7647-01-0 5000
Hydrofluoric Acid, Anhydrous 7664-39-3 1000
Hydrogen Bromide 10035-10-6 5000
Hydrogen Chloride 7647-01-0 5000
Hydrogen Cyanide, Anhydrous 74-90-8 1000
Hydrogen Fluoride 7664-39-3 1000
Hydrogen Peroxide (52% by weight or greater) 7722-84-1 7500
Hydrogen Selenide 7783-07-5 150
Hydrogen Sulfide 7783-06-4 1500
Hydroxylamine 7803-49-8 2500
Iron, Pentacarbonyl 13463-40-6 250
Isopropylamine 75-31-0 5000
Ketene 463-51-4 100
Methacrylaldehyde 78-85-3 1000
Methacryloyl Chloride 920-46-7 150
Methacryloyloxyethyl Isocyanate 30674-80-7 100
Methyl Acrylonitrile 126-98-7 250
Methylamine, Anhydrous 74-89-5 1000
Methyl Bromide 74-83-9 2500
Methyl Chloride 74-87-3 15000
Methyl Chloroformate 79-22-1 500
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (concentration greater than 60%) 1338-23-4 5000
Methyl Fluoroacetate 453-18-9 100
Methyl Fluorosulfate 421-20-5 100
Methyl Hydrazine 60-34-4 100
Methyl Iodide 74-88-4 7500
Methyl Isocyanate 624-83-9 250
Methyl Mercaptan 74-93-1 5000
Methyl Vinyl Ketone 79-84-4 100
Methyltrichlorosilane 75-79-6 500
Nickel Carbonly (Nickel Tetracarbonyl) 13463-39-3 150
Nitric Acid (94.5% by weight or greater) 7697-37-2 500
Nitric Oxide 10102-43-9 250
Nitroaniline (para Nitroaniline) 100-01-6 5000
Nitromethane 75-52-5 2500
Nitrogen Dioxide 10102-44-0 250
Nitrogen Oxides (NO; NO(2); N2O4; N2O3) 10102-44-0 250
Nitrogen Tetroxide (also called Nitrogen Peroxide) 10544-72-6 250
Nitrogen Trifluoride 7783-54-2 5000
Nitrogen Trioxide 10544-73-7 250
Oleum (65% to 80% by weight; also called Fuming Sulfuric Acid) 8014-94-7 1000
Osmium Tetroxide 20816-12-0 100
Oxygen Difluoride (Fluorine Monoxide) 7783-41-7 100
Ozone 10028-15-6 100
Pentaborane 19624-22-7 100
Peracetic Acid (concentration greater 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peroxyacetic Acid) 79-21-0 1000
Perchloric Acid (concentration greater than 60% by weight) 7601-90-3 5000
Perchloromethyl Mercaptan 594-42-3 150
Perchloryl Fluoride 7616-94-6 5000
Peroxyacetic Acid (concentration greater than 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peracetic Acid) 79-21-0 1000
Phosgene (also called Carbonyl Chloride) 75-44-5 100
Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide) 7803-51-2 100
Phosphorus Oxychloride (also called Phosphoryl Chloride) 10025-87-3 1000
Phosphorus Trichloride 7719-12-2 1000
Phosphoryl Chloride (also called Phosphorus Oxychloride) 10025-87-3 1000
Propargyl Bromide 106-96-7 100
Propyl Nitrate 627-3-4 2500
Sarin 107-44-8 100
Selenium Hexafluoride 7783-79-1 1000
Stibine (Antimony Hydride) 7803-52-3 500
Sulfur Dioxide (liquid) 7446-09-5 1000
Sulfur Pentafluoride 5714-22-7 250
Sulfur Tetrafluoride 7783-60-0 250
Sulfur Trioxide (also called Sulfuric Anhydride) 7446-11-9 1000
Sulfuric Anhydride (also called Sulfur Trioxide) 7446-11-9 1000
Tellurium Hexafluoride 7783-80-4 250
Tetrafluoroethylene 116-14-3 5000
Tetrafluorohydrazine 10036-47-2 5000
Tetramethyl Lead 75-74-1 1000
Thionyl Chloride 7719-09-7 250
Trichloro (Chloromethyl) Silane 1558-25-4 100
Trichloro (dichlorophenyl) Silane 27137-85-5 2500
Trichlorosilane 10025-78-2 5000
Trifluorochloroethylene 79-38-9 10000
Trimethyoxysilane 2487-90-3 1500
	Footnote(*) Chemical Abstract Service Number Footnote(**) Threshold
Quantity in Pounds (Amount necessary to be covered by this
standard.)

1926.64 Appendix B Block Flow Diagram and Simplified Process Flow Diagram
(Nonmandatory)

	EXAMPLE OF A BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM
               (For Illustration A, see printed copy)
	
                  EXAMPLE OF A PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
               (For Illustration B, see printed copy)


1926.64 Appendix C Compliance Guidelines and Recommendations for Process
Safety Management (Nonmandatory)

This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers and
employees in complying with the requirements of this section, as well as
provides other helpful recommendations and information. Examples presented in
this appendix are not the only means of achieving the performance goals in
the standard.  This appendix neither adds nor detracts from the requirements
of the standard.

1. "Introduction to Process Safety Management."  The major objective of
process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals is to prevent
unwanted releases of hazardous chemicals especially into locations which
could expose employees and others to serious hazards.  An effective process
safety management program requires a systematic approach to evaluating the
whole process.  Using this approach the process design, process technology,
operational and maintenance activities and procedures, nonroutine activities
and procedures, emergency preparedness plans and procedures, training
programs, and other elements which impact the process are all considered in
the evaluation.  The various lines of defense that have been incorporated
into the design and operation of the process to prevent or mitigate the
release of hazardous chemicals need to be evaluated and strengthened to
assure their effectiveness at each level. Process safety management is the
proactive identification, evaluation and mitigation or prevention of chemical
releases that could occur as a result of failures in process, procedures or
equipment.

The process safety management standard targets highly hazardous chemicals
that have the potential to cause a catastrophic incident.  This standard as a
whole is to aid employers in their efforts to prevent or mitigate episodic
chemical releases that could lead to a catastrophe in the workplace and
possibly to the surrounding community.  To control these types of hazards,
employers need to develop the necessary expertise, experiences, judgment and
proactive initiative within their workforce to properly implement and
maintain an effective process safety management program as envisioned in the
OSHA standard.  This OSHA standard is required by the Clean Air Act
Amendments as is the Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Management Plan.
Employers, who merge the two sets of requirements into their process safety
management program, will better assure full compliance with each as well as
enhancing their relationship with the local community.

While OSHA believes process safety management will have a positive effect on
the safety of employees in workplaces and also offers other potential
benefits to employers (increased productivity), smaller businesses which may
have limited resources available to them at this time, might consider
alternative avenues of decreasing the risks associated with highly hazardous
chemicals at their workplaces.  One method which might be considered is the
reduction in the inventory of the highly hazardous chemical. This reduction
in inventory will result in a reduction of the risk or potential for a
catastrophic incident.  Also, employers including small employers may be able
to establish more efficient inventory control by reducing the quantities of
highly hazardous chemicals on site below the established threshold
quantities.  This reduction can be accomplished by ordering smaller shipments
and maintaining the minimum inventory necessary for efficient and safe
operation.  When reduced inventory is not feasible, then the employer might
consider dispersing inventory to several locations on site.  Dispersing
storage into locations where a release in one location will not cause a
release in another location is a practical method to also reduce the risk or
potential for catastrophic incidents.

2. "Employee Involvement in Process Safety Management."  Section 304 of the
Clean Air Act Amendments states that employers are to consult with their
employees and their representatives regarding the employers efforts in the
development and implementation of the process safety management program
elements and hazard assessments.  Section 304 also requires employers to
train and educate their employees and to inform affected employees of the
findings from incident investigations required by the process safety
management program.  Many employers, under their safety and health programs,
have already established means and methods to keep employees and their
representatives informed about relevant safety and health issues and
employers may be able to adapt these practices and procedures to meet their
obligations under this standard.  Employers who have not implemented an
occupational safety and health program may wish to form a safety and health
committee of employees and management representatives to help the employer
meet the obligations specified by this standard.  These committees can become
a significant ally in helping the employer to implement and maintain an
effective process safety management program for all employees.

3. "Process Safety Information."  Complete and accurate written information
concerning process chemicals, process technology, and process equipment is
essential to an effective process safety management program and to a process
hazards analysis.  The compiled information will be a necessary resource to a
variety of users including the team that will perform the process hazards
analysis as required under paragraph (e); those developing the training
programs and the operating procedures; contractors whose employees will be
working with the process; those conducting the pre-startup reviews; local
emergency preparedness planners; and insurance and enforcement officials.

The information to be compiled about the chemicals, including process
intermediates, needs to be comprehensive enough for an accurate assessment of
the fire and explosion characteristics, reactivity hazards, the safety and
health hazards to workers, and the corrosion and erosion effects on the
process equipment and monitoring tools.  Current material safety data sheet
(MSDS) information can be used to help meet this requirement which must be
supplemented with process chemistry information including runaway reaction
and over pressure hazards if applicable.

Process technology information will be a part of the process safety
information package and it is expected that it will include diagrams of the
type shown in Appendix B of this section as well as employer established
criteria for maximum inventory levels for process chemicals; limits beyond
which would be considered upset conditions; and a qualitative estimate of the
consequences or results of deviation that could occur if operating beyond the
established process limits.  Employers are encouraged to use diagrams which
will help users understand the process.

A block flow diagram is used to show the major process equipment and
interconnecting process flow lines and show flow rates, stream composition,
temperatures, and pressures when necessary for clarity.  The block flow
diagram is a simplified diagram.

Process flow diagrams are more complex and will show all main flow streams
including valves to enhance the understanding of the process, as well as
pressures and temperatures on all feed and product lines within all major
vessels, in and out of headers and heat exchangers, and points of pressure
and temperature control.  Also, materials of construction information, pump
capacities and pressure heads, compressor horsepower and vessel design
pressures and temperatures are shown when necessary for clarity.  In
addition, major components of control loops are usually shown along with key
utilities on process flow diagrams.

Piping and instrument diagrams (P&Ids) may be the more appropriate type of
diagrams to show some of the above details and to display the information for
the piping designer and engineering staff.  The P&Ids are to be used to
describe the relationships between equipment and instrumentation as well as
other relevant information that will enhance clarity.  Computer software
programs which do P&Ids or other diagrams useful to the information package,
may be used to help meet this requirement.

The information pertaining to process equipment design must be documented.
In other words, what were the codes and standards relied on to establish good
engineering practice. These codes and standards are published by such
organizations as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American
Petroleum Institute, American National Standards Institute, National Fire
Protection Association, American Society for Testing and Materials, National
Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, National Association of
Corrosion Engineers, American Society of Exchange Manufacturers Association,
and model building code groups.

In addition, various engineering societies issue technical reports which
impact process design.  For example, the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers has published technical reports on topics such as two phase flow
for venting devices.  This type of technically recognized report would
constitute good engineering practice.

For existing equipment designed and constructed many years ago in accordance
with the codes and standards available at that time and no longer in general
use today, the employer must document which codes and standards were used and
that the design and construction along with the testing, inspection and
operation are still suitable for the intended use. Where the process
technology requires a design which departs from the applicable codes and
standards, the employer must document that the design and construction is
suitable for the intended purpose.

4. "Process Hazard Analysis."  A process hazard analysis (PHA), sometimes
called a process hazard evaluation, is one of the most important elements of
the process safety management program.  A PHA is an organized and systematic
effort to identify and analyze the significance of potential hazards
associated with the processing or handling of highly hazardous chemicals.  A
PHA provides information which will assist employers and employees in making
decisions for improving safety and reducing the consequences of unwanted or
unplanned releases of hazardous chemicals.  A PHA is directed toward
analyzing potential causes and consequences of fires, explosions, releases of
toxic or flammable chemicals and major spills of hazardous chemicals.  The
PHA focuses on equipment, instrumentation, utilities, human actions (routine
and nonroutine), and external factors that might impact the process.  These
considerations assist in determining the hazards and potential failure points
or failure modes in a process.

The selection of a PHA methodology or technique will be influenced by many
factors including the amount of existing knowledge about the process. Is it a
process that has been operated for a long period of time with little or no
innovation and extensive experience has been generated with its use?  Or, is
it a new process or one which has been changed frequently by the inclusion of
innovative features?  Also, the size and complexity of the process will
influence the decision as to the appropriate PHA methodology to use. All PHA
methodologies are subject to certain limitations. For example, the checklist
methodology works well when the process is very stable and no changes are
made, but it is not as effective when the process has undergone extensive
change.  The checklist may miss the most recent changes and consequently the
changes would not be evaluated.  Another limitation to be considered concerns
the assumptions made by the team or analyst.  The PHA is dependent on good
judgment and the assumptions made during the study need to be documented and
understood by the team and reviewer and kept for a future PHA.

The team conducting the PHA need to understand the methodology that is going
to be used.  A PHA team can vary in size from two people to a number of
people with varied operational and technical backgrounds.  Some team members
may only be a part of the team for a limited time.  The team leader needs to
be fully knowledgeable in the proper implementation of the PHA methodology
that is to be used and should be impartial in the evaluation.  The other full
or part time team members need to provide the team with expertise in areas
such as process technology, process design, operating procedures and
practices, including how the work is actually performed, alarms, emergency
procedures, instrumentation, maintenance procedures, both routine and
nonroutine tasks, including how the tasks are authorized, procurement of
parts and supplies, safety and health, and any other relevant subject as the
need dictates.  At least one team member must be familiar with the process.

The ideal team will have an intimate knowledge of the standards, codes,
specifications and regulations applicable to the process being studied. The
selected team members need to be compatible and the team leader needs to be
able to manage the team and the PHA study.  The team needs to be able to work
together while benefiting from the expertise of others on the team or outside
the team, to resolve issues, and to forge a consensus on the findings of the
study and the recommendations.

The application of a PHA to a process may involve the use of different
methodologies for various parts of the process.  For example, a process
involving a series of unit operations of varying sizes, complexities, and
ages may use different methodologies and team members for each operation.
Then the conclusions can be integrated into one final study and evaluation. A
more specific example is the use of a checklist PHA for a standard boiler or
heat exchanger and the use of a Hazard and Operability PHA for the overall
process.  Also, for batch type processes like custom batch operations, a
generic PHA of a representative batch may be used where there are only small
changes of monomer or other ingredient ratios and the chemistry is documented
for the full range and ratio of batch ingredients. Another process that might
consider using a generic type of PHA is a gas plant.  Often these plants are
simply moved from site to site and therefore, a generic PHA may be used for
these movable plants.  Also, when an employer has several similar size gas
plants and no sour gas is being processed at the site, then a generic PHA is
feasible as long as the variations of the individual sites are accounted for
in the PHA.  Finally, when an employer has a large continuous process which
has several control rooms for different portions of the process such as for a
distillation tower and a blending operation, the employer may wish to do each
segment separately and then integrate the final results.

Additionally, small businesses which are covered by this rule, will often
have processes that have less storage volume, less capacity, and less
complicated than processes at a large facility.  Therefore, OSHA would
anticipate that the less complex methodologies would be used to meet the
process hazard analysis criteria in the standard.  These process hazard
analyses can be done in less time and with a few people being involved.  A
less complex process generally means that less data, P&Ids, and process
information is needed to perform a process hazard analysis.

Many small businesses have processes that are not unique, such as cold
storage lockers or water treatment facilities.  Where employer associations
have a number of members with such facilities, a generic PHA, evolved from a
checklist or what-if questions, could be developed and used by each employer
effectively to reflect his/her particular process; this would simplify
compliance for them.

When the employer has a number of processes which require a PHA, the
employer must set up a priority system of which PHAs to conduct first. A
preliminary or gross hazard analysis may be useful in prioritizing the
processes that the employer has determined are subject to coverage by the
process safety management standard.  Consideration should first be given to
those processes with the potential of adversely affecting the largest number
of employees.  This prioritizing should consider the potential severity of a
chemical release, the number of potentially affected employees, the operating
history of the process such as the frequency of chemical releases, the age of
the process and any other relevant factors.  These factors would suggest a
ranking order and would suggest either using a weighing factor system or a
systematic ranking method.  The use of a preliminary hazard analysis would
assist an employer in determining which process should be of the highest
priority and thereby the employer would obtain the greatest improvement in
safety at the facility.

Detailed guidance on the content and application of process hazard analysis
methodologies is available from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers'
Center for Chemical Process Safety (see Appendix D).

5. "Operating Procedures and Practices."  Operating procedures describe
tasks to be performed, data to be recorded, operating conditions to be
maintained, samples to be collected, and safety and health precautions to be
taken.  The procedures need to be technically accurate, understandable to
employees, and revised periodically to ensure that they reflect current
operations.  The process safety information package is to be used as a
resource to better assure that the operating procedures and practices are
consistent with the known hazards of the chemicals in the process and that
the operating parameters are accurate. Operating procedures should be
reviewed by engineering staff and operating personnel to ensure that they are
accurate and provide practical instructions on how to actually carry out job
duties safely.

Operating procedures will include specific instructions or details on what
steps are to be taken or followed in carrying out the stated procedures.
These operating instructions for each procedure should include the applicable
safety precautions and should contain appropriate information on safety
implications.  For example, the operating procedures addressing operating
parameters will contain operating instructions about pressure limits,
temperature ranges, flow rates, what to do when an upset condition occurs,
what alarms and instruments are pertinent if an upset condition occurs, and
other subjects.  Another example of using operating instructions to properly
implement operating procedures is in starting up or shutting down the
process.  In these cases, different parameters will be required from those of
normal operation.  These operating instructions need to clearly indicate the
distinctions between startup and normal operations such as the appropriate
allowances for heating up a unit to reach the normal operating parameters.
Also the operating instructions need to describe the proper method for
increasing the temperature of the unit until the normal operating temperature
parameters are achieved.

Computerized process control systems add complexity to operating
instructions.  These operating instructions need to describe the logic of the
software as well as the relationship between the equipment and the control
system; otherwise, it may not be apparent to the operator.

Operating procedures and instructions are important for training operating
personnel.  The operating procedures are often viewed as the standard
operating practices (SOPs) for operations.  Control room personnel and
operating staff, in general, need to have a full understanding of operating
procedures.  If workers are not fluent in English then procedures and
instructions need to be prepared in a second language understood by the
workers.  In addition, operating procedures need to be changed when there is
a change in the process as a result of the management of change procedures.
The consequences of operating procedure changes need to be fully evaluated
and the information conveyed to the personnel. For example, mechanical
changes to the process made by the maintenance department (like changing a
valve from steel to brass or other subtle changes) need to be evaluated to
determine if operating procedures and practices also need to be changed.  All
management of change actions must be coordinated and integrated with current
operating procedures and operating personnel must be oriented to the changes
in procedures before the change is made.  When the process is shutdown in
order to make a change, then the operating procedures must be updated before
startup of the process.

Training in how to handle upset conditions must be accomplished as well as
what operating personnel are to do in emergencies such as when a pump seal
fails or a pipeline ruptures.  Communication between operating personnel and
workers performing work within the process area, such as nonroutine tasks,
also must be maintained.  The hazards of the tasks are to be conveyed to
operating personnel in accordance with established procedures and to those
performing the actual tasks.  When the work is completed, operating personnel
should be informed to provide closure on the job.

6. "Employee Training."  All employees, including maintenance and contractor
employees, involved with highly hazardous chemicals need to fully understand
the safety and health hazards of the chemicals and processes they work with
for the protection of themselves, their fellow employees and the citizens of
nearby communities.  Training conducted in compliance with 1926.59, the
Hazard Communication standard, will help employees to be more knowledgeable
about the chemicals they work with as well as familiarize them with reading
and understanding MSDS.  However, additional training in subjects such as
operating procedures and safety work practices, emergency evacuation and
response, safety procedures, routine and nonroutine work authorization
activities, and other areas pertinent to process safety and health will need
to be covered by an employer's training program.

In establishing their training programs, employers must clearly define the
employees to be trained and what subjects are to be covered in their
training.  Employers in setting up their training program will need to
clearly establish the goals and objectives they wish to achieve with the
training that they provide to their employees.  The learning goals or
objectives should be written in clear measurable terms before the training
begins.  These goals and objectives need to be tailored to each of the
specific training modules or segments.  Employers should describe the
important actions and conditions under which the employee will demonstrate
competence or knowledge as well as what is acceptable performance.

Hands-on-training where employees are able to use their senses beyond
listening, will enhance learning.  For example, operating personnel, who will
work in a control room or at control panels, would benefit by being trained
at a simulated control panel or panels.  Upset conditions of various types
could be displayed on the simulator, and then the employee could go through
the proper operating procedures to bring the simulator panel back to the
normal operating parameters.  A training environment could be created to help
the trainee feel the full reality of the situation but, of course, under
controlled conditions.  This realistic type of training can be very effective
in teaching employees correct procedures while allowing them to also see the
consequences of what might happens if they do not follow established
operating procedures.  Other training techniques using videos or on-the-job
training can also be very effective for teaching other job tasks, duties, or
other important information.  An effective training program will allow the
employee to fully participate in the training process and to practice their
skill or knowledge.

Employers need to periodically evaluate their training programs to see if
the necessary skills, knowledge, and routines are being properly understood
and implemented by their trained employees.  The means or methods for
evaluating the training should be developed along with the training program
goals and objectives. Training program evaluation will help employers to
determine the amount of training their employees understood, and whether the
desired results were obtained.  If, after the evaluation, it appears that the
trained employees are not at the level of knowledge and skill that was
expected, the employer will need to revise the training program, provide
retraining, or provide more frequent refresher training sessions until the
deficiency is resolved.  Those who conducted the training and those who
received the training should also be consulted as to how best to improve the
training process.  If there is a language barrier, the language known to the
trainees should be used to reinforce the training messages and information.

Careful consideration must be given to assure that employees including
maintenance and contract employees receive current and updated training. For
example, if changes are made to a process, impacted employees must be trained
in the changes and understand the effects of the changes on their job tasks
(e.g., any new operating procedures pertinent to their tasks). Additionally,
as already discussed the evaluation of the employee's absorption of training
will certainly influence the need for training.

7. "Contractors."  Employers who use contractors to perform work in and
around processes that involve highly hazardous chemicals, will need to
establish a screening process so that they hire and use contractors who
accomplish the desired job tasks without compromising the safety and health
of employees at a facility.  For contractors, whose safety performance on the
job is not known to the hiring employer, the employer will need to obtain
information on injury and illness rates and experience and should obtain
contractor references.  Additionally, the employer must assure that the
contractor has the appropriate job skills, knowledge and certifications (such
as for pressure vessel welders).  Contractor work methods and experiences
should be evaluated.  For example, does the contractor conducting demolition
work swing loads over operating processes or does the contractor avoid such
hazards? Maintaining a site injury and illness log for contractors is another
method employers must use to track and maintain current knowledge of work
activities involving contract employees working on or adjacent to covered
processes.  Injury and illness logs of both the employer's employees and
contract employees allow an employer to have full knowledge of process injury
and illness experience. This log will also contain information which will be
of use to those auditing process safety management compliance and those
involved in incident investigations.

Contract employees must perform their work safely. Considering that
contractors often perform very specialized and potentially hazardous tasks
such as confined space entry activities and nonroutine repair activities it
is quite important that their activities be controlled while they are working
on or near a covered process.  A permit system or work authorization system
for these activities would also be helpful to all affected employers. The use
of a work authorization system keeps an employer informed of contract
employee activities, and as a benefit the employer will have better
coordination and more management control over the work being performed in the
process area.  A well run and well maintained process where employee safety
is fully recognized will benefit all of those who work in the facility
whether they be contract employees or employees of the owner.

8. "Pre-Startup Safety."  For new processes, the employer will find a PHA
helpful in improving the design and construction of the process from a
reliability and quality point of view.  The safe operation of the new process
will be enhanced by making use of the PHA recommendations before final
installations are completed.  P&Ids are to be completed along with having the
operating procedures in place and the operating staff trained to run the
process before startup.  The initial startup procedures and normal operating
procedures need to be fully evaluated as part of the pre-startup review to
assure a safe transfer into the normal operating mode for meeting the process
parameters.

For existing processes that have been shutdown for turnaround, or
modification, etc., the employer must assure that any changes other than
"replacement in kind" made to the process during shutdown go through the
management of change procedures.  P&Ids will need to be updated as necessary,
as well as operating procedures and instructions.  If the changes made to the
process during shutdown are significant and impact the training program, then
operating personnel as well as employees engaged in routine and nonroutine
work in the process area may need some refresher or additional training in
light of the changes.  Any incident investigation recommendations, compliance
audits or PHA recommendations need to be reviewed as well to see what impacts
they may have on the process before beginning the startup.

9. "Mechanical Integrity."  Employers will need to review their maintenance
programs and schedules to see if there are areas where "breakdown"
maintenance is used rather than an on-going mechanical integrity program.
Equipment used to process, store, or handle highly hazardous chemicals needs
to be designed, constructed, installed and maintained to minimize the risk of
releases of such chemicals.  This requires that a mechanical integrity
program be in place to assure the continued integrity of process equipment.
Elements of a mechanical integrity program include the identification and
categorization of equipment and instrumentation, inspections and tests,
testing and inspection frequencies, development of maintenance procedures,
training of maintenance personnel, the establishment of criteria for
acceptable test results, documentation of test and inspection results, and
documentation of manufacturer recommendations as to meantime to failure for
equipment and instrumentation.

The first line of defense an employer has available is to operate and
maintain the process as designed, and to keep the chemicals contained. This
line of defense is backed up by the next line of defense which is the
controlled release of chemicals through venting to scrubbers or flares, or to
surge or overflow tanks which are designed to receive such chemicals, etc.
These lines of defense are the primary lines of defense or means to prevent
unwanted releases.  The secondary lines of defense would include fixed fire
protection systems like sprinklers, water spray, or deluge systems, monitor
guns, etc., dikes, designed drainage systems, and other systems which would
control or mitigate hazardous chemicals once an unwanted release occurs.
These primary and secondary lines of defense are what the mechanical
integrity program needs to protect and strengthen these primary and secondary
lines of defenses where appropriate.

The first step of an effective mechanical integrity program is to compile
and categorize a list of process equipment and instrumentation for inclusion
in the program. This list would include pressure vessels, storage tanks,
process piping, relief and vent systems, fire protection system components,
emergency shutdown systems and alarms and interlocks and pumps.  For the
categorization of instrumentation and the listed equipment the employer would
prioritize which pieces of equipment require closer scrutiny than others.
Meantime to failure of various instrumentation and equipment parts would be
known from the manufacturers data or the employer's experience with the
parts, which would then influence the inspection and testing frequency and
associated procedures. Also, applicable codes and standards such as the
National Board Inspection Code, or those from the American Society for
Testing and Material, American Petroleum Institute, National Fire Protection
Association, American National Standards Institute, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, and other groups, provide information to help establish
an effective testing and inspection frequency, as well as appropriate
methodologies.

The applicable codes and standards provide criteria for external inspections
for such items as foundation and supports, anchor bolts, concrete or steel
supports, guy wires, nozzles and sprinklers, pipe hangers, grounding
connections, protective coatings and insulation, and external metal surfaces
of piping and vessels, etc.  These codes and standards also provide
information on methodologies for internal inspection, and a frequency formula
based on the corrosion rate of the materials of construction.  Also, erosion
both internal and external needs to be considered along with corrosion
effects for piping and valves. Where the corrosion rate is not known, a
maximum inspection frequency is recommended, and methods of developing the
corrosion rate are available in the codes. Internal inspections need to cover
items such as vessel shell, bottom and head; metallic linings; nonmetallic
linings; thickness measurements for vessels and piping; inspection for
erosion, corrosion, cracking and bulges; internal equipment like trays,
baffles, sensors and screens for erosion, corrosion or cracking and other
deficiencies. Some of these inspections may be performed by state or local
government inspectors under state and local statutes. However, each employer
needs to develop procedures to ensure that tests and inspections are
conducted properly and that consistency is maintained even where different
employees may be involved.  Appropriate training is to be provided to
maintenance personnel to ensure that they understand the preventive
maintenance program procedures, safe practices, and the proper use and
application of special equipment or unique tools that may be required.  This
training is part of the overall training program called for in the standard.

A quality assurance system is needed to help ensure that the proper
materials of construction are used, that fabrication and inspection
procedures are proper, and that installation procedures recognize field
installation concerns.  The quality assurance program is an essential part of
the mechanical integrity program and will help to maintain the primary and
secondary lines of defense that have been designed into the process to
prevent unwanted chemical releases or those which control or mitigate a
release.  "As built" drawings, together with certifications of coded vessels
and other equipment, and materials of construction need to be verified and
retained in the quality assurance documentation.  Equipment installation jobs
need to be properly inspected in the field for use of proper materials and
procedures and to assure that qualified craftsmen are used to do the job.
The use of appropriate gaskets, packing, bolts, valves, lubricants and
welding rods need to be verified in the field. Also, procedures for
installation of safety devices need to be verified, such as the torque on the
bolts on ruptured disc installations, uniform torque on flange bolts, proper
installation of pump seals, etc.  If the quality of parts is a problem, it
may be appropriate to conduct audits of the equipment supplier's facilities
to better assure proper purchases of required equipment which is suitable for
its intended service.  Any changes in equipment that may become necessary
will need to go through the management of change procedures.

10. "Nonroutine Work Authorizations."  Nonroutine work which is conducted in
process areas needs to be controlled by the employer in a consistent manner.
The hazards identified involving the work that is to be accomplished must be
communicated to those doing the work, but also to those operating personnel
whose work could affect the safety of the process.  A work authorization
notice or permit must have a procedure that describes the steps the
maintenance supervisor, contractor representative or other person needs to
follow to obtain the necessary clearance to get the job started.  The work
authorization procedures need to reference and coordinate, as applicable,
lockout/tagout procedures, line breaking procedures, confined space entry
procedures and hot work authorizations.  This procedure also needs to provide
clear steps to follow once the job is completed in order to provide closure
for those that need to know the job is now completed and equipment can be
returned to normal.

11. "Managing Change."  To properly manage changes to process chemicals,
technology, equipment and facilities, one must define what is meant by
change.  In this process safety management standard, change includes all
modifications to equipment, procedures, raw materials and processing
conditions other than "replacement in kind."  These changes need to be
properly managed by identifying and reviewing them prior to implementation of
the change.  For example, the operating procedures contain the operating
parameters (pressure limits, temperature ranges, flow rates, etc.) and the
importance of operating within these limits.  While the operator must have
the flexibility to maintain safe operation within the established parameters,
any operation outside of these parameters requires review and approval by a
written management of change procedure.

Management of change covers such as changes in process technology and
changes to equipment and instrumentation. Changes in process technology can
result from changes in production rates, raw materials, experimentation,
equipment unavailability, new equipment, new product development, change in
catalyst and changes in operating conditions to improve yield or quality.
Equipment changes include among others change in materials of construction,
equipment specifications, piping pre-arrangements, experimental equipment,
computer program revisions and changes in alarms and interlocks.  Employers
need to establish means and methods to detect both technical changes and
mechanical changes.

Temporary changes have caused a number of catastrophes over the years, and
employers need to establish ways to detect temporary changes as well as those
that are permanent.  It is important that a time limit for temporary changes
be established and monitored since, without control, these changes may tend
to become permanent.  Temporary changes are subject to the management of
change provisions. In addition, the management of change procedures are used
to insure that the equipment and procedures are returned to their original or
designed conditions at the end of the temporary change.  Proper documentation
and review of these changes is invaluable in assuring that the safety and
health considerations are being incorporated into the operating procedures
and the process.

Employers may wish to develop a form or clearance sheet to facilitate the
processing of changes through the management of change procedures. A typical
change form may include a description and the purpose of the change, the
technical basis for the change, safety and health considerations,
documentation of changes for the operating procedures, maintenance
procedures, inspection and testing, P&Ids, electrical classification,
training and communications, pre-startup inspection, duration if a temporary
change, approvals and authorization.  Where the impact of the change is minor
and well understood, a check list reviewed by an authorized person with
proper communication to others who are affected may be sufficient. However,
for a more complex or significant design change, a hazard evaluation
procedure with approvals by operations, maintenance, and safety departments
may be appropriate. Changes in documents such as P&Ids, raw materials,
operating procedures, mechanical integrity programs, electrical
classifications, etc., need to be noted so that these revisions can be made
permanent when the drawings and procedure manuals are updated.  Copies of
process changes need to be kept in an accessible location to ensure that
design changes are available to operating personnel as well as to PHA team
members when a PHA is being done or one is being updated.

12. "Investigation of Incidents."  Incident investigation is the process of
identifying the underlying causes of incidents and implementing steps to
prevent similar events from occurring.  The intent of an incident
investigation is for employers to learn from past experiences and thus avoid
repeating past mistakes.  The incidents for which OSHA expects employers to
become aware and to investigate are the types of events which result in or
could reasonably have resulted in a catastrophic release. Some of the events
are sometimes referred to as "near misses," meaning that a serious
consequence did not occur, but could have.

Employers need to develop in-house capability to investigate incidents that
occur in their facilities.  A team needs to be assembled by the employer and
trained in the techniques of investigation including how to conduct
interviews of witnesses, needed documentation and report writing. A
multi-disciplinary team is better able to gather the facts of the event and
to analyze them and develop plausible scenarios as to what happened, and why.
 Team members should be selected on the basis of their training, knowledge
and ability to contribute to a team effort to fully investigate the incident.
 Employees in the process area where the incident occurred should be
consulted, interviewed or made a member of the team.  Their knowledge of the
events form a significant set of facts about the incident which occurred.
The report, its findings and recommendations are to be shared with those who
can benefit from the information.  The cooperation of employees is essential
to an effective incident investigation.  The focus of the investigation
should be to obtain facts, and not to place blame.  The team and the
investigation process should clearly deal with all involved individuals in a
fair, open and consistent manner.

13. "Emergency Preparedness."  Each employer must address what actions
employees are to take when there is an unwanted release of highly hazardous
chemicals.  Emergency preparedness or the employer's tertiary (third) lines
of defense are those that will be relied on along with the secondary lines of
defense when the primary lines of defense which are used to prevent an
unwanted release fail to stop the release.  Employers will need to decide if
they want employees to handle and stop small or minor incidental releases.
Whether they wish to mobilize the available resources at the plant and have
them brought to bear on a more significant release.  Or whether employers
want their employees to evacuate the danger area and promptly escape to a
preplanned safe zone area, and allow the local community emergency response
organizations to handle the release. Or whether the employer wants to use
some combination of these actions. Employers will need to select how many
different emergency preparedness or tertiary lines of defense they plan to
have and then develop the necessary plans and procedures, and appropriately
train employees in their emergency duties and responsibilities and then
implement these lines of defense.

Employers at a minimum must have an emergency action plan which will
facilitate the prompt evacuation of employees when an unwanted release of
highly hazardous chemical.  This means that the employer will have a plan
that will be activated by an alarm system to alert employees when to evacuate
and, that employees who are physically impaired, will have the necessary
support and assistance to get them to the safe zone as well. The intent of
these requirements is to alert and move employees to a safe zone quickly.
Delaying alarms or confusing alarms are to be avoided. The use of process
control centers or similar process buildings in the process area as safe
areas is discouraged.  Recent catastrophes have shown that a large life loss
has occurred in these structures because of where they have been sited and
because they are not necessarily designed to withstand over-pressures from
shockwaves resulting from shockwaves resulting from explosions in the process
area.

Unwanted incidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals in the process
area must be addressed by the employer as to what actions employees are to
take.  If the employer wants employees to evacuate the area, then the
emergency action plan will be activated.  For outdoor processes where wind
direction is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, the
employer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock or
pennant at the highest point that can be seen throughout the process area.
Employees can move in the direction of cross wind to upwind to gain safe
access to the refuge area by knowing the wind direction.

If the employer wants specific employees in the release area to control or
stop the minor emergency or incidental release, these actions must be planned
for in advance and procedures developed and implemented. Preplanning for
handling incidental releases for minor emergencies in the process area needs
to be done, appropriate equipment for the hazards must be provided, and
training conducted for those employees who will perform the emergency work
before they respond to handle an actual release.  The employer's training
program, including the Hazard Communication standard training is to address
the training needs for employees who are expected to handle incidental or
minor releases.

Preplanning for releases that are more serious than incidental releases is
another important line of defense to be used by the employer.  When a serious
release of a highly hazardous chemical occurs, the employer through
preplanning will have determined in advance what actions employees are to
take.  The evacuation of the immediate release area and other areas as
necessary would be accomplished under the emergency action plan.  If the
employer wishes to use plant personnel such as a fire brigade, spill control
team, a hazardous materials team, or use employees to render aid to those in
the immediate release area and control or mitigate the incident, these
actions are covered by 1926.65, the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response (HAZWOPER) standard.  If outside assistance is necessary, such as
through mutual aid agreements between employers or local government emergency
response organizations, these emergency responders are also covered by
HAZWOPER.  The safety and health protections required for emergency
responders are the responsibility of their employers and of the on-scene
incident commander.

Responders may be working under very hazardous conditions and therefore the
objective is to have them competently led by an on-scene incident commander
and the commander's staff, properly equipped to do their assigned work
safely, and fully trained to carry out their duties safely before they
respond to an emergency.  Drills, training exercises, or simulations with the
local community emergency response planners and responder organizations is
one means to obtain better preparedness. This close cooperation and
coordination between plant and local community emergency preparedness
managers will also aid the employer in complying with the Environmental
Protection Agency's Risk Management Plan criteria.

One effective way for medium to large facilities to enhance coordination and
communication during emergencies for on plant operations and with local
community organizations is for employers to establish and equip an emergency
control center.  The emergency control center would be sited in a safe zone
area so that it could be occupied throughout the duration of an emergency.
The center would serve as the major communication link between the on-scene
incident commander and plant or corporate management as well as with the
local community officials. The communication equipment in the emergency
control center should include a network to receive and transmit information
by telephone, radio or other means.  It is important to have a backup
communication network in case of power failure or one communication means
fails.  The center should also be equipped with the plant layout and
community maps, utility drawings including fire water, emergency lighting,
appropriate reference materials such as a government agency notification
list, company personnel phone list, SARA Title III reports and material
safety data sheets, emergency plans and procedures manual, a listing with the
location of emergency response equipment, mutual aid information, and access
to meteorological or weather condition data and any dispersion modeling data.

14. "Compliance Audits."  Employers need to select a trained individual or
assemble a trained team of people to audit the process safety management
system and program.  A small process or plant may need only one knowledgeable
person to conduct an audit.  The audit is to include an evaluation of the
design and effectiveness of the process safety management system and a field
inspection of the safety and health conditions and practices to verify that
the employer's systems are effectively implemented.  The audit should be
conducted or lead by a person knowledgeable in audit techniques and who is
impartial towards the facility or area being audited.  The essential elements
of an audit program include planning, staffing, conducting the audit,
evaluation and corrective action, follow-up and documentation.

Planning in advance is essential to the success of the auditing process.
Each employer needs to establish the format, staffing, scheduling and
verification methods prior to conducting the audit.  The format should be
designed to provide the lead auditor with a procedure or checklist which
details the requirements of each section of the standard. The names of the
audit team members should be listed as part of the format as well. The
checklist, if properly designed, could serve as the verification sheet which
provides the auditor with the necessary information to expedite the review
and assure that no requirements of the standard are omitted.  This
verification sheet format could also identify those elements that will
require evaluation or a response to correct deficiencies.  This sheet could
also be used for developing the follow-up and documentation requirements.

The selection of effective audit team members is critical to the success of
the program.  Team members should be chosen for their experience, knowledge,
and training and should be familiar with the processes and with auditing
techniques, practices and procedures.  The size of the team will vary
depending on the size and complexity of the process under consideration.  For
a large, complex, highly instrumented plant, it may be desirable to have team
members with expertise in process engineering and design, process chemistry,
instrumentation and computer controls, electrical hazards and
classifications, safety and health disciplines, maintenance, emergency
preparedness, warehousing or shipping, and process safety auditing.  The team
may use part-time members to provide for the depth of expertise required as
well as for what is actually done or followed, compared to what is written.

An effective audit includes a review of the relevant documentation and
process safety information, inspection of the physical facilities, and
interviews with all levels of plant personnel.  Utilizing the audit procedure
and checklist developed in the preplanning stage, the audit team can
systematically analyze compliance with the provisions of the standard and any
other corporate policies that are relevant.  For example, the audit team will
review all aspects of the training program as part of the overall audit.  The
team will review the written training program for adequacy of content,
frequency of training, effectiveness of training in terms of its goals and
objectives as well as to how it fits into meeting the standard's
requirements, documentation, etc. Through interviews, the team can determine
the employee's knowledge and awareness of the safety procedures, duties,
rules, emergency response assignments, etc.  During the inspection, the team
can observe actual practices such as safety and health policies, procedures,
and work authorization practices.  This approach enables the team to identify
deficiencies and determine where corrective actions or improvements are
necessary.

An audit is a technique used to gather sufficient facts and information,
including statistical information, to verify compliance with standards.
Auditors should select as part of their preplanning a sample size sufficient
to give a degree of confidence that the audit reflects the level of
compliance with the standard.  The audit team, through this systematic
analysis, should document areas which require corrective action as well as
those areas where the process safety management system is effective and
working in an effective manner.  This provides a record of the audit
procedures and findings, and serves as a baseline of operation data for
future audits.  It will assist future auditors in determining changes or
trends from previous audits.

Corrective action is one of the most important parts of the audit. It
includes not only addressing the identified deficiencies, but also planning,
followup, and documentation.  The corrective action process normally begins
with a management review of the audit findings. The purpose of this review is
to determine what actions are appropriate, and to establish priorities,
timetables, resource allocations and requirements and responsibilities. In
some cases, corrective action may involve a simple change in procedure or
minor maintenance effort to remedy the concern.  Management of change
procedures need to be used, as appropriate, even for what may seem to be a
minor change. Many of the deficiencies can be acted on promptly, while some
may require engineering studies or indepth review of actual procedures and
practices. There may be instances where no action is necessary and this is a
valid response to an audit finding.  All actions taken, including an
explanation where no action is taken on a finding, needs to be documented as
to what was done and why.

It is important to assure that each deficiency identified is addressed, the
corrective action to be taken noted, and the audit person or team responsible
be properly documented by the employer. To control the corrective action
process, the employer should consider the use of a tracking system.  This
tracking system might include periodic status reports shared with affected
levels of management, specific reports such as completion of an engineering
study, and a final implementation report to provide closure for audit
findings that have been through management of change, if appropriate, and
then shared with affected employees and management.  This type of tracking
system provides the employer with the status of the corrective action.  It
also provides the documentation required to verify that appropriate
corrective actions were taken on deficiencies identified in the audit.

1926.64 Appendix D Sources of Further Information (Nonmandatory)

1.  Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, (212) 705-7319.

2.  "Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures," American Institute of
Chemical Engineers; 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.

3.  "Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process Safety," Center
for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers;
345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.

4.  "Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry,"
Chemical Manufacturers Association; 2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.

5.  "Safe Warehousing of Chemicals," Chemical Manufacturers Association;
2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.

6.  "Management of Process Hazards," American Petroleum Institute (API
Recommended Practice 750); 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

7.  "Improving Owner and Contractor Safety Performance,"
American Petroleum Institute (API Recommended Practice 2220); API, 1220 L
Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

8.  Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA's Manager Guide), First Edition,
September 1991; CMA, 2501 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.

9.  "Improving Construction Safety Performance," Report A-3, The Business
Roundtable; The Business Roundtable, 200 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10166.
(Report includes criteria to evaluate contractor safety performance and
criteria to enhance contractor safety performance).

10.  "Recommended Guidelines for Contractor Safety and Health,"
Texas Chemical Council; Texas Chemical Council, 1402 Nueces Street, Austin,
TX 78701-1534.

11.  "Loss Prevention in the Process Industries," Volumes I and II; Frank P.
Lees, Butterworth; London 1983.

12.  "Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines,"
1989; U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.

13.  "Safety and Health Guide for the Chemical Industry,"
1986, (OSHA 3091); U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration; 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20210.

14.  "Review of Emergency Systems," June 1988; U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC
20460.

15.  "Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis, Emergency Planning for
Extremely Hazardous Substances," December 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and U.S.
Department of Transportation (DOT), Washington, DC 20460.

16.  "Accident Investigation...A New Approach," 1983, National Safety
Council; 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991.

17.  "Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide,"
6th Edition, May 1987, Dow Chemical Company; Midland, Michigan 48674.

18.  "Chemical Exposure Index," May 1988, Dow Chemical Company; Midland,
Michigan 48674.

12. New 1926.65 is added to read as follows:

1926.65  Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

(a) "Scope, application, and definitions" - (1) "Scope." This section covers
the following operations, unless the employer can demonstrate that the
operation does not involve employee exposure or the reasonable possibility
for employee exposure to safety or health hazards:

(i) Clean-up operations required by a governmental body, whether Federal,
state, local or other involving hazardous substances that are conducted at
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites (including, but not limited to, the EPA's
National Priority Site List (NPL), state priority site lists, sites
recommended for the EPA NPL, and initial investigations of government
identified sites which are conducted before the presence or absence of
hazardous substances has been ascertained);

(ii) Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites covered by
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended (42
U.S.C. 6901 et seq.);

(iii) Voluntary clean-up operations at sites recognized by Federal, state,
local or other governmental bodies as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites;

(iv) Operations involving hazardous wastes that are conducted at treatment,
storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated by 40 CFR parts 264 and 265
pursuant to RCRA; or by agencies under agreement with U.S.E.P.A. to implement
RCRA regulations; and

(v) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threats of
releases of, hazardous substances without regard to the location of the
hazard.

(2) "Application." (i) All requirements of part 1910 and part 1926 of title
29 of the Code of Federal Regulations apply pursuant to their terms to
hazardous waste and emergency response operations whether covered by this
section or not. If there is a conflict or overlap, the provision more
protective of employee safety and health shall apply without regard to 29 CFR
1926.20(e)(1).

(ii) Hazardous substance clean-up operations within the scope of paragraphs
(a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iii) of this section must comply with all paragraphs
of this section except paragraphs (p) and (q).

(iii) Operations within the scope of paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section
must comply only with the requirements of paragraph (p) of this section.

Notes and Exceptions: (A) All provisions of paragraph (p) of this section
cover any treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) operation regulated by 40 CFR
parts 264 and 265 or by state law authorized under RCRA, and required to have
a permit or interim status from EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 270.1 or from a state
agency pursuant to RCRA.

(B) Employers who are not required to have a permit or interim status
because they are conditionally exempt small quantity generators under 40 CFR
261.5 or are generators who qualify under 40 CFR 262.34 for exemptions from
regulation under 40 CFR parts 264, 265 and 270 ("excepted employers") are not
covered by paragraphs (p)(1) through (p)(7) of this section. Excepted
employers who are required by the EPA or state agency to have their employees
engage in emergency response or who direct their employees to engage in
emergency response are covered by paragraph (p)(8) of this section, and
cannot be exempted by (p)(8)(i) of this section. Excepted employers who are
not required to have employees engage in emergency response, who direct their
employees to evacuate in the case of such emergencies and who meet the
requirements of paragraph (p)(8)(i) of this section are exempt from the
balance of paragraph (p)(8) of this section.

(C) If an area is used primarily for treatment, storage or disposal, any
emergency response operations in that area shall comply with paragraph (p)(8)
of this section. In other areas not used primarily for treatment, storage, or
disposal, any emergency response operations shall comply with paragraph (q)
of this section. Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (q) of this
section shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of
paragraph (p)(8) of this section.

(iv) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threats
of releases of, hazardous substances which are not covered by paragraphs
(a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section must only comply with the
requirements of paragraph (q) of this section.

(3) "Definitions" - "Buddy system" means a system of organizing employees
into work groups in such a manner that each employee of the work group is
designated to be observed by at least one other employee in the work group.
The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to employees
in the event of an emergency.

"Clean-up operation" means an operation where hazardous substances are
removed, contained, incinerated, neutralized, stabilized, cleared-up, or in
any other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of making the
site safer for people or the environment.

"Decontamination" means the removal of hazardous substances from employees
and their equipment to the extent necessary to preclude the occurrence of
foreseeable adverse health affects.

"Emergency response or responding to emergencies" means a response effort by
employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated
responders (i.e., mutual-aid groups, local fire departments, etc.) to an
occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release
of a hazardous substance.  Responses to incidental releases of hazardous
substances where the substance can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise
controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area,
or by maintenance personnel are not considered to be emergency responses
within the scope of this standard. Responses to releases of hazardous
substances where there is no potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire,
explosion, or chemical exposure) are not considered to be emergency
responses.

"Facility" means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe
or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatment
works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, storage container, motor
vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or area where a
hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or
otherwise come to be located; but does not include any consumer product in
consumer use or any water-borne vessel.

"Hazardous materials response (HAZMAT) team" means an organized group of
employees, designated by the employer, who are expected to perform work to
handle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of hazardous
substances requiring possible close approach to the substance. The team
members perform responses to releases or potential releases of hazardous
substances for the purpose of control or stabilization of the incident. A
HAZMAT team is not a fire brigade nor is a typical fire brigade a HAZMAT
team. A HAZMAT team, however, may be a separate component of a fire brigade
or fire department.

"Hazardous substance" means any substance designated or listed under
paragraphs (A) through (D) of this definition, exposure to which results or
may result in adverse affects on the health or safety of employees:

(A) Any substance defined under section 101(14) of CERCLA;

(B) Any biological agent and other disease-causing agent which after release
into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or
assimilation into any person, either directly from the environment or
indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be
anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer,
genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in
reproduction) or physical deformations in such persons or their offspring;

(C) Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation as
hazardous materials under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and

(D) Hazardous waste as herein defined. "Hazardous waste" means
-

(A) A waste or combination of wastes as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, or

(B) Those substances defined as hazardous wastes in 49 CFR 171.8.

"Hazardous waste operation" means any operation conducted within the scope
of this standard.

"Hazardous waste site" or "Site" means any facility or location within the
scope of this standard at which hazardous waste operations take place.

"Health hazard" means a chemical, mixture of chemicals or a pathogen for
which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study
conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or
chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health
hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic
agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers,
heptaotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the
hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or
mucous membranes. It also includes stress due to temperature extremes.
Further definition of the terms used above can be found in appendix A to 29
CFR 1926.59.

"IDLH" or "Immediately dangerous to life or health" means an atmospheric
concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an
immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adverse
health effects or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape from
a dangerous atmosphere.

"Oxygen deficiency" means that concentration of oxygen by volume below which
atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. It exists in
atmospheres where the percentage of oxygen by volume is less than 19.5
percent oxygen.

"Permissible exposure limit" means the exposure, inhalation or dermal
permissible exposure limit specified either in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart
D, or in other pertinent sections of this part.

"Published exposure level" means the exposure limits published in "NIOSH
Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards" dated 1986 incorporated by
reference, or if none is specified, the exposure limits published in the
standards specified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists in their publication "Threshold Limit Values and Biological
Exposure Indices for 1987-88" dated 1987 incorporated by reference.

"Post emergency response" means that portion of an emergency response
performed after the immediate threat of a release has been stabilized or
eliminated and clean-up of the site has begun. If post emergency response is
performed by an employer's own employees who were part of the initial
emergency response, it is considered to be part of the initial response and
not post emergency response. However, if a group of an employer's own
employees, separate from the group providing initial response, performs the
clean-up operation, then the separate group of employees would be considered
to be performing post-emergency response and subject to paragraph (q)(11) of
this section.

"Qualified person" means a person with specific training, knowledge and
experience in the area for which the person has the responsibility and the
authority to control.

"Site safety and health supervisor (or official)" means the individual
located on a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the employer and has
the authority and knowledge necessary to implement the site safety and health
plan and verify compliance with applicable safety and health requirements.

"Small quantity generator" means a generator of hazardous wastes who in any
calendar month generates no more than 1,000 kilograms (2,205 pounds) of
hazardous waste in that month.

"Uncontrolled hazardous waste site," means an area identified as an
uncontrolled hazardous waste site by a governmental body, whether Federal,
state, local or other where an accumulation of hazardous substances creates a
threat to the health and safety of individuals or the environment or both.
Some sites are found on public lands such as those created by former
municipal, county or state landfills where illegal or poorly managed waste
disposal has taken place. Other sites are found on private property, often
belonging to generators or former generators of hazardous substance wastes.
Examples of such sites include, but are not limited to, surface impoundments,
landfills, dumps, and tank or drum farms. Normal operations at TSD sites are
not covered by this definition.

  (b) "Safety and health program."


Note to (b): Safety and health programs developed and implemented to meet
other Federal, state, or local regulations are considered acceptable in
meeting this requirement if they cover or are modified to cover the topics
required in this paragraph. An additional or separate safety and health
program is not required by this paragraph.

(1) "General." (i) Employers shall develop and implement a written safety
and health program for their employees involved in hazardous waste
operations. The program shall be designed to identify, evaluate, and control
safety and health hazards, and provide for emergency response for hazardous
waste operations.

(ii) The written safety and health program shall incorporate the following:
	(A) An organizational structure;
	(B) A comprehensive workplan;
	(C) A site-specific safety and health plan which need not repeat the
employer's standard operating procedures required in paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(F)
of this section;
	(D) The safety and health training program;
	(E) The medical surveillance program;
	(F) The employer's standard operating procedures for safety and health;
	and (G) Any necessary interface between general program and site specific
activities.

(iii) "Site excavation." Site excavations created during initial site
preparation or during hazardous waste operations shall be shored or sloped as
appropriate to prevent accidental collapse in accordance with subpart P of 29
CFR part 1926.

(iv) "Contractors and sub-contractors." An employer who retains contractor
or sub-contractor services for work in hazardous waste operations shall
inform those contractors, sub-contractors, or their representatives of the
site emergency response procedures and any potential fire, explosion, health,
safety or other hazards of the hazardous waste operation that have been
identified by the employer, including those identified in the employer's
information program.

(v) "Program availability." The written safety and health program shall be
made available to any contractor or subcontractor or their representative who
will be involved with the hazardous waste operation; to employees; to
employee designated representatives; to OSHA personnel, and to personnel of
other Federal, state, or local agencies with regulatory authority over the
site.

(2) "Organizational structure part of the site program" - (i) The
organizational structure part of the program shall establish the specific
chain of command and specify the overall responsibilities of supervisors and
employees. It shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:

(A) A general supervisor who has the responsibility and authority to direct
all hazardous waste operations.

(B) A site safety and health supervisor who has the responsibility and
authority to develop and implement the site safety and health plan and verify
compliance.

(C) All other personnel needed for hazardous waste site operations and
emergency response and their general functions and responsibilities.

(D) The lines of authority, responsibility, and communication.

(ii)
The organizational structure shall be reviewed and updated as necessary to
reflect the current status of waste site operations.

(3) "Comprehensive workplan part of the site program." The comprehensive
workplan part of the program shall address the tasks and objectives of the
site operations and the logistics and resources required to reach those tasks
and objectives.

(i) The comprehensive workplan shall address anticipated clean-up activities
as well as normal operating procedures which need not repeat the employer's
procedures available elsewhere.

(ii) The comprehensive workplan shall define work tasks and objectives and
identify the methods for accomplishing those tasks and objectives.

(iii) The comprehensive workplan shall establish personnel requirements for
implementing the plan.

(iv) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of the
training required in paragraph (e) of this section.

(v) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of the
required informational programs required in paragraph (i) of this section.

(vi) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of the
medical surveillance program described in paragraph (f) of this section.

(4) "Site-specific safety and health plan part of the program" - (i)
"General." The site safety and health plan, which must be kept on site, shall
address the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operation and
include the requirements and procedures for employee protection.

(ii) "Elements." The site safety and health plan, as a minimum, shall
address the following:

(A) A safety and health risk or hazard analysis for each site task and
operation found in the workplan.

(B) Employee training assignments to assure compliance with paragraph (e) of
this section.

(C) Personal protective equipment to be used by employees for each of the
site tasks and operations being conducted as required by the personal
protective equipment program in paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(D) Medical surveillance requirements in accordance with the program in
paragraph (f) of this section.

(E) Frequency and types of air monitoring, personnel monitoring, and
environmental sampling techniques and instrumentation to be used, including
methods of maintenance and calibration of monitoring and sampling equipment
to be used.

(F) Site control measures in accordance with the site control program
required in paragraph (d) of this section.

(G) Decontamination procedures in accordance with paragraph (k) of this
section.

(H) An emergency response plan meeting the requirements of paragraph (l) of
this section for safe and effective responses to emergencies, including the
necessary PPE and other equipment.

(I) Confined space entry procedures. (J) A spill containment program
meeting the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section.

(iii) "Pre-entry briefing." The site specific safety and health plan shall
provide for pre-entry briefings to be held prior to initiating any site
activity, and at such other times as necessary to ensure that employees are
apprised of the site safety and health plan and that this plan is being
followed. The information and data obtained from site characterization and
analysis work required in paragraph (c) of this section shall be used to
prepare and update the site safety and health plan.

(iv) "Effectiveness of site safety and health plan." Inspections shall be
conducted by the site safety and health supervisor or, in the absence of that
individual, another individual who is knowledgeable in occupational safety
and health, acting on behalf of the employer as necessary to determine the
effectiveness of the site safety and health plan. Any deficiencies in the
effectiveness of the site safety and health plan shall be corrected by the
employer.

(c) "Site characterization and analysis" - (1) "General." Hazardous waste
sites shall be evaluated in accordance with this paragraph to identify
specific site hazards and to determine the appropriate safety and health
control procedures needed to protect employees from the identified hazards.

(2) "Preliminary evaluation." A preliminary evaluation of a site's
characteristics shall be performed prior to site entry by a qualified person
in order to aid in the selection of appropriate employee protection methods
prior to site entry. Immediately after initial site entry, a more detailed
evaluation of the site's specific characteristics shall be performed by a
qualified person in order to further identify existing site hazards and to
further aid in the selection of the appropriate engineering controls and
personal protective equipment for the tasks to be performed.

(3) "Hazard identification." All suspected conditions that may pose
inhalation or skin absorption hazards that are immediately dangerous to life
or health (IDLH), or other conditions that may cause death or serious harm,
shall be identified during the preliminary survey and evaluated during the
detailed survey. Examples of such hazards include, but are not limited to,
confined space entry, potentially explosive or flammable situations, visible
vapor clouds, or areas where biological indicators such as dead animals or
vegetation are located.

(4) "Required information." The following information to the extent
available shall be obtained by the employer prior to allowing employees to
enter a site:

(i) Location and approximate size of the site.

(ii) Description of
the response activity and/or the job task to be performed.

(iii) Duration of the planned employee activity.

(iv) Site
topography and accessibility by air and roads.

(v) Safety and health hazards
expected at the site.

(vi) Pathways for hazardous substance dispersion.

(vii)
Present status and capabilities of emergency response teams that would
provide assistance to hazardous waste clean-up site employees at the time of
an emergency.

(viii) Hazardous substances and health hazards involved or expected at the
site, and their chemical and physical properties.

(5) "Personal protective equipment." Personal protective equipment (PPE)
shall be provided and used during initial site entry in accordance with the
following requirements:

(i) Based upon the results of the preliminary site evaluation, an ensemble
of PPE shall be selected and used during initial site entry which will
provide protection to a level of exposure below permissible exposure limits
and published exposure levels for known or suspected hazardous substances and
health hazards, and which will provide protection against other known and
suspected hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation. If there
is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure level, the employer
may use other published studies and information as a guide to appropriate
personal protective equipment.

(ii) If positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus is not used as
part of the entry ensemble, and if respiratory protection is warranted by the
potential hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation, an
escape self-contained breathing apparatus of at least five minute's duration
shall be carried by employees during initial site entry.

(iii) If the preliminary site evaluation does not produce sufficient
information to identify the hazards or suspected hazards of the site, an
ensemble providing protection equivalent to Level B PPE shall be provided as
minimum protection, and direct reading instruments shall be used as
appropriate for identifying IDLH conditions. (See appendix B for a
description of Level B hazards and the recommendations for Level B protective
equipment.)

(iv) Once the hazards of the site have been identified, the
appropriate PPE shall be selected and used in accordance with paragraph (g)
of this section.

(6) "Monitoring." The following monitoring shall be conducted during initial
site entry when the site evaluation produces information that shows the
potential for ionizing radiation or IDLH conditions, or when the site
information is not sufficient reasonably to eliminate these possible
conditions:

(i) Monitoring with direct reading instruments for hazardous levels of
ionizing radiation.

(ii) Monitoring the air with appropriate direct reading test equipment
(i.e., combustible gas meters, detector tubes) for IDLH and other conditions
that may cause death or serious harm (combustible or explosive atmospheres,
oxygen deficiency, toxic substances).

(iii) Visually observing for signs of actual or potential IDLH or other
dangerous conditions.

(iv) An ongoing air monitoring program in accordance with paragraph (h) of
this section shall be implemented after site characterization has determined
the site is safe for the start-up of operations.

(7) "Risk identification."  (i) Once the presence and concentrations of
specific hazardous substances and health hazards have been established, the
risks associated with these substances shall be identified. Employees who
will be working on the site shall be informed of any risks that have been
identified. In situations covered by the Hazard Communication Standard, 29
CFR 1926.59, training required by that standard need not be duplicated.

    Note to (c)(7) - Risks to consider include, but are not limited to:
  1. Exposures exceeding the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels.
  2. IDLH concentrations.
  3. Potential skin absorption and irritation sources.
  4. Potential eye irritation sources.
  5. Explosion sensitivity and flammability ranges.
  6. Oxygen deficiency.
(8) "Employee notification." Any information concerning the chemical,
physical, and toxicologic properties of each substance known or expected to
be present on site that is available to the employer and relevant to the
duties an employee is expected to perform shall be made available to the
affected employees prior to the commencement of their work activities. The
employer may utilize information developed for the hazard communication
standard for this purpose.

(d) "Site control" - (1) "General." Appropriate site control procedures
shall be implemented to control employee exposure to hazardous substances
before clean-up work begins.

(2) "Site control program." A site control program for protecting employees
which is part of the employer's site safety and health program required in
paragraph (b) of this section shall be developed during the planning stages
of a hazardous waste clean-up operation and modified as necessary as new
information becomes available.

(3) "Elements of the site control program." The site control program shall,
as a minimum, include: A site map; site work zones; the use of a "buddy
system"; site communications including alerting means for emergencies; the
standard operating procedures or safe work practices; and, identification of
the nearest medical assistance. Where these requirements are covered
elsewhere they need not be repeated.

(e) "Training" - (1) "General." (i) All employees working on site (such as
but not limited to equipment operators, general laborers and others) exposed
to hazardous substances, health hazards, or safety hazards and their
supervisors and management responsible for the site shall receive training
meeting the requirements of this paragraph before they are permitted to
engage in hazardous waste operations that could expose them to hazardous
substances, safety, or health hazards, and they shall receive review training
as specified in this paragraph.

(ii) Employees shall not be permitted to participate in or supervise field
activities until they have been trained to a level required by their job
function and responsibility.

(2) "Elements to be covered." The training shall thoroughly cover the
following:

(i) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety and health;

(ii) Safety, health and other hazards present on the site;

(iii) Use of personal protective equipment;

(iv) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from hazards;

(v) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on the site;

(vi) Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of symptoms
and signs which might indicate overexposure to hazards; and

(vii) The contents of paragraphs (G) through (J) of the site safety and
health plan set forth in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.

(3) "Initial training." (i) General site workers (such as equipment
operators, general laborers and supervisory personnel) engaged in hazardous
substance removal or other activities which expose or potentially expose
workers to hazardous substances and health hazards shall receive a minimum of
40 hours of instruction off the site, and a minimum of three days actual
field experience under the direct supervision of a trained, experienced
supervisor.

(ii) Workers on site only occasionally for a specific limited task (such as,
but not limited to, ground water monitoring, land surveying, or geo-physical
surveying) and who are unlikely to be exposed over permissible exposure
limits and published exposure limits shall receive a minimum of 24 hours of
instruction off the site, and the minimum of one day actual field experience
under the direct supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor.

(iii) Workers regularly on site who work in areas which have been monitored
and fully characterized indicating that exposures are under permissible
exposure limits and published exposure limits where respirators are not
necessary, and the characterization indicates that there are no health
hazards or the possibility of an emergency developing, shall receive a
minimum of 24 hours of instruction off the site and the minimum of one day
actual field experience under the direct supervision of a trained,
experienced supervisor.

(iv) Workers with 24 hours of training who are covered by paragraphs
(e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii) of this section, and who become general site
workers or who are required to wear respirators, shall have the additional 16
hours and two days of training necessary to total the training specified in
paragraph (e)(3)(i).

(4) "Management and supervisor training." On-site management and supervisors
directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardous
waste operations shall receive 40 hours initial training, and three days of
supervised field experience (the training may be reduced to 24 hours and one
day if the only area of their responsibility is employees covered by
paragraphs (e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii)) and at least eight additional hours of
specialized training at the time of job assignment on such topics as, but not
limited to, the employer's safety and health program and the associated
employee training program, personal protective equipment program, spill
containment program, and health hazard monitoring procedure and techniques.

(5) "Qualifications for trainers." Trainers shall be qualified to instruct
employees about the subject matter that is being presented in training. Such
trainers shall have satisfactorily completed a training program for teaching
the subjects they are expected to teach, or they shall have the academic
credentials and instructional experience necessary for teaching the subjects.
Instructors shall demonstrate competent instructional skills and knowledge of
the applicable subject matter.

(6) "Training certification." Employees and supervisors that have received
and successfully completed the training and field experience specified in
paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section shall be certified by their
instructor or the head instructor and trained supervisor as having
successfully completed the necessary training. A written certificate shall be
given to each person so certified. Any person who has not been so certified
or who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(9) of this section
shall be prohibited from engaging in hazardous waste operations.

(7) "Emergency response." Employees who are engaged in responding to
hazardous emergency situations at hazardous waste clean-up sites that may
expose them to hazardous substances shall be trained in how to respond to
such expected emergencies.

(8) "Refresher training." Employees specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this
section, and managers and supervisors specified in paragraph (e)(4) of this
section, shall receive eight hours of refresher training annually on the
items specified in paragraph (e)(2) and/or (e)(4) of this section, any
critique of incidents that have occurred in the past year that can serve as
training examples of related work, and other relevant topics.

(9) "Equivalent training." Employers who can show by documentation or
certification that an employee's work experience and/or training has resulted
in training equivalent to that training required in paragraphs (e)(1) through
(e)(4) of this section shall not be required to provide the initial training
requirements of those paragraphs to such employees and shall provide a copy
of the certification or documentation to the employee upon request. However,
certified employees or employees with equivalent training new to a site shall
receive appropriate, site specific training before site entry and have
appropriate supervised field experience at the new site. Equivalent training
includes any academic training or the training that existing employees might
have already received from actual hazardous waste site work experience.

(f) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General." Employers engaged in operations
specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section and not
covered by (a)(2)(iii) exceptions and employers of employees specified in
paragraph (q)(9) shall institute a medical surveillance program in accordance
with this paragraph.

(2) "Employees covered." The medical surveillance program shall be
instituted by the employer for the following employees:

(i) All employees who are or may be exposed to hazardous substances or
health hazards at or above the permissible exposure limits or, if there is no
permissible exposure limit, above the published exposure levels for these
substances, without regard to the use of respirators, for 30 days or more a
year;

(ii) All employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more a year or as
required by 1926.103;

(iii) All employees who are injured, become ill or develop signs or symptoms
due to possible overexposure involving hazardous substances or health hazards
from an emergency response or hazardous waste operation; and (iv) Members of
HAZMAT teams. (3) "Frequency of medical examinations and consultations."
Medical examinations and consultations shall be made available by the
employer to each employee covered under paragraph (f)(2) of this section on
the following schedules:

(i) For employees covered under paragraphs (f)(2)(i), (f)(2)(ii), and
(f)(2)(iv):

(A) Prior to assignment;

(B) At least once every twelve months for each employee covered unless the
attending physician believes a longer interval (not greater than biennially)
is appropriate;

(C) At termination of employment or reassignment to an area where the
employee would not be covered if the employee has not had an examination
within the last six months;

(D) As soon as possible upon notification by an employee that the employee
has developed signs or symptoms indicating possible overexposure to hazardous
substances or health hazards, or that the employee has been injured or
exposed above the permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels in
an emergency situation;

(E) At more frequent times, if the examining physician determines that an
increased frequency of examination is medically necessary.

(ii) For employees covered under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) and for all employees
including those of employers covered by paragraph (a)(1)(v) who may have been
injured, received a health impairment, developed signs or symptoms which may
have resulted from exposure to hazardous substances resulting from an
emergency incident, or exposed during an emergency incident to hazardous
substances at concentrations above the permissible exposure limits or the
published exposure levels without the necessary personal protective equipment
being used:

(A) As soon as possible following the emergency incident or development of
signs or symptoms;

(B) At additional times, if the examining physician determines that
follow-up examinations or consultations are medically necessary.

(4) "Content of medical examinations and consultations." (i) Medical
examinations required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section shall include a
medical and work history (or updated history if one is in the employee's
file) with special emphasis on symptoms related to the handling of hazardous
substances and health hazards, and to fitness for duty including the ability
to wear any required PPE under conditions (i.e., temperature extremes) that
may be expected at the work site.

(ii) The content of medical examinations or consultations made available to
employees pursuant to paragraph (f) shall be determined by the attending
physician. The guidelines in the "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance
Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities" (See appendix D, Reference number
10) should be consulted.

(5) "Examination by a physician and costs." All medical examinations and
procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed
physician, preferably one knowledgeable in occupational medicine, and shall
be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a
reasonable time and place.

(6) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide one
copy of this standard and its appendices to the attending physician, and in
addition the following for each employee:

(i) A description of the employee's duties as they relate to the employee's
exposures.

(ii) The employee's exposure levels or anticipated exposure levels.

(iii) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be
used.

(iv) Information from previous medical examinations of the employee which is
not readily available to the examining physician.

(v) Information required by 1926.103.

(7) "Physician's written
opinion."

(i) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copy
of a written opinion from the attending physician containing the
following:

(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected
medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of
material impairment of the employee's health from work in hazardous waste
operations or emergency response, or from respirator use.

(B) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's assigned
work.

(C) The results of the medical examination and tests if requested by the
employee.

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the
results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require
further examination or treatment.

(ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal specific
findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.

(8) "Recordkeeping." (i) An accurate record of the medical surveillance
required by paragraph (f) of this section shall be retained. This record
shall be retained for the period specified and meet the criteria of 29 CFR
1926.33.

(ii) The record required in paragraph (f)(8)(i) of this section shall
include at least the following information:

(A) The name and social security number of the employee;

(B) Physician's written opinions, recommended limitations, and results of
examinations and tests;

(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to hazardous
substances;

(D) A copy of the information provided to the examining physician by the
employer, with the exception of the standard and its appendices.

(g) "Engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment
for employee protection." Engineering controls, work practices, personal
protective equipment, or a combination of these shall be implemented in
accordance with this paragraph to protect employees from exposure to
hazardous substances and safety and health hazards.

(1) "Engineering controls, work practices and PPE for substances regulated
either in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in other pertinent sections of
this part." (i) Engineering controls and work practices shall be instituted
to reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure
limits for substances regulated either in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections
of this part, except to the extent that such controls and practices are not
feasible.

Note to (g)(1)(i): Engineering controls which may be feasible include the
use of pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the use of
remotely operated material handling equipment. Work practices which may be
feasible are removing all non-essential employees from potential exposure
during opening of drums, wetting down dusty operations and locating employees
upwind of possible hazards.

(ii) Whenever engineering controls and work practices are not feasible or
not required, any reasonable combination of engineering controls, work
practices and PPE shall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposures to
or below the permissible exposure limits or dose limits for substances
regulated either in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.

(iii) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as a
means of compliance with permissible exposure limits or dose limits except
when there is no other feasible way of complying with the airborne or dermal
dose limits for ionizing radiation.

(iv) The provisions of subpart D shall be followed.

(2) "Engineering
controls, work practices, and PPE for substances not regulated either in
1926.55,  elsewhere in subpart D, or in other pertinent sections of this
part. An appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices and
personal protective equipment shall be used to reduce and maintain employee
exposure to or below published exposure levels for hazardous substances and
health hazards not regulated either in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in
other pertinent sections of this part. The employer may use the published
literature and MSDS as a guide in making the employer's determination as to
what level of protection the employer believes is appropriate for hazardous
substances and health hazards for which there is no permissible exposure
limit or published exposure limit.

(3) "Personal protective equipment selection." (i) Personal protective
equipment (PPE) shall be selected and used which will protect employees from
the hazards and potential hazards they are likely to encounter as identified
during the site characterization and analysis.

(ii) Personal protective equipment selection shall be based on an evaluation
of the performance characteristics of the PPE relative to the requirements
and limitations of the site, the task-specific conditions and duration, and
the hazards and potential hazards identified at the site.

(iii) Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or positive
pressure air-line respirators equipped with an escape air supply, shall be
used when chemical exposure levels present will create a substantial
possibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness or injury, or
impair the ability to escape.

(iv) Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits (protection equivalent
to Level A protection as recommended in appendix B) shall be used in
conditions where skin absorption of a hazardous substance may result in a
substantial possibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness or
injury, or impair the ability to escape.

(v) The level of protection provided by PPE selection shall be increased
when additional information on site conditions indicates that increased
protection is necessary to reduce employee exposures below permissible
exposure limits and published exposure levels for hazardous substances and
health hazards. (See appendix B for guidance on selecting PPE ensembles.)

Note to (g)(3): The level of employee protection provided may be decreased
when additional information or site conditions show that decreased protection
will not result in hazardous exposures to employees.

(vi) Personal protective equipment shall be selected and used to meet the
requirements of subpart E of this part and additional requirements specified
in this section.

(4) "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits." (i)
Totally-encapsulating suits shall protect employees from the particular
hazards which are identified during site characterization and analysis.

(ii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable of maintaining positive
air pressure. (See appendix A for a test method which may be used to evaluate
this requirement.)

(iii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable of
preventing inward test gas leakage of more than 0.5 percent. (See appendix A
for a test method which may be used to evaluate this requirement.)

(5)
"Personal protective equipment (PPE) program." A written personal protective
equipment program, which is part of the employer's safety and health program
required in paragraph (b) of this section or required in paragraph (p)(1) of
this section and which is also a part of the site-specific safety and health
plan shall be established. The PPE program shall address the elements listed
below. When elements, such as donning and doffing procedures, are provided by
the manufacturer of a piece of equipment and are attached to the plan, they
need not be rewritten into the plan as long as they adequately address the
procedure or element.

(i) PPE selection based upon site hazards,

(ii) PPE use and
limitations of the equipment,

(iii) Work mission duration,

(iv) PPE
maintenance and storage,

(v) PPE decontamination and disposal,

(vi) PPE
training and proper fitting,

(vii) PPE donning and doffing procedures,

(viii)
PPE inspection procedures prior to, during, and after use,

(ix) Evaluation of
the effectiveness of the PPE program, and

(x) Limitations during temperature
extremes, heat stress, and other appropriate medical
considerations.

(h) "Monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Monitoring shall be performed in
accordance with this paragraph where there may be a question of employee
exposure to hazardous concentrations of hazardous substances in order to
assure proper selection of engineering controls, work practices and personal
protective equipment so that employees are not exposed to levels which exceed
permissible exposure limits, or published exposure levels if there are no
permissible exposure limits, for hazardous substances.

(ii) Air monitoring shall be used to identify and quantify airborne levels
of hazardous substances and safety and health hazards in order to determine
the appropriate level of employee protection needed on site.

(2) "Initial entry." Upon initial entry, representative air monitoring shall
be conducted to identify any IDLH condition, exposure over permissible
exposure limits or published exposure levels, exposure over a radioactive
material's dose limits or other dangerous condition such as the presence of
flammable atmospheres or oxygen-deficient environments.

(3) "Periodic monitoring." Periodic monitoring shall be conducted when the
possibility of an IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere has developed or
when there is indication that exposures may have risen over permissible
exposure limits or published exposure levels since prior monitoring.
Situations where it shall be considered whether the possibility that
exposures have risen are as follows:

{i} When work begins on a different portion of the site.

{ii} When
contaminants other than those previously identified are being
handled.

{iii} When a different type of operation is initiated (e.g., drum opening as
opposed to exploratory well drilling).

{iv} When employees are handling leaking drums or containers or working in
areas with obvious liquid contamination (e.g., a spill or lagoon).

(4) "Monitoring of high-risk employees." After the actual clean-up phase of
any hazardous waste operation commences; for example, when soil, surface
water or containers are moved or disturbed; the employer shall monitor those
employees likely to have the highest exposures to hazardous substances and
health hazards likely to be present above permissible exposure limits or
published exposure levels by using personal sampling frequently enough to
characterize employee exposures. If the employees likely to have the highest
exposure are over permissible exposure limits or published exposure limits,
then monitoring shall continue to determine all employees likely to be above
those limits. The employer may utilize a representative sampling approach by
documenting that the employees and chemicals chosen for monitoring are based
on the criteria stated above.

Note to (h): It is not required to monitor employees engaged in site
characterization operations covered by paragraph (c) of this section.

(i) "Informational programs." Employers shall develop and implement a
program, which is part of the employer's safety and health program required
in paragraph (b) of this section, to inform employees, contractors, and
subcontractors (or their representative) actually engaged in hazardous waste
operations of the nature, level and degree of exposure likely as a result of
participation in such hazardous waste operations. Employees, contractors and
subcontractors working outside of the operations part of a site are not
covered by this standard.

(j) "Handling drums and containers" - (1) "General." (i) Hazardous
substances and contaminated soils, liquids, and other residues shall be
handled, transported, labeled, and disposed of in accordance with this
paragraph.

(ii) Drums and containers used during the clean-up shall meet the
appropriate DOT, OSHA, and EPA regulations for the wastes that they contain.

(iii) When practical, drums and containers shall be inspected and their
integrity shall be assured prior to being moved. Drums or containers that
cannot be inspected before being moved because of storage conditions (i.e.,
buried beneath the earth, stacked behind other drums, stacked several tiers
high in a pile, etc.) shall be moved to an accessible location and inspected
prior to further handling.

(iv) Unlabelled drums and containers shall be considered to contain
hazardous substances and handled accordingly until the contents are
positively identified and labeled.

(v) Site operations shall be organized to minimize the amount of drum or
container movement.

(vi) Prior to movement of drums or containers, all employees exposed to the
transfer operation shall be warned of the potential hazards associated with
the contents of the drums or containers.

(vii) U.S. Department of Transportation specified salvage drums or
containers and suitable quantities of proper absorbent shall be kept
available and used in areas where spills, leaks, or ruptures may occur.

(viii) Where major spills may occur, a spill containment program, which is
part of the employer's safety and health program required in paragraph (b) of
this section, shall be implemented to contain and isolate the entire volume
of the hazardous substance being transferred.

(ix) Drums and containers that cannot be moved without rupture, leakage, or
spillage shall be emptied into a sound container using a device classified
for the material being transferred.

(x) A ground-penetrating system or other type of detection system or device
shall be used to estimate the location and depth of buried drums or
containers.

(xi) Soil or covering material shall be removed with caution to prevent drum
or container rupture.

(xii) Fire extinguishing equipment meeting the requirements of subpart F of
this part shall be on hand and ready for use to control incipient fires.

(2) "Opening drums and containers." The following procedures shall be
followed in areas where drums or containers are being opened:

(i) Where an airline respirator system is used, connections to the source of
air supply shall be protected from contamination and the entire system shall
be protected from physical damage.

(ii) Employees not actually involved in opening drums or containers shall be
kept a safe distance from the drums or containers being opened.

(iii) If employees must work near or adjacent to drums or containers being
opened, a suitable shield that does not interfere with the work operation
shall be placed between the employee and the drums or containers being opened
to protect the employee in case of accidental explosion.

(iv) Controls for drum or container opening equipment, monitoring equipment,
and fire suppression equipment shall be located behind the
explosion-resistant barrier.

(v) When there is a reasonable possibility of flammable atmospheres being
present, material handling equipment and hand tools shall be of the type to
prevent sources of ignition.

(vi) Drums and containers shall be opened in such a manner that excess
interior pressure will be safely relieved. If pressure can not be relieved
from a remote location, appropriate shielding shall be placed between the
employee and the drums or containers to reduce the risk of employee injury.

(vii) Employees shall not stand upon or work from drums or
containers.

(3) "Material handling equipment." Material handling equipment
used to transfer drums and containers shall be selected, positioned and
operated to minimize sources of ignition related to the equipment from
igniting vapors released from ruptured drums or containers.

(4) "Radioactive wastes." Drums and containers containing radioactive wastes
shall not be handled until such time as their hazard to employees is properly
assessed.

(5) "Shock sensitive wastes." As a minimum, the following special
precautions shall be taken when drums and containers containing or suspected
of containing shock-sensitive wastes are handled:

(i) All non-essential employees shall be evacuated from the area of transfer.

(ii) Material handling equipment shall be provided with explosive
containment devices or protective shields to protect equipment operators from
exploding containers.

(iii) An employee alarm system capable of being perceived above surrounding
light and noise conditions shall be used to signal the commencement and
completion of explosive waste handling activities.

(iv) Continuous communications (i.e., portable radios, hand signals,
telephones, as appropriate) shall be maintained between the
employee-in-charge of the immediate handling area and both the site safety
and health supervisor and the command post until such time as the handling
operation is completed. Communication equipment or methods that could cause
shock sensitive materials to explode shall not be used.

(v) Drums and containers under pressure, as evidenced by bulging or
swelling, shall not be moved until such time as the cause for excess pressure
is determined and appropriate containment procedures have been implemented to
protect employees from explosive relief of the drum.

(vi) Drums and containers containing packaged laboratory wastes shall be
considered to contain shock-sensitive or explosive materials until they have
been characterized.

Caution: Shipping of shock sensitive wastes may be prohibited under U.S.
Department of Transportation regulations. Employers and their shippers should
refer to 49 CFR 173.21 and 173.50.

(6) "Laboratory waste packs." In addition to the requirements of paragraph
(j)(5) of this section, the following precautions shall be taken, as a
minimum, in handling laboratory waste packs (lab packs):

(i) Lab packs shall be opened only when necessary and then only by an
individual knowledgeable in the inspection, classification, and segregation
of the containers within the pack according to the hazards of the wastes.

(ii) If crystalline material is noted on any container, the contents shall
be handled as a shock-sensitive waste until the contents are identified.

(7) "Sampling of drum and container contents." Sampling of containers and
drums shall be done in accordance with a sampling procedure which is part of
the site safety and health plan developed for and available to employees and
others at the specific worksite.

(8) "Shipping and transport." (i) Drums and containers shall be identified
and classified prior to packaging for shipment.

(ii) Drum or container staging areas shall be kept to the minimum number
necessary to identify and classify materials safely and prepare them for
transport.

(iii) Staging areas shall be provided with adequate access and egress routes.

(iv) Bulking of hazardous wastes shall be permitted only after a thorough
characterization of the materials has been completed.

(9) "Tank and vault procedures." (i) Tanks and vaults containing hazardous
substances shall be handled in a manner similar to that for drums and
containers, taking into consideration the size of the tank or vault.

(ii) Appropriate tank or vault entry procedures as described in the
employer's safety and health plan shall be followed whenever employees must
enter a tank or vault.

(k) "Decontamination" - (1) "General." Procedures for all phases of
decontamination shall be developed and implemented in accordance with this
paragraph.

(2) "Decontamination procedures." (i) A decontamination procedure shall be
developed, communicated to employees and implemented before any employees or
equipment may enter areas on site where potential for exposure to hazardous
substances exists.

(ii) Standard operating procedures shall be developed to minimize employee
contact with hazardous substances or with equipment that has contacted
hazardous substances.

(iii) All employees leaving a contaminated area shall be appropriately
decontaminated; all contaminated clothing and equipment leaving a
contaminated area shall be appropriately disposed of or decontaminated.

(iv) Decontamination procedures shall be monitored by the site safety and
health supervisor to determine their effectiveness. When such procedures are
found to be ineffective, appropriate steps shall be taken to correct any
deficiencies.

(3) "Location." Decontamination shall be performed in geographical areas
that will minimize the exposure of uncontaminated employees or equipment to
contaminated employees or equipment.

(4) "Equipment and solvents." All equipment and solvents used for
decontamination shall be decontaminated or disposed of properly.

(5) "Personal protective clothing and equipment." (i) Protective clothing
and equipment shall be decontaminated, cleaned, laundered, maintained or
replaced as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(ii) Employees whose non-impermeable clothing becomes wetted with hazardous
substances shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower. The
clothing shall be disposed of or decontaminated before it is removed from the
work zone.

(6) "Unauthorized employees." Unauthorized employees shall not remove
protective clothing or equipment from change rooms.

(7) "Commercial laundries or cleaning establishments." Commercial laundries
or cleaning establishments that decontaminate protective clothing or
equipment shall be informed of the potentially harmful effects of exposures
to hazardous substances.

(8) "Showers and change rooms." Where the decontamination procedure
indicates a need for regular showers and change rooms outside of a
contaminated area, they shall be provided and meet the requirements of 29 CFR
1910.141. If temperature conditions prevent the effective use of water, then
other effective means for cleansing shall be provided and used.

(l) "Emergency response by employees at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites"
- (1) "Emergency response plan." (i) An emergency response plan shall be
developed and implemented by all employers within the scope of paragraphs
(a)(1)(i) through (ii) of this section to handle anticipated emergencies
prior to the commencement of hazardous waste operations. The plan shall be in
writing and available for inspection and copying by employees, their
representatives, OSHA personnel and other governmental agencies with relevant
responsibilities.

(ii) Employers who will evacuate their employees from the danger area when
an emergency occurs, and who do not permit any of their employees to assist
in handling the emergency, are exempt from the requirements of this paragraph
if they provide an emergency action plan complying with 1926.35 of this part.

(2) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop an
emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,
the following:

(i) Pre-emergency planning.

(ii) Personnel roles, lines of
authority, and communication.

(iii) Emergency recognition and prevention.

(iv) Safe distances and places of refuge.

(v) Site security and control.

(vi)
Evacuation routes and procedures.

(vii) Decontamination procedures which are
not covered by the site safety and health plan.

(viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.

(ix) Emergency
alerting and response procedures.

(x) Critique of response and follow-up.

(xi) PPE and emergency equipment.

(3) "Procedures for handling emergency
incidents."

(i) In addition to the elements for the emergency response plan
required in paragraph (1)(2) of this section, the following elements shall be
included for emergency response plans:

(A) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.

(B)
Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal governmental
agencies.

(ii) The emergency response plan shall be a separate section of the Site
Safety and Health Plan.

(iii) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated with
the disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, and
federal agencies.

(iv) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as part of the
overall training program for site operations.

(v) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically and, as
necessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing site conditions
or information.

(vi) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 29 CFR
1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop work
activities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to speed
communication; and to begin emergency procedures.

(vii) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, the
employer shall evaluate the incident and the site response capabilities and
proceed with the appropriate steps to implement the site emergency response
plan.

(m) "Illumination." Areas accessible to employees shall be lighted to not
less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in the following Table
D-65.1 while any work is in progress:

TABLE D-65.1 - MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES

Foot-candles Area or operations
5 General site areas.
3 Excavation and waste areas, access ways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas.
5 Indoors: Warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways.
5 Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas. (Exception: Minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling mucking, and scaling. Mine Safety and Health Administration approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading.)
10 General shops (e.g., mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, active storerooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or dressing rooms, dining areas, and indoor toilets and workrooms.)
30 First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.
(n) "Sanitation at temporary workplaces" - (1) "Potable water."

(i) An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided on the site.

(ii) Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be capable of
being tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall not be dipped from
containers.

(iii) Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be clearly
marked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other purpose.

(iv) Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, both a
sanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for disposing of the
used cups shall be provided.

(2) "Nonpotable water." (i) Outlets for nonpotable water, such as water for
fire fighting purposes, shall be identified to indicate clearly that the
water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing, or cooking
purposes.

(ii) There shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between a system
furnishing potable water and a system furnishing nonpotable water.

(3) "Toilet facilities." (i) Toilets shall be provided for employees
according to the following Table D-65.2.

TABLE D-65.2 - TOILET FACILITIES

Number of employees Minimum number of facilities
20 or fewer One.
More than 20, fewer than 200 One toilet seat and one urinal per 40 employees.
More than 200 One toilet seat and one urinal per 50 employees.
(ii) Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to assure
that at least one toilet facility is available.

(iii) Hazardous waste sites not provided with a sanitary sewer shall be
provided with the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by local
codes:
	(A) Chemical toilets;
	(B) Recirculating toilets;
	(C) Combustion toilets; or 
	(D) Flush toilets. 

(iv) The requirements
of this paragraph for sanitation facilities shall not apply to mobile crews
having transportation readily available to nearby toilet
facilities.

(v) Doors entering toilet facilities shall be provided with entrance locks
controlled from inside the facility.

(4) "Food handling." All food service facilities and operations for
employees shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of the
jurisdictions in which they are located.

(5) "Temporary sleeping quarters." When temporary sleeping quarters are
provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.

(6) "Washing facilities." The employer shall provide adequate washing
facilities for employees engaged in operations where hazardous substances may
be harmful to employees. Such facilities shall be in near proximity to the
worksite; in areas where exposures are below permissible exposure limits and
published exposure levels and which are under the controls of the employer;
and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove hazardous
substances from themselves.

(7) "Showers and change rooms." When hazardous waste clean-up or removal
operations commence on a site and the duration of the work will require six
months or greater time to complete, the employer shall provide showers and
change rooms for all employees exposed to hazardous substances and health
hazards involved in hazardous waste clean-up or removal operations.

(i) Showers shall be provided and shall meet the requirements of 29 CFR
1926.51(f)(4).

(ii) Change rooms shall be provided and shall meet the requirements of 29
CFR 1926.51(i). Change rooms shall consist of two separate change areas
separated by the shower area required in paragraph (n)(7)(i) of this section.
One change area, with an exit leading off the worksite, shall provide
employees with a clean area where they can remove, store, and put on street
clothing. The second area, with an exit to the worksite, shall provide
employees with an area where they can put on, remove and store work clothing
and personal protective equipment.

(iii) Showers and change rooms shall be located in areas where exposures are
below the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels. If this
cannot be accomplished, then a ventilation system shall be provided that will
supply air that is below the permissible exposure limits and published
exposure levels.

(iv) Employers shall assure that employees shower at the end of their work
shift and when leaving the hazardous waste site.

(o) "New technology programs." (1) The employer shall develop and implement
procedures for the introduction of effective new technologies and equipment
developed for the improved protection of employees working with hazardous
waste clean-up operations, and the same shall be implemented as part of the
site safety and health program to assure that employee protection is being
maintained.

(2) New technologies, equipment or control measures available to the
industry, such as the use of foams, absorbents, adsorbents, neutralizers, or
other means to suppress the level of air contaminates while excavating the
site or for spill control, shall be evaluated by employers or their
representatives. Such an evaluation shall be done to determine the
effectiveness of the new methods, materials, or equipment before implementing
their use on a large scale for enhancing employee protection. Information and
data from manufacturers or suppliers may be used as part of the employer's
evaluation effort. Such evaluations shall be made available to OSHA upon
request.

(p) "Certain operations conducted under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)." Employers conducting operations at treatment,
storage and disposal (TSD) facilities specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of
this section shall provide and implement the programs specified in this
paragraph. See the "Notes and Exceptions" to paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this
section for employers not covered.

(1) "Safety and health program." The employer shall develop and implement a
written safety and health program for employees involved in hazardous waste
operations that shall be available for inspection by employees, their
representatives and OSHA personnel. The program shall be designed to
identify, evaluate and control safety and health hazards in their facilities
for the purpose of employee protection, to provide for emergency response
meeting the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) of this section and to address
as appropriate site analysis, engineering controls, maximum exposure limits,
hazardous waste handling procedures and uses of new technologies.

(2) "Hazard communication program." The employer shall implement a hazard
communication program meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.59 as part of
the employer's safety and program.

Note to 1926.65 - The exemption for hazardous waste provided in 1926.59 is
applicable to this section.

(3) "Medical surveillance program." The employer shall develop and implement
a medical surveillance program meeting the requirements of paragraph (f) of
this section.

(4) "Decontamination program." The employer shall develop and implement a
decontamination procedure meeting the requirements of paragraph (k) of this
section.

(5) "New technology program." The employer shall develop and implement
procedures meeting the requirements of paragraph (o) of this section for
introducing new and innovative equipment into the workplace.

(6) "Material handling program." Where employees will be handling drums or
containers, the employer shall develop and implement procedures meeting the
requirements of paragraphs (j)(1) (ii) through (viii) and (xi) of this
section, as well as (j)(3) and (j)(8) of this section prior to starting such
work.

(7) "Training program" - (i) "New employees." The employer shall develop and
implement a training program, which is part of the employer's safety and
health program, for employees exposed to health hazards or hazardous
substances at TSD operations to enable the employees to perform their
assigned duties and functions in a safe and healthful manner so as not
endanger themselves or other employees. The initial training shall be for 24
hours and refresher training shall be for eight hours annually. Employees who
have received the initial training required by this paragraph shall be given
a written certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the
necessary training.

(ii) "Current employees." Employers who can show by an employee's previous
work experience and/or training that the employee has had training equivalent
to the initial training required by this paragraph, shall be considered as
meeting the initial training requirements of this paragraph as to that
employee. Equivalent training includes the training that existing employees
might have already received from actual site work experience. Current
employees shall receive eight hours of refresher training annually.

(iii) "Trainers." Trainers who teach initial training shall have
satisfactorily completed a training course for teaching the subjects they are
expected to teach or they shall have the academic credentials and instruction
experience necessary to demonstrate a good command of the subject matter of
the courses and competent instructional skills.

(8) "Emergency response program" - (i) "Emergency response plan." An
emergency response plan shall be developed and implemented by all employers.
Such plans need not duplicate any of the subjects fully addressed in the
employer's contingency planning required by permits, such as those issued by
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, provided that the contingency plan
is made part of the emergency response plan. The emergency response plan
shall be a written portion of the employers safety and health program
required in paragraph (p)(1) of this section. Employers who will evacuate
their employees from the worksite location when an emergency occurs and who
do not permit any of their employees to assist in handling the emergency are
exempt from the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) if they provide an emergency
action plan complying with 1926.35 of this part.

(ii) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop an
emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,
the following areas to the extent that they are not addressed in any specific
program required in this paragraph:

(A) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.

(B) Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication.

(C) Emergency
recognition and prevention.

(D) Safe distances and places of refuge.

(E) Site
security and control.

(F) Evacuation routes and procedures.

(G)
Decontamination procedures.

(H) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.

(I) Emergency alerting and response procedures.

(J) Critique of response and
follow-up.

(K) PPE and emergency equipment.

(iii) "Training."

(A) Training
for emergency response employees shall be completed before they are called
upon to perform in real emergencies. Such training shall include the elements
of the emergency response plan, standard operating procedures the employer
has established for the job, the personal protective equipment to be worn and
procedures for handling emergency incidents.

Exception Number 1: An employer need not train all employees to the degree
specified if the employer divides the work force in a manner such that a
sufficient number of employees who have responsibility to control emergencies
have the training specified, and all other employees, who may first respond
to an emergency incident, have sufficient awareness training to recognize
that an emergency response situation exists and that they are instructed in
that case to summon the fully trained employees and not attempt control
activities for which they are not trained.

Exception Number 2: An employer need not train all employees to the degree
specified if arrangements have been made in advance for an outside
fully-trained emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period and
all employees, who may come to the incident first, have sufficient awareness
training to recognize that an emergency response situation exists and they
have been instructed to call the designated outside fully-trained emergency
response team for assistance.

(B) Employee members of TSD facility emergency response organizations shall
be trained to a level of competence in the recognition of health and safety
hazards to protect themselves and other employees. This would include
training in the methods used to minimize the risk from safety and health
hazards; in the safe use of control equipment; in the selection and use of
appropriate personal protective equipment; in the safe operating procedures
to be used at the incident scene; in the techniques of coordination with
other employees to minimize risks; in the appropriate response to over
exposure from health hazards or injury to themselves and other employees; and
in the recognition of subsequent symptoms which may result from over
exposures.

(C) The employer shall certify that each covered employee has attended and
successfully completed the training required in paragraph (p)(8)(iii) of this
section, or shall certify the employee's competency at least yearly. The
method used to demonstrate competency for certification of training shall be
recorded and maintained by the employer.

(iv) "Procedures for handling emergency incidents." (A) In addition to the
elements for the emergency response plan required in paragraph (p)(8)(ii) of
this section, the following elements shall be included for emergency response
plans to the extent that they do not repeat any information already contained
in the emergency response plan:

(1) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.

(2)
Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal governmental
agencies.

(B) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated with the
disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, and federal
agencies.

(C) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as part of the
overall training program for site operations.

(D) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically and, as
necessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing site conditions
or information.

(E) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 29 CFR
1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop work
activities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to speed
communication; and to begin emergency procedures.

(F) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, the
employer shall evaluate the incident and the site response capabilities and
proceed with the appropriate steps to implement the site emergency response
plan.

(q) "Emergency response to hazardous substance releases." This paragraph
covers employers whose employees are engaged in emergency response no matter
where it occurs except that it does not cover employees engaged in operations
specified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section. Those
emergency response organizations who have developed and implemented programs
equivalent to this paragraph for handling releases of hazardous substances
pursuant to section 303 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
of 1986 (Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 42
U.S.C. 11003) shall be deemed to have met the requirements of this paragraph.

(1) "Emergency response plan." An emergency response plan shall be developed
and implemented to handle anticipated emergencies prior to the commencement
of emergency response operations. The plan shall be in writing and available
for inspection and copying by employees, their representatives and OSHA
personnel. Employers who will evacuate their employees from the danger area
when an emergency occurs, and who do not permit any of their employees to
assist in handling the emergency, are exempt from the requirements of this
paragraph if they provide an emergency action plan in accordance with 1926.35
of this part.

(2) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop an
emergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,
the following to the extent that they are not addressed elsewhere:

(i) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.

(ii) Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication.

(iii)
Emergency recognition and prevention.

(iv) Safe distances and places of
refuge.

(v) Site security and control.

(vi) Evacuation routes and procedures.

(vii) Decontamination.

(viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.

(ix)
Emergency alerting and response procedures.

(x) Critique of response and
follow-up.

(xi) PPE and emergency equipment.

(xii) Emergency response
organizations may use the local emergency response plan or the state
emergency response plan or both, as part of their emergency response plan to
avoid duplication. Those items of the emergency response plan that are being
properly addressed by the SARA Title III plans may be substituted into their
emergency plan or otherwise kept together for the employer and employee's
use.

(3) "Procedures for handling emergency response." (i) The senior emergency
response official responding to an emergency shall become the individual in
charge of a site-specific Incident Command System (ICS). All emergency
responders and their communications shall be coordinated and controlled
through the individual in charge of the ICS assisted by the senior official
present for each employer.

Note to (q)(3)(i). - The "senior official" at an emergency response is the
most senior official on the site who has the responsibility for controlling
the operations at the site. Initially it is the senior officer on the
first-due piece of responding emergency apparatus to arrive on the incident
scene. As more senior officers arrive (i.e., battalion chief, fire chief,
state law enforcement official, site coordinator, etc.) the position is
passed up the line of authority which has been previously established.

(ii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall identify, to the extent
possible, all hazardous substances or conditions present and shall address as
appropriate site analysis, use of engineering controls, maximum exposure
limits, hazardous substance handling procedures, and use of any new
technologies.

(iii) Based on the hazardous substances and/or conditions present, the
individual in charge of the ICS shall implement appropriate emergency
operations, and assure that the personal protective equipment worn is
appropriate for the hazards to be encountered. However, personal protective
equipment shall meet, at a minimum, the criteria contained in 29 CFR 1926.97
when worn while performing fire fighting operations beyond the incipient
stage for any incident.

(iv) Employees engaged in emergency response and exposed to hazardous
substances presenting an inhalation hazard or potential inhalation hazard
shall wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus while engaged
in emergency response, until such time that the individual in charge of the
ICS determines through the use of air monitoring that a decreased level of
respiratory protection will not result in hazardous exposures to employees.

(v) The individual in charge of the ICS shall limit the number of emergency
response personnel at the emergency site, in those areas of potential or
actual exposure to incident or site hazards, to those who are actively
performing emergency operations. However, operations in hazardous areas shall
be performed using the buddy system in groups of two or more.

(vi) Back-up personnel shall stand by with equipment ready to provide
assistance or rescue. Advance first aid support personnel, as a minimum,
shall also stand by with medical equipment and transportation capability.

(vii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall designate a safety official,
who is knowledgeable in the operations being implemented at the emergency
response site, with specific responsibility to identify and evaluate hazards
and to provide direction with respect to the safety of operations for the
emergency at hand.

(viii) When activities are judged by the safety official to be an IDLH
condition and/or to involve an imminent danger condition, the safety official
shall have the authority to alter, suspend, or terminate those activities.
The safety official shall immediately inform the individual in charge of the
ICS of any actions needed to be taken to correct these hazards at the
emergency scene.

(ix) After emergency operations have terminated, the individual in charge of
the ICS shall implement appropriate decontamination procedures.

(x) When deemed necessary for meeting the tasks at hand, approved
self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used with approved
cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air breathing
apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity and pressure
rating. All compressed air cylinders used with self-contained breathing
apparatus shall meet U.S. Department of Transportation and National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health criteria.

(4) "Skilled support personnel." Personnel, not necessarily an employer's
own employees, who are skilled in the operation of certain equipment, such as
mechanized earth moving or digging equipment or crane and hoisting equipment,
and who are needed temporarily to perform immediate emergency support work
that cannot reasonably be performed in a timely fashion by an employer's own
employees, and who will be or may be exposed to the hazards at an emergency
response scene, are not required to meet the training required in this
paragraph for the employer's regular employees. However, these personnel
shall be given an initial briefing at the site prior to their participation
in any emergency response. The initial briefing shall include instruction in
the wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment, what chemical
hazards are involved, and what duties are to be performed. All other
appropriate safety and health precautions provided to the employer's own
employees shall be used to assure the safety and health of these personnel.

(5) "Specialist employees." Employees who, in the course of their regular
job duties, work with and are trained in the hazards of specific hazardous
substances, and who will be called upon to provide technical advice or
assistance at a hazardous substance release incident to the individual in
charge, shall receive training or demonstrate competency in the area of their
specialization annually.

(6) "Training." Training shall be based on the duties and function to be
performed by each responder of an emergency response organization. The skill
and knowledge levels required for all new responders, those hired after the
effective date of this standard, shall be conveyed to them through training
before they are permitted to take part in actual emergency operations on an
incident. Employees who participate, or are expected to participate, in
emergency response, shall be given training in accordance with the following
paragraphs:

(i) "First responder awareness level." First responders at the awareness
level are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous
substance release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency response
sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. They would take
no further action beyond notifying the authorities of the release. First
responders at the awareness level shall have sufficient training or have had
sufficient experience to objectively demonstrate competency in the following
areas:

(A) An understanding of what hazardous substances are, and the risks
associated with them in an incident.

(B) An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergency
created when hazardous substances are present.

(C) The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous substances in an
emergency.

(D) The ability to identify the hazardous substances, if possible.

(E) An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness individual
in the employer's emergency response plan including site security and control
and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Emergency Response
Guidebook.

(F) The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to make
appropriate notifications to the communication center.

(ii) "First responder operations level." First responders at the operations
level are individuals who respond to releases or potential releases of
hazardous substances as part of the initial response to the site for the
purpose of protecting nearby persons, property, or the environment from the
effects of the release. They are trained to respond in a defensive fashion
without actually trying to stop the release. Their function is to contain the
release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.
First responders at the operational level shall have received at least eight
hours of training or have had sufficient experience to objectively
demonstrate competency in the following areas in addition to those listed for
the awareness level and the employer shall so certify:

(A) Knowledge of the basic hazard and risk assessment techniques.

(B) Know how to select and use proper personal protective equipment provided
to the first responder operational level.

(C) An understanding of basic hazardous materials terms.

(D) Know
how to perform basic control, containment and/or confinement operations
within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment
available with their unit.

(E) Know how to implement basic decontamination procedures.

(F) An
understanding of the relevant standard operating procedures and termination
procedures.

(iii) "Hazardous materials technician." Hazardous materials technicians are
individuals who respond to releases or potential releases for the purpose of
stopping the release. They assume a more aggressive role than a first
responder at the operations level in that they will approach the point of
release in order to plug, patch or otherwise stop the release of a hazardous
substance. Hazardous materials technicians shall have received at least 24
hours of training equal to the first responder operations level and in
addition have competency in the following areas and the employer shall so
certify:

(A) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.

(B) Know the classification, identification and verification of known and
unknown materials by using field survey instruments and equipment.

(C) Be able to function within an assigned role in the Incident Command
System.

(D) Know how to select and use proper specialized chemical personal
protective equipment provided to the hazardous materials technician.

(E) Understand hazard and risk assessment techniques.

(F) Be able to
perform advance control, containment, and/or confinement operations within
the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment available
with the unit.

(G) Understand and implement decontamination procedures.

(H)
Understand termination procedures.

(I) Understand basic chemical and
toxicological terminology and behavior.

(iv) "Hazardous materials
specialist." Hazardous materials specialists are individuals who respond with
and provide support to hazardous materials technicians. Their duties parallel
those of the hazardous materials technician, however, those duties require a
more directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may be
called upon to contain. The hazardous materials specialist would also act as
the site liaison with Federal, state, local and other government authorities
in regards to site activities. Hazardous materials specialists shall have
received at least 24 hours of training equal to the technician level and in
addition have competency in the following areas and the employer shall so
certify:

(A) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.

(B)
Understand classification, identification and verification of known and
unknown materials by using advanced survey instruments and
equipment.

(C) Know of the state emergency response plan.

(D) Be able to select
and use proper specialized chemical personal protective equipment provided to
the hazardous materials specialist.

(E) Understand in-depth hazard and risk techniques.

(F) Be able to
perform specialized control, containment, and/or confinement operations
within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment
available.

(G) Be able to determine and implement decontamination procedures.

(H) Have the ability to develop a site safety and control plan.

(I)
Understand chemical, radiological and toxicological terminology and
behavior.

(v) "On scene incident commander." Incident commanders, who will assume
control of the incident scene beyond the first responder awareness level,
shall receive at least 24 hours of training equal to the first responder
operations level and in addition have competency in the following areas and
the employer shall so certify:

(A) Know and be able to implement the employer's incident command
system.

(B) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.

(C)
Know and understand the hazards and risks associated with employees working
in chemical protective clothing.

(D) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.

(E)
Know of the state emergency response plan and of the Federal Regional
Response Team.

(F) Know and understand the importance of decontamination
procedures.

(7) "Trainers." Trainers who teach any of the above training
subjects shall have satisfactorily completed a training course for teaching
the subjects they are expected to teach, such as the courses offered by the
U.S. National Fire Academy, or they shall have the training and/or academic
credentials and instructional experience necessary to demonstrate competent
instructional skills and a good command of the subject matter of the courses
they are to teach.

(8) "Refresher training." (i) Those employees who are trained in accordance
with paragraph (q)(6) of this section shall receive annual refresher training
of sufficient content and duration to maintain their competencies, or shall
demonstrate competency in those areas at least yearly.

(ii) A statement shall be made of the training or competency, and if a
statement of competency is made, the employer shall keep a record of the
methodology used to demonstrate competency.

(9) "Medical surveillance and consultation." (i) Members of an organized and
designated HAZMAT team and hazardous materials specialists shall receive a
baseline physical examination and be provided with medical surveillance as
required in paragraph (f) of this section.

(ii) Any emergency response employees who exhibits signs or symptoms which
may have resulted from exposure to hazardous substances during the course of
an emergency incident, either immediately or subsequently, shall be provided
with medical consultation as required in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this
section.

(10) "Chemical protective clothing." Chemical protective clothing and
equipment to be used by organized and designated HAZMAT team members, or to
be used by hazardous materials specialists, shall meet the requirements of
paragraphs (g) (3) through (5) of this section.

(11) "Post-emergency response operations." Upon completion of the emergency
response, if it is determined that it is necessary to remove hazardous
substances, health hazards, and materials contaminated with them (such as
contaminated soil or other elements of the natural environment) from the site
of the incident, the employer conducting the clean-up shall comply with one
of the following:

(i) Meet all of the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (o) of this
section; or

(ii) Where the clean-up is done on plant property using plant or
workplace employees, such employees shall have completed the training
requirements of the following: 29 CFR 1926.35, 1926.59, and 1926.103, and
other appropriate safety and health training made necessary by the tasks that
they are expected to be performed such as personal protective equipment and
decontamination procedures. All equipment to be used in the performance of
the clean-up work shall be in serviceable condition and shall have been
inspected prior to use.

1926.65 Appendix A Personal Protective Equipment Test Methods

Note: The following appendices serve as non-mandatory guidelines to assist
employees and employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of
this section. However 1926.65(g) makes mandatory in certain circumstances the
use of Level A and Level B PPE protection.

This appendix sets forth the non-mandatory examples of tests which may be
used to evaluate compliance with 1926.65(g)(4)(ii) and (iii). Other tests and
other challenge agents may be used to evaluate compliance.

A. "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit pressure test"

1.0 - Scope 1.1  This practice measures the ability of a gas tight
totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit material, seams, and closures
to maintain a fixed positive pressure. The results of this practice allow the
gas tight integrity of a totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit to be
evaluated. 1.2  Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, and
degradation by specific hazardous substances is not determined by this test
method.

2.0 - Definition of terms 2.1 "Totally-encapsulated chemical
protective suit (TECP suit)" means a full body garment which is constructed
of protective clothing materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legs
and respirator; may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attached
gloves and boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself or
in combination with the wearer's gloves and boots.
2.2 "Protective clothing material" means any material or combination of
materials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating parts of
the body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous liquid or gaseous
chemicals.
2.3 "Gas tight" means, for the purpose of this test method, the limited flow
of a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to atmosphere at a
prescribed pressure and time interval.

3.0 - Summary of test method 3.1 The TECP suit is visually inspected
and modified for the test. The test apparatus is attached to the suit to
permit inflation to the pre-test suit expansion pressure for removal of suit
wrinkles and creases. The pressure is lowered to the test pressure and
monitored for three minutes. If the pressure drop is excessive, the TECP suit
fails the test and is removed from service. The test is repeated after leak
location and repair.

4.0 - Required Supplies 4.1 Source of compressed air. 4.2 Test
apparatus for suit testing, including a pressure measurement device with a
sensitivity of at least 1/4 inch water gauge.
4.3 Vent valve closure plugs or sealing tape. 4.4 Soapy water
solution and soft brush. 4.5 Stop watch or appropriate timing device.

5.0 -
Safety Precautions 5.1 Care shall be taken to provide the correct pressure
safety devices required for the source of compressed air used.

6.0 - Test Procedure 6.1 Prior to each test, the tester shall
perform a visual inspection of the suit. Check the suit for seam integrity by
visually examining the seams and gently pulling on the seams. Ensure that all
air supply lines, fittings, visor, zippers, and valves are secure and show no
signs of deterioration.

6.1.1 Seal off the vent valves along with any other normal inlet or exhaust
points (such as umbilical air line fittings or face piece opening) with tape
or other appropriate means (caps, plugs, fixture, etc.). Care should be
exercised in the sealing process not to damage any of the suit components.
6.1.2 Close all closure assemblies. 6.1.3 Prepare the suit for
inflation by providing an improvised connection point on the suit for
connecting an airline. Attach the pressure test apparatus to the suit to
permit suit inflation from a compressed air source equipped with a pressure
indicating regulator. The leak tightness of the pressure test apparatus
should be tested before and after each test by closing off the end of the
tubing attached to the suit and assuring a pressure of three inches water
gauge for three minutes can be maintained. If a component is removed for the
test, that component shall be replaced and a second test conducted with
another component removed to permit a complete test of the
ensemble.
6.1.4 The pre-test expansion pressure (A) and the suit test pressure (B)
shall be supplied by the suit manufacturer, but in no case shall they be less
than: (A)=three inches water gauge; and (B)=two inches water gauge. The
ending suit pressure (C) shall be no less than 80 percent of the test
pressure (B); i.e., the pressure drop shall not exceed 20 percent of the test
pressure (B).
6.1.5 Inflate the suit until the pressure inside is equal to pressure (A),
the pre-test expansion suit pressure. Allow at least one minute to fill out
the wrinkles in the suit. Release sufficient air to reduce the suit pressure
to pressure (B), the suit test pressure. Begin timing. At the end of three
minutes, record the suit pressure as pressure (C), the ending suit pressure.
The difference between the suit test pressure and the ending suit test
pressure (B-C) shall be defined as the suit pressure drop.
6.1.6 If the suit pressure drop is more than 20 percent of the suit test
pressure (B) during the three-minute test period, the suit fails the test and
shall be removed from service.

7.0 - Retest Procedure 7.1 If the suit fails the test check for
leaks by inflating the suit to pressure (A) and brushing or wiping the entire
suit (including seams, closures, lens gaskets, glove-to-sleeve joints, etc.)
with a mild soap and water solution. Observe the suit for the formation of
soap bubbles, which is an indication of a leak. Repair all identified
leaks.  7.2 Retest the TECP suit as outlined in Test procedure 6.0.

8.0 -
Report 8.1 Each TECP suit tested by this practice shall have the following
information recorded:
8.1.1 Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date of
purchase, material of construction, and unique fit features, e.g., special
breathing apparatus.
8.1.2 The actual values for test pressures (A), (B), and (C) shall be
recorded along with the specific observation times. If the ending pressure
(C) is less than 80 percent of the test pressure (B), the suit shall be
identified as failing the test. When possible, the specific leak location
shall be identified in the test records. Retest pressure data shall be
recorded as an additional test.
8.1.3 The source of the test apparatus used shall be identified and the
sensitivity of the pressure gauge shall be recorded.
8.1.4 Records shall be kept for each pressure test even if repairs are being
made at the test location.

CAUTION

Visually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are positioned
correctly and secured tightly before putting the suit back into service.
Special care should be taken to examine each exhaust valve to make sure it is
not blocked.

Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside of the
suit is completely dry before it is put into storage.

B. "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit qualitative leak test"

1.0 - Scope 1.1 This practice semi-qualitatively tests gas tight
totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit integrity by detecting inward
leakage of ammonia vapor. Since no modifications are made to the suit to
carry out this test, the results from this practice provide a realistic test
for the integrity of the entire suit. 1.2 Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, and
degradation is not determined by this test method. ASTM test methods are
available to test suit materials for these characteristics and the tests are
usually conducted by the manufacturers of the suits.

2.0 - Definition of terms 2.1 "Totally-encapsulated chemical
protective suit (TECP suit)" means a full body garment which is constructed
of protective clothing materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legs
and respirator; may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attached
gloves and boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself or
in combination with the wearer's gloves, and boots. 2.2 "Protective clothing material" means any material or combination of
materials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating parts of
the body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous liquid or gaseous
chemicals.
2.3 "Gas tight" means, for the purpose of this test method, the limited flow
of a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to atmosphere at a
prescribed pressure and time interval.
2.4 "Intrusion Coefficient" means a number expressing the level of
protection provided by a gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical protective
suit. The intrusion coefficient is calculated by dividing the test room
challenge agent concentration by the concentration of challenge agent found
inside the suit. The accuracy of the intrusion coefficient is dependent on
the challenge agent monitoring methods. The larger the intrusion coefficient
the greater the protection provided by the TECP suit.

3.0 - Summary of recommended practice 3.1 The volume of concentrated
aqueous ammonia solution (ammonia hydroxide NH(4)OH) required to generate the
test atmosphere is determined using the directions outlined in 6.1. The suit
is donned by a person wearing the appropriate respiratory equipment (either a
positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a positive pressure
supplied air respirator) and worn inside the enclosed test room. The
concentrated aqueous ammonia solution is taken by the suited individual into
the test room and poured into an open plastic pan. A two-minute evaporation
period is observed before the test room concentration is measured, using a
high range ammonia length of stain detector tube. When the ammonia vapor
reaches a concentration of between 1000 and 1200 ppm, the suited individual
starts a standardized exercise protocol to stress and flex the suit. After
this protocol is completed, the test room concentration is measured again.
The suited individual exits the test room and his stand-by person measures
the ammonia concentration inside the suit using a low range ammonia length of
stain detector tube or other more sensitive ammonia detector. A stand-by
person is required to observe the test individual during the test procedure;
aid the person in donning and doffing the TECP suit; and monitor the suit
interior. The intrusion coefficient of the suit can be calculated by dividing
the average test area concentration by the interior suit concentration. A
colorimetric ammonia indicator strip of bromophenol blue or equivalent is
placed on the inside of the suit face piece lens so that the suited
individual is able to detect a color change and know if the suit has a
significant leak. If a color change is observed the individual shall leave
the test room immediately.

4.0 - Required supplies 4.1 A supply of concentrated aqueous
ammonium hydroxide (58% by weight). 4.2 A supply of bromophenol/blue
indicating paper or equivalent, sensitive to 5-10 ppm ammonia or greater over
a two-minute period of exposure. [pH 3.0 (yellow) to pH 4.6 (blue)] 4.3 A
supply of high range (0.5-10 volume percent) and low range (5-700 ppm)
detector tubes for ammonia and the corresponding sampling pump. More
sensitive ammonia detectors can be substituted for the low range detector
tubes to improve the sensitivity of this practice.
4.4 A shallow plastic pan (PVC) at least 12":14":1" and a half pint plastic
container (PVC) with tightly closing lid.
4.5 A graduated cylinder or other volumetric measuring device of at least 50
milliliters in volume with an accuracy of at least plus or minus milliliters.

5.0 - Safety precautions 5.1  Concentrated aqueous ammonium
hydroxide, NH(4)OH, is a corrosive volatile liquid requiring eye, skin, and
respiratory protection. The person conducting the test shall review the MSDS
for aqueous ammonia.
5.2  Since the established permissible exposure limit for ammonia is 35 ppm
as a 15 minute STEL, only persons wearing a positive pressure self-contained
breathing apparatus or a positive pressure supplied air respirator shall be
in the chamber. Normally only the person wearing the totally-encapsulating
suit will be inside the chamber. A stand-by person shall have a positive
pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or a positive pressure supplied
air respirator available to enter the test area should the suited individual
need assistance.
5.3  A method to monitor the suited individual must be used during this
test. Visual contact is the simplest but other methods using communication
devices are acceptable.
5.4  The test room shall be large enough to allow the exercise protocol to
be carried out and then to be ventilated to allow for easy exhaust of the
ammonia test atmosphere after the test(s) are completed.
5.5  Individuals shall be medically screened for the use of respiratory
protection and checked for allergies to ammonia before participating in this
test procedure.

6.0 - Test procedure 6.1.1  Measure the test area to the nearest
foot and calculate its volume in cubic feet. Multiply the test area volume by
0.2 milliliters of concentrated aqueous ammonia solution per cubic foot of
test area volume to determine the approximate volume of concentrated aqueous
ammonia required to generate 1000 ppm in the test area.
6.1.2  Measure this volume from the supply of concentrated aqueous ammonia
and place it into a closed plastic container.
6.1.3  Place the container, several high range ammonia detector tubes, and
the pump in the clean test pan and locate it near the test area entry door so
that the suited individual has easy access to these supplies.
6.2.1  In a non-contaminated atmosphere, open a pre-sealed ammonia indicator
strip and fasten one end of the strip to the inside of the suit face shield
lens where it can be seen by the wearer. Moisten the indicator strip with
distilled water. Care shall be taken not to contaminate the detector part of
the indicator paper by touching it. A small piece of masking tape or
equivalent should be used to attach the indicator strip to the interior of
the suit face shield.
6.2.2  If problems are encountered with this method of attachment, the
indicator strip can be attached to the outside of the respirator face piece
lens being used during the test.
6.3  Don the respiratory protective device normally used with the suit, and
then don the TECP suit to be tested. Check to be sure all openings which are
intended to be sealed (zippers, gloves, etc.) are completely sealed. DO NOT,
however, plug off any venting valves.
6.4  Step into the enclosed test room such as a closet, bathroom, or test
booth, equipped with an exhaust fan. No air should be exhausted from the
chamber during the test because this will dilute the ammonia challenge
concentrations.
6.5  Open the container with the pre-measured volume of concentrated aqueous
ammonia within the enclosed test room, and pour the liquid into the empty
plastic test pan. Wait two minutes to allow for adequate volatilization of
the concentrated aqueous ammonia. A small mixing fan can be used near the
evaporation pan to increase the evaporation rate of the ammonia solution.
6.6  After two minutes a determination of the ammonia concentration within
the chamber should be made using the high range colorimetric detector tube. A
concentration of 1000 ppm ammonia or greater shall be generated before the
exercises are started.
6.7  To test the integrity of the suit the following four minute exercise
protocol should be followed:
6.7.1  Raising the arms above the head with at least 15 raising motions
completed in one minute.
6.7.2  Walking in place for one minute with at least 15 raising motions of
each leg in a one-minute period.
6.7.3  Touching the toes with a least 10 complete motions of the arms from
above the head to touching of the toes in a one-minute period.
6.7.4  Knee bends with at least 10 complete standing and squatting motions
in a one-minute period.
6.8  If at any time during the test the colorimetric indicating paper should
change colors, the test should be stopped and section 6.10 and 6.12 initiated
(See paragraph 4.2).
6.9  After completion of the test exercise, the test area concentration
should be measured again using the high range colorimetric detector tube.
6.10  Exit the test area. 6.11  The opening created by the suit
zipper or other appropriate suit penetration should be used to determine the
ammonia concentration in the suit with the low range length of stain detector
tube or other ammonia monitor. The internal TECP suit air should be sampled
far enough from the enclosed test area to prevent a false ammonia
reading.
6.12  After completion of the measurement of the suit interior ammonia
concentration the test is concluded and the suit is doffed and the respirator
removed.
6.13  The ventilating fan for the test room should be turned on and allowed
to run for enough time to remove the ammonia gas. The fan shall be vented to
the outside of the building.
6.14  Any detectable ammonia in the suit interior (five ppm ammonia (NH(3))
or more for the length of stain detector tube) indicates that the suit has
failed the test. When other ammonia detectors are used a lower level of
detection is possible, and it should be specified as the pass/fail criteria.
6.15  By following this test method, an intrusion coefficient of
approximately 200 or more can be measured with the suit in a completely
operational condition. If the intrusion coefficient is 200 or more, then the
suit is suitable for emergency response and field use.

7.0 - Retest procedures 7.1  If the suit fails this test, check for
leaks by following the pressure test in test A above. 7.2  Retest the TECP suit as outlined in the test procedure 6.0.

8.0
- Report 8.1  Each gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit
tested by this practice shall have the following information
recorded.
8.1.1  Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date of
purchase, material of construction, and unique suit features; e.g., special
breathing apparatus.
8.1.2  General description of test room used for test. 8.1.3  Brand
name and purchase date of ammonia detector strips and color change
data.
8.1.4  Brand name, sampling range, and expiration date of the length of
stain ammonia detector tubes. The brand name and model of the sampling pump
should also be recorded. If another type of ammonia detector is used, it
should be identified along with its minimum detection limit for ammonia.
8.1.5  Actual test results shall list the two test area concentrations,
their average, the interior suit concentration, and the calculated intrusion
coefficient. Retest data shall be recorded as an additional test.
8.2  The evaluation of the data shall be specified as "suit passed" or "suit
failed," and the date of the test. Any detectable ammonia (five ppm or
greater for the length of stain detector tube) in the suit interior indicates
the suit has failed this test. When other ammonia detectors are used, a lower
level of detection is possible and it should be specified as the pass fail
criteria.

CAUTION

Visually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are positioned
correctly and secured tightly before putting the suit back into service.
Special care should be taken to examine each exhaust valve to make sure it is
not blocked.

Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside of the
suit is completely dry before it is put into storage.

1926.65 Appendix B General Description and Discussion of the Levels of
Protection and Protective Gear

This appendix sets forth information about personal protective equipment
(PPE) protection levels which may be used to assist employers in complying
with the PPE requirements of this section.

As required by the standard, PPE must be selected which will protect
employees from the specific hazards which they are likely to encounter during
their work on-site.

Selection of the appropriate PPE is a complex process which should take into
consideration a variety of factors. Key factors involved in this process are
identification of the hazards, or suspected hazards; their routes of
potential hazard to employees (inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, and
eye or skin contact); and the performance of the PPE materials (and seams) in
providing a barrier to these hazards. The amount of protection provided by
PPE is material-hazard specific. That is, protective equipment materials will
protect well against some hazardous substances and poorly, or not at all,
against others. In many instances, protective equipment materials cannot be
found which will provide continuous protection from the particular hazardous
substance. In these cases the breakthrough time of the protective material
should exceed the work durations.

Other factors in this selection process to be considered are matching the
PPE to the employee's work requirements and task-specific conditions. The
durability of PPE materials, such as tear strength and seam strength, should
be considered in relation to the employee's tasks. The effects of PPE in
relation to heat stress and task duration are a factor in selecting and using
PPE. In some cases layers of PPE may be necessary to provide sufficient
protection, or to protect expensive PPE inner garments, suits or equipment.

The more that is known about the hazards at the site, the easier the job of
PPE selection becomes. As more information about the hazards and conditions
at the site becomes available, the site supervisor can make decisions to
up-grade or down-grade the level of PPE protection to match the tasks at
hand.

The following are guidelines which an employer can use to begin the
selection of the appropriate PPE. As noted above, the site information may
suggest the use of combinations of PPE selected from the different protection
levels (i.e., A, B, C, or D) as being more suitable to the hazards of the
work. It should be cautioned that the listing below does not fully address
the performance of the specific PPE material in relation to the specific
hazards at the job site, and that PPE selection, evaluation and re-selection
is an ongoing process until sufficient information about the hazards and PPE
performance is obtained.

Part A. Personal protective equipment is divided into four categories based
on the degree of protection afforded. (See Part B of this appendix for
further explanation of Levels A, B, C, and D hazards.)

I. Level A - To be selected when the greatest level of skin, respiratory,
and eye protection is required.

The following constitute Level A equipment; it may be used as appropriate;

1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA,
approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH).

2. Totally-encapsulating chemical-protective suit.

3. Coveralls.(1)

4. Long underwear.(1)

5. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.

6. Gloves, inner,
chemical-resistant.

7. Boots, chemical-resistant, steel toe and shank.

8.
Hard hat (under suit).(1)

9. Disposable protective suit, gloves and boots
(depending on suit construction, may be worn over totally-encapsulating
suit).

II. Level B - The highest level of respiratory protection is necessary but a
lesser level of skin protection is needed.

The following constitute Level B equipment; it may be used as appropriate.

1. Positive pressure, full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA (NIOSH
approved).

2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved jacket;
coveralls; one or two-piece chemical-splash suit; disposable
chemical-resistant overalls).

3. Coveralls.(1)

4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.

5. Gloves,
inner, chemical-resistant.

6. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant steel toe and
shank.

7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)

8. Hard
hat.(1)

9. [Reserved]

10. Face shield.(1)

III. Level C - The concentration(s)
and type(s) of airborne substance(s) is known and the criteria for using air
purifying respirators are met.

The following constitute Level C equipment; it may be used as appropriate.

1. Full-face or half-mask, air purifying respirators (NIOSH
approved).

2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls; two-piece
chemical-splash suit; disposable chemical-resistant overalls).

3. Coveralls.(1)

4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.

5. Gloves,
inner, chemical-resistant.

6. Boots (outer), chemical-resistant steel toe and
shank.(1)

7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)

8. Hard
hat.(1)

9. Escape mask.(1)

10. Face shield.(1)

IV. Level D - A work uniform
affording minimal protection, used for nuisance contamination only.

The following constitute Level D equipment; it may be used as appropriate:

1. Coveralls.

2. Gloves.(1)

3. Boots/shoes, chemical-resistant steel
toe and shank.

4. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)

5. Safety
glasses or chemical splash goggles*.

6. Hard hat.(1)

7. Escape mask.(1)

8.
Face shield.(1)

___________

Footnote (1) Optional, as applicable.

Part B. The types of hazards for which levels A, B, C, and D protection are
appropriate are described below:

I. Level A - Level A protection should be used when:

1. The hazardous substance has been identified and requires the highest
level of protection for skin, eyes, and the respiratory system based on
either the measured (or potential for) high concentration of atmospheric
vapors, gases, or particulates; or the site operations and work functions
involve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpected
vapors, gases, or particulates of materials that are harmful to skin or
capable of being absorbed through the skin;

2. Substances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known or
suspected to be present, and skin contact is possible; or 3. Operations are
being conducted in confined, poorly ventilated areas, and the absence of
conditions requiring Level A have not yet been determined.

II. Level B - Level B protection should be used when:

1. The type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identified
and require a high level of respiratory protection, but less skin protection;
	2. The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen; or 3. The
presence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is indicated by a
direct-reading organic vapor detection instrument, but vapors and gases are
not suspected of containing high levels of chemicals harmful to skin or
capable of being absorbed through the skin.

Note: This involves atmospheres with IDLH concentrations of specific
substances that present severe inhalation hazards and that do not represent a
severe skin hazard; or that do not meet the criteria for use of air-purifying
respirators.

III. Level C - Level C protection should be used when:

1. The atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct contact
will not adversely affect or be absorbed through any exposed skin;

2. The types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrations
measured, and an air-purifying respirator is available that can remove the
contaminants; and

3. All criteria for the use of air-purifying respirators are met.

IV. Level D - Level D protection should be used when:

1. The atmosphere
contains no known hazard; and

2. Work functions preclude splashes, immersion,
or the potential for unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardous
levels of any chemicals.

Note: As stated before, combinations of personal protective equipment other
than those described for Levels A, B, C, and D protection may be more
appropriate and may be used to provide the proper level of protection.

As an aid in selecting suitable chemical protective clothing, it should be
noted that the National Fire Protection Association is developing standards
on chemical protective clothing. These standards are currently undergoing
public review prior to adoption, including:

NFPA 1991 - Standard on Vapor-Protective Suits for Hazardous Chemical

Emergencies (EPA Level A Protective Clothing) NFPA 1992 - Standard on Liquid
Splash-Protective Suits for Hazardous Chemical Emergencies (EPA Level B
Protective Clothing) NFPA 1993 - Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Suits
for Non-emergency, Non-flammable Hazardous Chemical Situations (EPA Level B
Protective Clothing)

These standards would apply documentation and performance requirements to
the manufacture of chemical protective suits. Chemical protective suits
meeting these requirements would be labeled as compliant with the appropriate
standard. When these standards are adopted by the National Fire Protection
Association, it is recommended that chemical protective suits which meet
these standards be used.

1926.65 App C Compliance Guidelines

1. "Occupational Safety and Health Program." Each hazardous waste site
clean-up effort will require an occupational safety and health program headed
by the site coordinator or the employer's representative. The purpose of the
program will be the protection of employees at the site and will be an
extension of the employer's overall safety and health program. The program
will need to be developed before work begins on the site and implemented as
work proceeds as stated in paragraph (b). The program is to facilitate
coordination and communication of safety and health issues among personnel
responsible for the various activities which will take place at the site. It
will provide the overall means for planning and implementing the needed
safety and health training and job orientation of employees who will be
working at the site. The program will provide the means for identifying and
controlling worksite hazards and the means for monitoring program
effectiveness. The program will need to cover the responsibilities and
authority of the site coordinator or the employer's manager on the site for
the safety and health of employees at the site, and the relationships with
contractors or support services as to what each employer's safety and health
responsibilities are for their employees on the site. Each contractor on the
site needs to have its own safety and health program so structured that it
will smoothly interface with the program of the site coordinator or principal
contractor.

Also those employers involved with treating, storing or disposal of
hazardous waste as covered in paragraph (p) must have implemented a safety
and health program for their employees. This program is to include the hazard
communication program required in paragraph (p)(1) and the training required
in paragraphs (p)(7) and (p)(8) as parts of the employers comprehensive
overall safety and health program. This program is to be in writing.

Each site or workplace safety and health program will need to include the
following: (1) Policy statements of the line of authority and accountability
for implementing the program, the objectives of the program and the role of
the site safety and health supervisor or manager and staff; (2) means or
methods for the development of procedures for identifying and controlling
workplace hazards at the site; (3) means or methods for the development and
communication to employees of the various plans, work rules, standard
operating procedures and practices that pertain to individual employees and
supervisors; (4) means for the training of supervisors and employees to
develop the needed skills and knowledge to perform their work in a safe and
healthful manner; (5) means to anticipate and prepare for emergency
situations; and (6) means for obtaining information feedback to aid in
evaluating the program and for improving the effectiveness of the program.
The management and employees should be trying continually to improve the
effectiveness of the program thereby enhancing the protection being afforded
those working on the site.

Accidents on the site or workplace should be investigated to provide
information on how such occurrences can be avoided in the future. When
injuries or illnesses occur on the site or workplace, they will need to be
investigated to determine what needs to be done to prevent this incident from
occurring again. Such information will need to be used as feedback on the
effectiveness of the program and the information turned into positive steps
to prevent any reoccurrence. Receipt of employee suggestions or complaints
relating to safety and health issues involved with site or workplace
activities is also a feedback mechanism that can be used effectively to
improve the program and may serve in part as an evaluative tool(s).

For the development and implementation of the program to be the most
effective, professional safety and health personnel should be used. Certified
Safety Professionals, Board Certified Industrial Hygienists or Registered
Professional Safety Engineers are good examples of professional stature for
safety and health managers who will administer the employer's program.

2. "Training." The training programs for employees subject to the
requirements of paragraph (e) of this standard should address: the safety and
health hazards employees should expect to find on hazardous waste clean-up
sites; what control measures or techniques are effective for those hazards;
what monitoring procedures are effective in characterizing exposure levels;
what makes an effective employer's safety and health program; what a site
safety and health plan should include; hands on training with personal
protective equipment and clothing they may be expected to use; the contents
of the OSHA standard relevant to the employee's duties and function; and,
employee's responsibilities under OSHA and other regulations. Supervisors
will need training in their responsibilities under the safety and health
program and its subject areas such as the spill containment program, the
personal protective equipment program, the medical surveillance program, the
emergency response plan and other areas.

The training programs for employees subject to the requirements of paragraph
(p) of this standard should address: the employers safety and health program
elements impacting employees; the hazard communication program; the medical
surveillance program; the hazards and the controls for such hazards that
employees need to know for their job duties and functions. All require annual
refresher training.

The training programs for employees covered by the requirements of paragraph
(q) of this standard should address those competencies required for the
various levels of response such as: the hazards associated with hazardous
substances; hazard identification and awareness; notification of appropriate
persons; the need for and use of personal protective equipment including
respirators; the decontamination procedures to be used; preplanning
activities for hazardous substance incidents including the emergency response
plan; company standard operating procedures for hazardous substance emergency
responses; the use of the incident command system and other subjects.
Hands-on training should be stressed whenever possible. Critiques done after
an incident which include an evaluation of what worked and what did not and
how could the incident be better handled the next time may be counted as
training time.

For hazardous materials specialists (usually members of hazardous materials
teams), the training should address the care, use and/or testing of chemical
protective clothing including totally encapsulating suits, the medical
surveillance program, the standard operating procedures for the hazardous
materials team including the use of plugging and patching equipment and other
subject areas.

Officers and leaders who may be expected to be in charge at an incident
should be fully knowledgeable of their company's incident command system.
They should know where and how to obtain additional assistance and be
familiar with the local district's emergency response plan and the state
emergency response plan.

Specialist employees such as technical experts, medical experts or
environmental experts that work with hazardous materials in their regular
jobs, who may be sent to the incident scene by the shipper, manufacturer or
governmental agency to advise and assist the person in charge of the incident
should have training on an annual basis. Their training should include the
care and use of personal protective equipment including respirators;
knowledge of the incident command system and how they are to relate to it;
and those areas needed to keep them current in their respective field as it
relates to safety and health involving specific hazardous substances.

Those skilled support personnel, such as employees who work for public works
departments or equipment operators who operate bulldozers, sand trucks,
backhoes, etc., who may be called to the incident scene to provide emergency
support assistance, should have at least a safety and health briefing before
entering the area of potential or actual exposure. These skilled support
personnel, who have not been a part of the emergency response plan and do not
meet the training requirements, should be made aware of the hazards they face
and should be provided all necessary protective clothing and equipment
required for their tasks.

There are two National Fire Protection Association standards, NFPA 472 -
"Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Material
Incidents" and NFPA 471 - "Recommended Practice for Responding to Hazardous
Material Incidents", which are excellent resource documents to aid fire
departments and other emergency response organizations in developing their
training program materials. NFPA 472 provides guidance on the skills and
knowledge needed for first responder awareness level, first responder
operations level, hazmat technicians, and hazmat specialist. It also offers
guidance for the officer corp who will be in charge of hazardous substance
incidents.

3. "Decontamination." Decontamination procedures should be tailored to the
specific hazards of the site, and may vary in complexity and number of steps,
depending on the level of hazard and the employee's exposure to the hazard.
Decontamination procedures and PPE decontamination methods will vary
depending upon the specific substance, since one procedure or method may not
work for all substances. Evaluation of decontamination methods and procedures
should be performed, as necessary, to assure that employees are not exposed
to hazards by re-using PPE. References in appendix D may be used for guidance
in establishing an effective decontamination program. In addition, the U.S.
Coast Guard's Manual, "Policy Guidance for Response to Hazardous Chemical
Releases," U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (COMDTINST
M16465.30) is a good reference for establishing an effective decontamination
program.

4. "Emergency response plans." States, along with designated districts
within the states, will be developing or have developed local emergency
response plans. These state and district plans should be utilized in the
emergency response plans called for in the standard. Each employer should
assure that its emergency response plan is compatible with the local plan.
The major reference being used to aid in developing the state and local
district plans is the "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide", NRT-1.
The current Emergency Response Guidebook from the U.S. Department of
Transportation, CMA's CHEMTREC and the Fire Service Emergency Management
Handbook may also be used as resources.

Employers involved with treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for
hazardous waste, which have the required contingency plan called for by their
permit, would not need to duplicate the same planning elements. Those items
of the emergency response plan that are properly addressed in the contingency
plan may be substituted into the emergency response plan required in 1926.65
or otherwise kept together for employer and employee use.

5. "Personal protective equipment programs." The purpose of personal
protective clothing and equipment (PPE) is to shield or isolate individuals
from the chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that may be encountered at
a hazardous substance site.

As discussed in appendix B, no single combination of protective equipment
and clothing is capable of protecting against all hazards. Thus PPE should be
used in conjunction with other protective methods and its effectiveness
evaluated periodically.

The use of PPE can itself create significant worker hazards, such as heat
stress, physical and psychological stress, and impaired vision, mobility, and
communication. For any given situation, equipment and clothing should be
selected that provide an adequate level of protection. However,
over-protection, as well as under-protection, can be hazardous and should be
avoided where possible.

Two basic objectives of any PPE program should be to protect the wearer from
safety and health hazards, and to prevent injury to the wearer from incorrect
use and/or malfunction of the PPE. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive
PPE program should include hazard identification, medical monitoring,
environmental surveillance, selection, use, maintenance, and decontamination
of PPE and its associated training.

The written PPE program should include policy statements, procedures, and
guidelines. Copies should be made available to all employees, and a reference
copy should be made available at the worksite. Technical data on equipment,
maintenance manuals, relevant regulations, and other essential information
should also be collected and maintained.

6. "Incident command system (ICS)." Paragraph 1926.65(q)(3)(ii) requires the
implementation of an ICS. The ICS is an organized approach to effectively
control and manage operations at an emergency incident. The individual in
charge of the ICS is the senior official responding to the incident. The ICS
is not much different than the "command post" approach used for many years by
the fire service. During large complex fires involving several companies and
many pieces of apparatus, a command post would be established. This enabled
one individual to be in charge of managing the incident, rather than having
several officers from different companies making separate, and sometimes
conflicting, decisions. The individual in charge of the command post would
delegate responsibility for performing various tasks to subordinate officers.
Additionally, all communications were routed through the command post to
reduce the number of radio transmissions and eliminate confusion. However,
strategy, tactics, and all decisions were made by one individual.

The ICS is a very similar system, except it is implemented for emergency
response to all incidents, both large and small, that involve hazardous
substances.

For a small incident, the individual in charge of the ICS may perform many
tasks of the ICS. There may not be any, or little, delegation of tasks to
subordinates. For example, in response to a small incident, the individual in
charge of the ICS, in addition to normal command activities, may become the
safety officer and may designate only one employee (with proper equipment) as
a back-up to provide assistance if needed. OSHA does recommend, however, that
at least two employees be designated as back-up personnel since the
assistance needed may include rescue.

To illustrate the operation of the ICS, the following scenario might develop
during a small incident, such as an overturned tank truck with a small leak
of flammable liquid.

The first responding senior officer would implement and take command of the
ICS. That person would size-up the incident and determine if additional
personnel and apparatus were necessary; would determine what actions to take
to control the leak; and, determine the proper level of personal protective
equipment. If additional assistance is not needed, the individual in charge
of the ICS would implement actions to stop and control the leak using the
fewest number of personnel that can effectively accomplish the tasks. The
individual in charge of the ICS then would designate himself as the safety
officer and two other employees as a back-up in case rescue may become
necessary. In this scenario, decontamination procedures would not be
necessary.

A large complex incident may require many employees and difficult,
time-consuming efforts to control. In these situations, the individual in
charge of the ICS will want to delegate different tasks to subordinates in
order to maintain a span of control that will keep the number of
subordinates, that are reporting, to a manageable level.

Delegation of task at large incidents may be by location, where the incident
scene is divided into sectors, and subordinate officers coordinate activities
within the sector that they have been assigned.

Delegation of tasks can also be by function. Some of the functions that the
individual in charge of the ICS may want to delegate at a large incident are:
medical services; evacuation; water supply; resources (equipment, apparatus);
media relations; safety; and, site control (integrate activities with police
for crowd and traffic control). Also for a large incident, the individual in
charge of the ICS will designate several employees as back-up personnel; and
a number of safety officers to monitor conditions and recommend safety
precautions.

Therefore, no matter what size or complexity an incident may be, by
implementing an ICS there will be one individual in charge who makes the
decisions and gives directions; and, all actions, and communications are
coordinated through one central point of command. Such a system should reduce
confusion, improve safety, organize and coordinate actions, and should
facilitate effective management of the incident.

7. "Site Safety and Control Plans." The safety and security of response
personnel and others in the area of an emergency response incident site
should be of primary concern to the incident commander. The use of a site
safety and control plan could greatly assist those in charge of assuring the
safety and health of employees on the site.

A comprehensive site safety and control plan should include the following:
summary analysis of hazards on the site and a risk analysis of those hazards;
site map or sketch; site work zones (clean zone, transition or
decontamination zone, work or hot zone); use of the buddy system; site
communications; command post or command center; standard operating procedures
and safe work practices; medical assistance and triage area; hazard
monitoring plan (air contaminate monitoring, etc.); decontamination
procedures and area; and other relevant areas. This plan should be a part of
the employer's emergency response plan or an extension of it to the specific
site.

8. "Medical surveillance programs." Workers handling hazardous substances
may be exposed to toxic chemicals, safety hazards, biologic hazards, and
radiation. Therefore, a medical surveillance program is essential to assess
and monitor workers' health and fitness for employment in hazardous waste
operations and during the course of work; to provide emergency and other
treatment as needed; and to keep accurate records for future reference.

The "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
Activities" developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);
October 1985 provides an excellent example of the types of medical testing
that should be done as part of a medical surveillance program.

9. "New Technology and Spill Containment Programs." Where hazardous
substances may be released by spilling from a container that will expose
employees to the hazards of the materials, the employer will need to
implement a program to contain and control the spilled material. Diking and
ditching, as well as use of absorbents like diatomaceous earth, are
traditional techniques which have proven to be effective over the years.
However, in recent years new products have come into the marketplace, the use
of which complement and increase the effectiveness of these traditional
methods. These new products also provide emergency responders and others with
additional tools or agents to use to reduce the hazards of spilled materials.

These agents can be rapidly applied over a large area and can be uniformly
applied or otherwise can be used to build a small dam, thus improving the
workers' ability to control spilled material. These application techniques
enhance the intimate contact between the agent and the spilled material
allowing for the quickest effect by the agent or quickest control of the
spilled material. Agents are available to solidify liquid spilled materials,
to suppress vapor generation from spilled materials, and to do both. Some
special agents, which when applied as recommended by the manufacturer, will
react in a controlled manner with the spilled material to neutralize acids or
caustics, or greatly reduce the level of hazard of the spilled material.

There are several modern methods and devices for use by emergency response
personnel or others involved with spill control efforts to safely apply spill
control agents to control spilled material hazards. These include portable
pressurized applicators similar to hand-held portable fire extinguishing
devices, and nozzle and hose systems similar to portable fire fighting foam
systems which allow the operator to apply the agent without having to come
into contact with the spilled material. The operator is able to apply the
agent to the spilled material from a remote position.

The solidification of liquids provides for rapid containment and isolation
of hazardous substance spills. By directing the agent at run-off points or at
the edges of the spill, the reactant solid will automatically create a
barrier to slow or stop the spread of the material. Clean-up of hazardous
substances is greatly improved when solidifying agents, acid or caustic
neutralizers, or activated carbon adsorbents are used. Properly applied,
these agents can totally solidify liquid hazardous substances or neutralize
or absorb them, which results in materials which are less hazardous and
easier to handle, transport, and dispose of. The concept of spill treatment,
to create less hazardous substances, will improve the safety and level of
protection of employees working at spill clean-up operations or emergency
response operations to spills of hazardous substances.

The use of vapor suppression agents for volatile hazardous substances, such
as flammable liquids and those substances which present an inhalation hazard,
is important for protecting workers. The rapid and uniform distribution of
the agent over the surface of the spilled material can provide quick vapor
knockdown. There are temporary and long-term foam-type agents which are
effective on vapors and dusts, and activated carbon adsorption agents which
are effective for vapor control and soaking-up of the liquid. The proper use
of hose lines or hand-held portable pressurized applicators provides good
mobility and permits the worker to deliver the agent from a safe distance
without having to step into the untreated spilled material. Some of these
systems can be recharged in the field to provide coverage of larger spill
areas than the design limits of a single charged applicator unit. Some of the
more effective agents can solidify the liquid flammable hazardous substances
and at the same time elevate the flashpoint above 140 deg. F so the resulting
substance may be handled as a nonhazardous waste material if it meets the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR part 261 requirements (See
particularly 261.21).

All workers performing hazardous substance spill control work are expected
to wear the proper protective clothing and equipment for the materials
present and to follow the employer's established standard operating
procedures for spill control. All involved workers need to be trained in the
established operating procedures; in the use and care of spill control
equipment; and in the associated hazards and control of such hazards of spill
containment work.

These new tools and agents are the things that employers will want to
evaluate as part of their new technology program. The treatment of spills of
hazardous substances or wastes at an emergency incident as part of the
immediate spill containment and control efforts is sometimes acceptable to
EPA and a permit exception is described in 40 CFR 264.1(g)(8) and
265.1(c)(11).

1926.65 App D References

The following references may be consulted for further information on the
subject of this standard:

1. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2.70 - January 29, 1986, "Special Emphasis
Program: Hazardous Waste Sites."

2. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2-2.37A - January 29, 1986, "Technical
Assistance and Guidelines for Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste Site
Activities."

3. OSHA Instruction DTS CPL 2.74 - January 29, 1986, "Hazardous Waste
Activity Form, OSHA 175."

4. "Hazardous Waste Inspections Reference Manual," U.S. Department of Labor,
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1986.

5. Memorandum of Understanding Among the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the
United States Coast Guard, and the United States Environmental Protection
Agency, "Guidance for Worker Protection During Hazardous Waste Site
Investigations and Clean-up and Hazardous Substance Emergencies." December
18, 1980.

6. "National Priorities List," 1st Edition, October 1984; U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Revised periodically.

7. "The Decontamination of Response Personnel," Field Standard Operating
Procedures (F.S.O.P.) 7; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division,
December 1984.

8. "Preparation of a Site Safety Plan," Field Standard Operating Procedures
(F.S.O.P.) 9; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and
Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division, April 1985.

9. "Standard Operating Safety Guidelines;" U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support
Division, Environmental Response Team; November 1984.

10. "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site
Activities," National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Coast Guard
(USCG), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); October 1985.

11. "Protecting Health and Safety at Hazardous Waste Sites: An Overview,"
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/625/9-85/006; September 1985.

12. "Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergencies," NIOSH
Worker Bulletin, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health; December 1982.

13. "Personal Protective Equipment for Hazardous Materials Incidents:

A Selection Guide;" U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public
Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health; October 1984.

14. "Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook," International Association
of Fire Chiefs Foundation, 101 East Holly Avenue, Unit 10B, Sterling, VA
22170, January 1985.

15. "Emergency Response Guidebook," U.S Department of Transportation,
Washington, DC, 1987.

16. "Report to the Congress on Hazardous Materials Training, Planning and
Preparedness," Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, July
1986.

17. "Workbook for Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini and J. David Beageron,
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269,
1985.

18. "Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini, National Fire Protection Association,
Batterymarch Park,, Quincy, MA 02269, 1985.

19. "Incident Command System," Fire Protection Publications, Oklahoma State
University, Stillwater, OK 74078, 1983.

20. "Site Emergency Response Planning," Chemical Manufacturers Association,
Washington, DC 20037, 1986.

21. "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide," NRT-1, Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC, March 1987.

22. "Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous Materials
Transportation Safety." U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC,
May 1983.

23. "Disaster Planning Guide for Business and Industry," Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Publication No. FEMA 141, August 1987.

(The Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collection
requirements in this section under control number 1218-0139)

13. In subpart D, a new 1926.66 is added to read as follows:

1926.66  Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.

(a) "Definitions applicable to this section" - (1) "Aerated solid powders."
Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material
which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from
below.  It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized
powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner
similar to that used in liquid dipping.  Such beds are also used as sources
for powder spray operations.

(2) "Spraying area."  Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable
vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due
to the operation of spraying processes.

(3) "Spray booth." A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or
accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray,
vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust
system.

(4) "Waterwash spray booth."  A spray booth equipped with a water washing
system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to
permit the recovery of overspray finishing material.

(5) "Dry spray booth." A spray booth not equipped with a water washing
system as described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.  A dry spray booth
may be equipped with (i) Distribution or baffle plates to promote an even
flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it
enters the exhaust duct; or (ii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or
(iii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust
ducts; or (iv) Overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts or
residues entering exhaust ducts; or (v) Where dry powders are being sprayed,
with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture
oversprayed material.

(6) "Fluidized bed."  A container holding powder coating material which is
aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such
material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and
transported.

(7) "Electrostatic fluidized bed." A container holding powder coating
material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded
cloud of such material which is electrically charged with a charge opposite
to the charge of the object to be coated; such object is transported, through
the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to
be coated.

(8) "Approved." Shall mean approved and listed by a nationally recognized
testing laboratory.

(9) "Listed." See "approved" in paragraph (a)(8) of this section.
(b) "Spray booths" - (1) "Construction." Spray booths shall be substantially
constructed of steel, securely and rigidly supported, or of concrete or
masonry except that aluminum or other substantial noncombustible material may
be used for intermittent or low volume spraying.  Spray booths shall be
designed to sweep air currents toward the exhaust outlet.

(2) "Interiors." The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth and
continuous without edges and otherwise designed to prevent pocketing of
residues and facilitate cleaning and washing without injury.

(3) "Floors." The floor surface of a spray booth and operator's working
area, if combustible, shall be covered with noncombustible material of such
character as to facilitate the safe cleaning and removal of residues.

(4) "Distribution or baffle plates." Distribution or baffle plates, if
installed to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the
deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct, shall be of
noncombustible material and readily removable or accessible on both sides for
cleaning.  Such plates shall not be located in exhaust ducts.

(5) "Dry type overspray collectors" - "(exhaust air filters)." In
conventional dry type spray booths, overspray dry filters or filter rolls, if
installed, shall conform to the following:

(i) The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations shall
be so designed, installed and maintained that the average air velocity over
the open face of the booth (or booth cross section during spraying
operations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. Electrostatic
spraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity over the open face
of the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per minute, or more, depending
on the volume of the finishing material being applied and its flammability
and explosion characteristics.  Visible gauges or audible alarm or pressure
activated devices shall be installed to indicate or insure that the required
air velocity is maintained. Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure proper
replacement of filter media.

(ii) All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately removed
to a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled metal container
and disposed of at the close of the day's operation unless maintained
completely in water.

(iii) The location of filters in a spray booth shall be so as to not reduce
the effective booth enclosure of the articles being sprayed.

(iv) Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream sides of
filters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers.

(v) Filters or filter rolls shall not be used when applying a spray material
known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition.

(vi) Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a type
having a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed by
Underwriters; Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not be
alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the
combination of materials may be conductive to spontaneous ignition.

(6) "Frontal area." Each spray booth having a frontal area larger than 9
square feet shall have a metal deflector or curtain not less than 2 1/2
inches (5.35 cm) deep installed at the upper outer edge of the booth over the
opening.

(7) "Conveyors." Where conveyors are arranged to carry work into or out of
spray booths, the openings therefor shall be small as practical.

(8) "Separation of operations." Each spray booth shall be separated from
other operations by not less than 3 feet (0.912 m), or by a greater distance,
or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger from juxtaposition of
hazardous operations.  See also paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(9) "Cleaning." Spray booth shall be so installed that all portions are
readily accessible for cleaning.  A clear space of not less than 3 feet
(0.912 m) on all sides shall be kept free from storage or combustible
construction.

(10) "Illumination." When spraying areas are illuminated through glass
panels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall be
used as a source of illumination.  Panels shall effectively isolate the
spraying area from the area in which the lighting unit is located, and shall
be of a noncombustible material of such a nature or so protected that
breakage will be unlikely.  Panels shall be so arranged that normal
accumulations of residue on the exposed surface of the panel will not be
raised to a dangerous temperature by radiation or conduction from the source
of illumination.

(c) "Electrical and other sources of ignition" - (1) "Conformance."

All electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shall
conform to the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:

(i) Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs
(e) and (f) of this section;

(ii) Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirements
of paragraph (g) of this section.

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Powder coating equipment shall conform to the
requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(2) "Minimum separation." There shall be no open flame or spark producing
equipment in any spraying area nor within 20 feet (6.08 m) thereof, unless
separated by a partition.

(3) "Hot surfaces." Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot surfaces
shall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of combustible
residues may readily accumulate.

(4) "Wiring conformance." Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to
the provisions of this paragraph and shall otherwise be in accordance with
subpart S of this part.

(5) "Combustible residues, areas." Unless specifically approved for
locations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residues and
explosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spaying area,
whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, except
wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no taps, splices,
or terminal connections.

(6) "Wiring type approved."  Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to
deposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying area as herein
defined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for Class I, group D
locations and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this
part, for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. Electrical wiring,
motors, and other equipment outside of but within 20 feet (6.08 m) of any
spraying area, and not separated therefrom by partitions, shall not produce
sparks under normal operating conditions and shall otherwise conform to the
provisions of subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous
Locations.

(7) "Lamps." Electric lamps outside of, but within 20 feet (6.08 m) of any
spraying area, and not separated therefrom by a partition, shall be totally
enclosed to prevent the falling of hot particles and shall be protected from
mechanical injury by suitable guards or by location.

(8) Portable lamps." Portable electric lamps shall not be used in any
spraying area during spraying operations.  Portable electric lamps, if used
during cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type approved for
hazardous Class I locations.

(9) "Grounding." (i) All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, and
piping systems conveying flammable or combustible liquids or aerated solids
shall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and permanent manner.

(d) "Ventilation" - (1) "Conformance." Ventilating and exhaust systems shall
be in accordance with the Standard for Blower and Exhaust Systems for Vapor
Removal, NFPA No. 91-1961, where applicable and shall also conform to the
provisions of this section.

(2) "General." All spraying areas shall be provided with mechanical
ventilation adequate to remove flammable vapors, mists or powders to a safe
location and to confine and control combustible residues so that life is not
endangered.  Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times
while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time
thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and drying finishing
material residue to be exhausted.

(3) "Independent exhaust." Each spray booth shall have an independent
exhaust duct system discharging to the exterior of the building, except that
multiple cabinet spray booths in which identical spray finishing material is
used with a combined frontal area of not more than 18 square feet may have a
common exhaust.  If more than one fan serves one booth, all fans shall be so
interconnected that one fan cannot operate without all fans being operated.

(4) "Fan-rotating element." The fan-rotating element shall be nonferrous or
nonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined with such material.
There shall be ample clearance between the fan-rotating element and the fan
casing to avoid a fire by friction, necessary allowance being made for
ordinary expansion and loading to prevent contact between moving parts and
the duct or fan housing.  Fan blades shall be mounted on a shaft sufficiently
heavy to maintain perfect alignment even when the blades of the fan are
heavily loaded, the shaft preferably to have bearings outside the duct and
booth.  All bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, or lubricated
from the outside duct.

(5) "Electric motors." Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be
placed inside booths or ducts.  See also paragraph (c) of this section.

(6) "Belts." Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and
pulley within the duct or booth are thoroughly enclosed.

(7) "Exhaust ducts." Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel and shall
be substantially supported.  Exhaust ducts without dampers are preferred;
however, if dampers are installed, they shall be maintained so that they will
be in a full open position at all times the ventilating system is in
operation.

(i) Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage and have a
clearance from unprotected combustible construction or other combustible
material of not less than 18 inches (45.72 cm).

(ii) If combustible construction is provided with the following protection
applied to all surfaces within 18 inches (45.72 cm), clearances may be
reduced to the distances indicated:
(a) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/4-inch asbestos mill board. 12 inches (30.48 cm).
(b) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/8-inch asbestos mill board spaced out 1 inch (2.54 cm) on noncombustible spacers. 9 inches (22.86 cm).
(c) 22-gage sheet metal on 1-inch rockwool batts reinforced with wire mesh or the equivalent. 3 inches (7.62 cm).
(d) Where ducts are protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system, properly maintained, the clearance required in paragraph  
(d)(7)(i) of this section may be reduced to 6 inches (15.24 cm).  
(8) "Discharge clearance." Unless the spray booth exhaust duct terminal is
from a water-wash spray booth, the terminal discharge point shall be not less
than 6 feet from any combustible exterior wall or roof nor discharge in the
direction of any combustible construction or unprotected opening in any
noncombustible exterior wall within 25 feet (7.6 m).

(9) "Air exhaust." Air exhaust from spray operations shall not be directed
so that it will contaminate makeup air being introduced into the spraying
area or other ventilating intakes, nor directed so as to create a nuisance.
Air exhausted from spray operations shall not be recirculated.

(10) "Access doors." When necessary to facilitate cleaning, exhaust ducts
shall be provided with an ample number of access doors.

(11) "Room intakes." Air intake openings to rooms containing spray finishing
operations shall be adequate for the efficient operation of exhaust fans and
shall be so located as to minimize the creation of dead air pockets.

(12) "Drying spaces." Freshly sprayed articles shall be dried only in spaces
provided with adequate ventilation to prevent the formation of explosive
vapors.  In the event adequate and reliable ventilation is not provided such
drying spaces shall be considered a spraying area.

(e) "Fixed electrostatic apparatus" - (1) "Conformance." Where installation
and use of electrostatic spraying equipment is used, such installation and
use shall conform to all other paragraphs of this section, and shall also
conform to the requirements of this paragraph.

(2) "Type approval." Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connection
with coating operations shall be of approved types.

(3) "Location." Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all other
electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of high-voltage
grids, electrodes, and electrostatic atomizing heads and their connections,
shall be located outside of the spraying area, or shall otherwise conform to
the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) "Support." Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be
adequately supported in permanent locations and shall be effectively
insulated from the ground.  Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads
which are permanently attached to their bases, supports, or reciprocators,
shall be deemed to comply with this section. Insulators shall be nonporous
and noncombustible.

(5) "Insulators, grounding." High-voltage leads to electrodes shall be
properly insulated and protected from mechanical injury or exposure to
destructive chemicals.  Electrostatic atomizing heads shall be effectively
and permanently supported on suitable insulators and shall be effectively
guarded against accidental contact or grounding.  An automatic means shall be
provided for grounding the electrode system when it is electrically
deenergized for any reason.  All insulators shall be kept clean and dry.

(6) "Safe distance." A safe distance shall be maintained between goods being
painted and electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors of at
least twice the sparking distance.  A suitable sign indicating this safe
distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.

(7) "Conveyors required." Goods being painted using this process are to be
supported on conveyors.  The conveyors shall be so arranged as to maintain
safe distances between the goods and the electrodes or electrostatic
atomizing heads at all times.  Any irregularly shaped or other goods subject
to possible swinging or movement shall be rigidly supported to prevent such
swinging or movement which would reduce the clearance to less than that
specified in paragraph (e)(6) of this section.

(8) "Prohibition." This process is not acceptable where goods being coated
are manipulated by hand.  When finishing materials are applied by
electrostatic equipment which is manipulated by hand, see paragraph (f) of
this section for applicable requirements.

(9) "Fail-safe controls."  Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with
automatic controls which will operate without time delay to disconnect the
power supply to the high voltage transformer and to signal the operator under
any of the following conditions:

(i) Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from
any cause.

(ii) Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high voltage field.

(iii) Occurrence of a ground or of an imminent ground at any point on the
high voltage system.

(iv) Reduction of clearance below that specified in paragraph (e)(6) of this
section.

(10) "Guarding." Adequate booths, fencing, railings, or guards shall be so
placed about the equipment that they, either by their location or character
or both, assure that a safe isolation of the process is maintained from plant
storage or personnel.  Such railings, fencing, and guards shall be of
conducting material, adequately grounded.

(11) "Ventilation." Where electrostatic atomization is used the spraying
area shall be so ventilated as to insure safe conditions from a fire and
health standpoint.

(12) "Fire protection." All areas used for spraying, including the interior
of the booth, shall be protected by automatic sprinklers where this
protection is available.  Where this protection is not available, other
approved automatic extinguishing equipment shall be provided.

(f) "Electrostatic hand spraying equipment" - (1) "Application."

This paragraph shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically charged
elements for the atomization and/or, precipitation of materials for coatings
on articles, or for other similar purposes in which the atomizing device is
hand held and manipulated during the spraying operation.

(2) "Conformance." Electrostatic hand spraying equipment shall conform with
the other provisions of this section.

(3) "Equipment approval and specifications." Electrostatic hand spray
apparatus and devices used in connection with coating operations shall be of
approved types.  The high voltage circuits shall be designed so as to not
produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any vapor-air mixtures nor
result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a grounded
object under all normal operating conditions.  The electrostatically charged
exposed elements of the handgun shall be capable of being energized only by a
switch which also controls the coating material supply.

(4) "Electrical support equipment." Transformers, powerpacks, control
apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the
exception of the handgun itself and its connections to the power supply shall
be located outside of the spraying area or shall otherwise conform to the
requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(5) "Spray gun ground." The handle of the spraying gun shall be electrically
connected to ground by a metallic connection and to be so constructed that
the operator in normal operating position is in intimate electrical contact
with the grounded handle.

(6) "Grounding-general." All electrically conductive objects in the spraying
area shall be adequately grounded.  This requirement shall apply to paint
containers, wash cans, and any other objects or devices in the area.  The
equipment shall carry a prominent permanently installed warning regarding the
necessity for this grounding feature.

(7) "Maintenance of grounds." Objects being painted or coated shall be
maintained in metallic contact with the conveyor or other grounded support.
Hooks shall be regularly cleaned to insure this contact and areas of contact
shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible. Points of support of the
object shall be concealed from random spay where feasible and where the
objects being sprayed are supported from a conveyor, the point of attachment
to the conveyor shall be so located as to not collect spray material during
normal operation.

(8) "Interlocks." The electrical equipment shall be so interlocked with the
ventilation of the spraying area that the equipment cannot be operated unless
the ventilation fans are in operation.

(9) "Ventilation." The spraying operation shall take place within a spray
area which is adequately ventilated to remove solvent vapors released from
the operation.

(g) Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus" - (1) "Conformance." Drying,
curing, or fusion apparatus in connection with spray application of flammable
and combustible finishes shall conform to the Standard for Ovens and
Furnaces, NFPA 86A-1969, where applicable and shall also conform with the
following requirements of this paragraph.

(2) "Alternate use prohibited." Spray booths, rooms, or other enclosures
used for spraying operations shall not alternately be used for the purpose of
drying by any arrangement which will cause a material increase in the surface
temperature of the spray booth, room, or enclosure.

(3) "Adjacent system interlocked." Except as specifically provided in
paragraph (g)(4) of this section, drying, curing, or fusion units utilizing a
heating system having open flames or which may produce sparks shall not be
installed in a spraying area, but may be installed adjacent thereto when
equipped with an interlocked ventilating system arranged to:

(i) Thoroughly ventilate the drying space before the heating system can be
started;

(ii) Maintain a safe atmosphere at any source of ignition;

(iii) Automatically shut down the heating system in the event of failure of
the ventilating system.

(4) "Alternate use permitted." Automobile finishing spray booths or
enclosures, otherwise installed and maintained in full conformity with this
section, may alternately be used for drying with portable electrical infrared
drying apparatus when conforming with the following:

(i) Interior (especially floors) of spray enclosures shall be kept free of
overspray deposits.

(ii) During spray operations, the drying apparatus and electrical
connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray enclosure
nor in any other location where spray residues may be deposited thereon.

(iii) The spraying apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating
system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with suitable interlocks so
arranged that:

(a) The spraying apparatus cannot be operated while the drying apparatus is
inside the spray enclosure.

(b) The spray enclosure will be purged of spray vapors for a period of not
less than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus can be energized.

(c) The ventilating system will maintain a safe atmosphere within the
enclosure during the drying process and the drying apparatus will
automatically shut off in the event of failure of the ventilating system.

(iv) All electrical wiring and equipment of the drying apparatus shall
conform with the applicable sections of Subpart S of this part. Only
equipment of a type approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations
shall be located within 18 inches (45.72 cm) of floor level. All metallic
parts of the drying apparatus shall be properly electrically bonded and
grounded.

(v) The drying apparatus shall contain a prominently located, permanently
attached warning sign indicating that ventilation should be maintained during
the drying period and that spraying should not be conducted in the vicinity
that spray will deposit on apparatus.

14.  In Subpart E, new 1926.95 through 1926.97 are added to read as follows

1926.95  Criteria for personal protective equipment.

(a) "Application." Protective equipment, including personal protective
equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing,
respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided,
used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is
necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards,
radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable
of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body
through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.

(b) "Employee-owned equipment." Where employees provide their own protective
equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure its adequacy,
including proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment.

(c) "Design." All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and
construction for the work to be performed.

1926.96 Occupational foot protection.

Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements and
specifications in American National Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear,
Z41.1-1967.

1926.97  Protective clothing for fire brigades.

The following requirements apply to those employees who perform interior
structural fire fighting.  The requirements do not apply to employees who use
fire extinguishers or standpipe systems to control or extinguish fires only
in the incipient stage.

(a) "General." (1) The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and
assure the use of protective clothing which complies with the requirements of
this paragraph.  The employer shall assure that protective clothing ordered
or purchased after July 1, 1981, meets the requirements contained in this
paragraph.  As the new equipment is provided, the employer shall assure that
all fire brigade members wear the equipment when performing interior
structural fire fighting.  After July 1, 1985, the employer shall assure that
all fire brigade members wear protective clothing meeting the requirements of
this paragraph when performing interior structural fire fighting.

(2) The employer shall assure that protective clothing protects the head,
body, and extremities, and consists of at least the following components:
foot and leg protection; hand protection; body protection; eye, face and head
protection.

(b) "Foot and leg protection." (1) Foot and leg protection shall meet the
requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section, and may be
achieved by either of the following methods:

(i) Fully extended boots which provide protection for the legs;
or

(ii) Protective shoes or boots worn in combination with protective trousers
that meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Protective footwear shall meet the requirements of 1926.96 for Class 75
footwear.  In addition, protective footwear shall be water-resistant for at
least 5 inches (12.7 cm) above the bottom of the heel and shall be equipped
with slip-resistant outer soles.

(3) Protective footwear shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (f) of
this section, and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsole
by a size 8D common nail when at least 300 pounds (1330 N) of static force is
applied to the nail.

(c) "Body protection." (1) Body protection shall be coordinated with foot
and leg protection to ensure full body protection for the wearer.  This shall
be achieved by one of the following methods:

(i) Wearing of a fire-resistive coat meeting the requirements of paragraph
(c)(2) of this section in combination with fully extended boots meeting the
requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section; or (ii) Wearing of
a fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers both of which
meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(2) The performance, construction, and testing of fire-resistive coats and
protective trousers shall be at least equivalent to the requirements of the
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard NFPA No. 1971-1975,
"Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting," with the following
permissible variations from those requirements:

(i) Tearing strength of the outer shell shall be a minimum of 8 pounds (35.6
N) in any direction when tested in accordance with paragraph (g) of this
section; and

(ii) The outer shell may discolor but shall not separate or melt when placed
in a forced air laboratory oven at a temperature of 500 deg. F (260 deg. C)
for a period of five minutes.  After cooling to ambient temperature and using
the test method specified in paragraph (h) of this section, char length shall
not exceed 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) and after-flame shall not exceed 2.0 seconds.

(d) "Hand protection." (1) Hand protection shall consist of protective
gloves or glove system which will provide protection against cut, puncture,
and heat penetration.  Gloves or glove system shall be tested in accordance
with the test methods contained in the National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) 1976 publication, "The Development of Criteria for
Fire Fighter's Gloves; Vol. II, Part II: Test Methods," and shall meet the
following criteria for cut, puncture, and heat penetration:

(i) Materials used for gloves shall resist surface cut by a blade with an
edge having a 60 deg. included angle and a .001 inch (.0025 cm.) radius,
under an applied force of 16 lbf (72N), and at a slicing velocity of greater
or equal to 60 in/min (2.5 cm./sec);

(ii) Materials used for the palm and palm side of the fingers shall resist
puncture by a penetrometer (simulating a 4d lath nail), under an applied
force of 13.2 lbf (60N), and at a velocity greater or equal to 20 in/min(.85
cm./sec); and

(iii) The temperature inside the palm and gripping surface of the fingers of
gloves shall not exceed 135 deg. F. (57 deg. C.) when gloves or glove system
are exposed to 932 deg. F. (500 deg. C.) for five seconds at 4 psi (28 kPa)
pressure.

(2) Exterior materials of gloves shall be flame resistant and shall be
tested in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section.  Maximum allowable
afterflame shall be 2.0 seconds and the maximum char length shall be 4.0
inches (10.2 cm).

(3) When design of the fire-resistive coat does not otherwise provide
protection for the wrists, protective gloves shall have wristlets of at least
4.0 inches (10.2 cm) in length to protect the wrist area when the arms are
extended upward and outward from the body.

(e) "Head, eye and face protection." (1) Head protection shall consist of a
protective head device with ear flaps and chin strap which meet the
performance, construction, and testing requirements of the National Fire
Safety and Research Office of the National Fire Prevention and Control
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce (now known as the U.S. Fire
Administration), which are contained in "Model Performance Criteria for
Structural Firefighters' Helmets" (August 1977).

(2) Protective eye and face devices which comply with 1926.102 shall be used
by fire brigade members when performing operations where the hazards of
flying or falling materials which may cause eye and face injuries are
present.  Protective eye and face devices provided as accessories to
protective head devices (face shields) are permitted when such devices meet
the requirements of 1926.102.

(3) Full facepieces, helmets, or hoods of breathing apparatus which meet the
requirements of 1926.98 and 1926.103 of this part, shall be acceptable as
meeting the eye and face protection requirements of this section.

(f) "Puncture resistance test method for foot protection" - (1) "Apparatus."
The puncture resistance test shall be performed on a testing machine having a
movable platform adjusted to travel at 1/4-inch/min (0.1 cm/sec).  Two blocks
of hardwood, metal, or plastic shall be prepared as follows: the blocks shall
be prepared as follows: the blocks shall be of such size and thickness as to
insure a suitable rigid test ensemble and allow for at least one-inch of the
pointed end of an 8D nail to be exposed for the penetration.  One block shall
have a hole drilled to hold an 8D common nail firmly at an angle of 98 deg.
The second block shall have a maximum 1/2-inch (1.3 cm) diameter hole drilled
through it so that the hole will allow free passage of the nail after it
penetrates the insole during the test.

(2) "Procedure." The test ensemble consisting of the sample unit, the two
prepared blocks, a piece of leather outsole 10 to 11 irons thick, and a new
8D nail, shall be placed as follows: the 8D nail in the hole, the sample of
outsole stock superimposed above the nail, the area of the sole plate to be
tested placed on the outsole, and the second block with hole so placed as to
allow for free passage of the nail after it passes through the outside stock
and sole plate in that order.  The machine shall be started and the pressure,
in pounds required for the nail to completely penetrate the outsole and sole
plate, recorded to the nearest five pounds.  Two determinations shall be made
on each sole plate and the results averaged.  A new nail shall be used for
each determination.

(3) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "Military
Specification For Fireman's Boots," MIL-B-2885D (1973 and amendment dated
1975) and are reproduced for your convenience.

g) "Test method for determining the strength of cloth by tearing:

Trapezoid Method" - (1) "Test specimen." The specimen shall be a rectangle
of cloth 3 inches by 6 inches (7.6 cm by 15.2 cm).  The long dimension shall
be parallel to the warp for warp tests and parallel to the filling for
filling tests.  No two specimens for warp tests shall contain the same warp
yarns, nor shall any two specimens for filling tests contain the same filling
yarns.  The specimen shall be taken no nearer the selvage than 1/10 the width
of the cloth.  An isosceles trapezoid having an altitude of 3 inches (7.6 cm)
and bases of 1 inch (2.5 cm) and 4 inches (10.2 cm) in length, respectively,
shall be marked on each specimen, preferably with the aid of a template.  A
cut approximately 3/8-inch (1 cm) in length shall then be made in the center
of a perpendicular to the 1-inch (2.5 cm) edge.

(2) "Apparatus." (i) Six-ounce (.17 kg) weight tension clamps shall be used
so designed that the six ounces (.17 kg) of weight are distributed evenly
across the complete width of the sample.

(ii) The machine shall consist of three main parts: Straining mechanism,
clamps for holding specimen, and load and elongation recording mechanisms.

(iii) A machine wherein the specimen is held between two clamps and strained
by a uniform movement of the pulling clamp shall be used.

(iv) The machine shall be adjusted so that the pulling clamp shall have a
uniform speed of 12 plus or minus 10.5 inches per minute (0.5 plus or minus
.02 cm/sec).

(v) The machine shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp. The
design of the two clamps shall be such that one gripping surface or jaw may
be an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp or be fastened to allow a
slight vertical movement, while the other gripping surface or jaw shall be
completely movable.  The dimension of the immovable jaw of each clamp
parallel to the application of the load shall measure one-inch and the
dimension of the jaw perpendicular to this direction shall measure three
inches or more.  The face of the movable jaw of each clamp shall measure
one-inch by 3 inches (7.62 cm) Each jaw face shall have a flat smooth,
gripping surface.  All edges which might cause a cutting action shall be
rounded to a radius of not over 1/64-inch (.04 cm).  In cases where a cloth
tends to slip when being tested, the jaws may be faced with rubber or other
material to prevent slippage.  The distance between the jaws (gage length)
shall be one-inch at the start of the test.

(vi) Calibrated dial; scale or chart shall be used to indicate applied load
and elongation.  The machine shall be adjusted or set, so that the maximum
load required to break the specimen will remain indicated on the calibrated
dial or scale after the test specimen has ruptured.

(vii) The machine shall be of such capacity that the maximum load required
to break the specimen shall be not greater than 85 percent or less than 15
percent of the rated capacity.

(viii) The error of the machine shall not exceed 2 percent up to and
including a 50-pound load (22.6 kg) and 1 percent over a 50-pound load (22.6
kg) at any reading within its loading range.

(ix) All machine attachments for determining maximum loads shall be
disengaged during this test.

(3) "Procedure." (i) The specimen shall be clamped in the machine along the
nonparallel sides of the trapezoid so that these sides lie along the lower
edge of the upper clamp and the upper edge of the lower clamp with the cut
halfway between the clamps.  The short trapezoid base shall be held taut and
the long trapezoid base shall lie in the folds.

(ii) The machine shall be started and the force necessary to tear the cloth
shall be observed by means of an autographic recording device. The speed of
the pulling clamp shall be 12 inches plus or minus 0.5 inch per minute (0.5
plus or minus .02 cm/sec).

(iii) If a specimen slips between the jaws, breaks in or at the edges of the
jaws, or if for any reason attributable to faulty technique, an individual
measurement falls markedly below the average test results for the sample
unit, such result shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested.

(iv) The tearing strength of the specimen shall be the average of the five
highest peak loads of resistance registered for 3 inches (7.6 cm) of
separation of the tear.

(4) "Report." (i) Five specimens in each of the warp and filling directions
shall be tested from each sample unit.

(ii) The tearing strength of the sample unit shall be the average of the
results obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and filling
directions and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0.1-pound (.05
kg).

(5) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "Federal Test Method
Standard 191, Method 5136" and are reproduced for your convenience.

(h) "Test method for determining flame resistance of cloth; vertical" -

(1) "Test specimen." The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 2 3/4 inches
(7.0 cm) by 12 inches (30.5 cm) with the long dimension parallel to either
the warp or filling direction of the cloth.  No two warp specimens shall
contain the same warp yarns, and no two filling specimens shall contain the
same filling yarn.

(2) "Number of determinations." Five specimens from each of the warp and
filling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.

(3) "Apparatus" - (i) "Cabinet." A cabinet and accessories shall be
fabricated in accordance with the requirements specified in Figures E-97.1,
E-97.2, and E-97.3.  Galvanized sheet metal or other suitable metal shall be
used.  The entire inside back wall of the cabinet shall be painted black to
facilitate the viewing of the test specimen and pilot flame.

(ii) "Burner." The burner shall be equipped with a variable orifice to
adjust the flame height, a barrel having a 3/8-inch (1 cm) inside diameter
and a pilot light.

(a) The burner may be constructed by combining a 3/8-inch (1 cm) inside
diameter barrel 3 plus or minus 1/4 inches (7.6 plus or minus .6 cm) long
from a fixed orifice burner with a base from a variable orifice burner.

(b) The pilot light tube shall have a diameter of approximately 1/16-inch
(.2 cm) and shall be spaced 1/8-inch (.3 cm) away from the burner edge with a
pilot flame 1/8-inch (.3 cm) long.

(c) The necessary gas connections and the applicable plumbing shall be as
specified in Figure E-97.4 except that a solenoid valve may be used in lieu
of the stopcock valve to which the burner is attached. The stopcock valve or
solenoid valve, whichever is used, shall be capable of being fully opened or
fully closed in 0.1-second.

(d) On the side of the barrel of the burner, opposite the pilot light there
shall be a metal rod of approximately 1/8-inch (.3 cm) diameter spaced
1/2-inch (1.3 cm) from the barrel and extending above the burner.  The rod
shall have two 5/16-inch (.8 cm) prongs marking the distances of 3/4-inch
(1.9 cm) and 1 1/2-inches (3.8 cm) above the top of the burner.

(e) The burner shall be fixed in a position so that the center of the barrel
of the burner is directly below the center of the specimen.

(iii) There shall be a control valve system with a delivery rate designed to
furnish gas to the burner under a pressure of 2 1/2 plus or minus 1/4
(psi)(17.5 plus or minus 1.8 kPa) per square inch at the burner inlet (see
(g)(3)(vi)(A)).  The manufacturer's recommended delivery rate for the valve
system shall be included in the required pressure.

(iv) A synthetic gas mixture shall be of the following composition within
the following limits (analyzed at standard conditions): 55 plus or minus 3
percent hydrogen, 24 plus or minus 1 percent methane, 3 plus or minus 1
percent ethane, and 18 plus or minus 1 percent carbon monoxide which will
give a specific gravity of 0.365 plus or minus 0.018 (air = 1) and a B.T.U.
content of 540 plus or minus 20 per cubic foot (20.1 plus or minus 3.7
kJ/L)(dry basis) at 69.8 deg F (21 deg. C).

(v) There shall be metal hooks and weights to produce a series of total
loads to determine length of char.  The metal hooks shall consist of No. 19
gage steel wire or equivalent and shall be made from 3-inch (7.6 cm) lengths
of wire and bent 1/2-inch (1.3 cm) from one end to a 45 degree hook.  One end
of the hook shall be fastened around the neck of the weight to be used.

(vi) There shall be a stop watch or other device to measure the burning time
to 0.2-second.

(vii) There shall be a scale, graduated in 0.1 inch (.3 cm) to measure the
length of char.

(4) "Procedure." (i) The material undergoing test shall be evaluated for the
characteristics of after-flame time and char length on each specimen.

(ii) All specimens to be tested shall be at moisture equilibrium under
standard atmospheric conditions in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of this
section.  Each specimen to be tested shall be exposed to the test flame
within 20 seconds after removal from the standard atmosphere.  In case of
dispute, all testing will be conducted under Standard Atmospheric Conditions
in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of this section.

(iii) The specimen in its holder shall be suspended vertically in the
cabinet in such a manner that the entire length of the specimen is exposed
and the lower end is 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) above the top of the gas burner.  The
apparatus shall be set up in a draft free area.

(iv) Prior to inserting the specimen, the pilot flame shall be adjusted to
approximately 1/8-inch (.3 cm) in height measured from its lowest point to
the tip.

The burner flame shall be adjusted by means of the needle valve in the base
of the burner to give a flame height of 1 1/2 inches (3.8 cm) with the
stopcock fully open and the air supply to the burner shut off and taped.  The
1 1/2-inch (3.8 cm) flame height is obtained by adjusting the valve so that
the uppermost portion (tip) of the flame is level with the tip of the metal
prong (see Figure E-97.2) specified for adjustment of flame height.  It is an
important aspect of the evaluation that the flame height be adjusted with the
tip of the flame level with the tip of the metal prong.  After inserting the
specimen, the stopcock shall be fully opened, and the burner flame applied
vertically at the middle of the lower edge of the specimen for 12 seconds and
the burner turned off.  The cabinet door shall remain shut during testing.

(v) The after-flame shall be the time the specimen continues to flame after
the burner flame is shut off.

(vi) After each specimen is removed, the test cabinet shall be cleared of
fumes and smoke prior to testing the next specimen.

(vii) After both flaming and glowing have ceased, the char length shall be
measured.  The char length shall be the distance from the end of the
specimen, which was exposed to the flame, to the end of a tear (made
lengthwise) of the specimen through the center of the charred area as
follows: The specimen shall be folded lengthwise and creased by hand along a
line through the highest peak of the charred area.  The hook shall be
inserted in the specimen (or a hole, 1/4-inch (.6 cm) diameter or less,
punched out for the hook) at one side of the charred area 1/4-inch (.6 cm)
from the adjacent outside edge and 1/4-inch (.6 cm) in from the lower end.  A
weight of sufficient size such that the weight and hook together shall equal
the total tearing load required in Table E-97.1 of this section shall be
attached to the hook.

(viii) A tearing force shall be applied gently to the specimen by grasping
the corner of the cloth at the opposite edge of the char from the load and
raising the specimen and weight clear of the supporting surface.  The end of
the tear shall be marked off on the edge and the char length measurement made
along the undamaged edge.

Loads for determining char length applicable to the weight of the test cloth
shall be as shown in Table E-97.1.
 

Table E-97.1(1)
Specified weight per square yard of cloth before
any fire retardant treatment or coating - ounces
Total tearing weight for determining the charred length - pound
2.0 to 6.0 0.25
Over 6.0 to 15.0 0.50
Over 15.0 to 23.0 0.75
Over 23.0 1.0
Footnote(1) To change into S.I. (System International) units, 1 ounce=28.35
grams, 1 pound=453 grams, 1 yard=.91 meter

(ix) The after-flame time of the specimen shall be recorded to the nearest
0.2-second and the char length to the nearest 0.1-inch (.3 cm).

(5) "Report." (i) The after-flame time and char length of the sample unit
shall be the average of the results obtained from the individual specimens
tested.  All values obtained from the individual specimens shall be recorded.

(ii) The after-flame time shall be reported to the nearest 0.2-second and
the char length to the nearest 0.1-inch (.3 cm).

(6) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "Federal Test Method
Standard 191, Method 5903 (1971)" and are reproduced for your convenience.
 
       Figure E-97.1 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus.
                (For Figure E-97.1, see printed copy)

       Figure E-97.2 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus,
                       door and top view w/baffle.
                (For Figure E-97.2, see printed copy)

       Figure E-97.3 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus,
                       view and details.
                (For Figure E-97.3, see printed copy)

       Figure E-97.4 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus.
                (For Figure E-97.4, see printed copy)

15.  A new 1926.98 is added to read as follows

1926.98  Respiratory protection for fire brigades.

(a) "General requirements." (1) The employer shall provide at no cost to the
employee and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements
of this paragraph.  The employer shall assure that respiratory protective
devices worn by fire brigade members meet the requirements contained in
1926.103 and the requirements contained in this paragraph, and are certified
under 30 CFR Part 11.

(2) Approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full-facepiece, or with
approved helmet or hood configuration, shall be provided to and worn by fire
brigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxic
products of combustion or an oxygen deficiency may be present.  Such
apparatus shall also be worn during emergency situations involving toxic
substances.

(3) Approved self-contained breathing apparatus may be equipped with either
a "buddy-breathing" device or a quick disconnect valve, even if these devices
are not certified by NIOSH.  If these accessories are used, they shall not
cause damage to the apparatus, or restrict the air flow of the apparatus, or
obstruct the normal operation of the apparatus.

(4) Approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used
with approved cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air
breathing apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity and
pressure rating.  All compressed air cylinders used with self-contained
breathing apparatus shall meet DOT and NIOSH criteria.

(5) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall have a minimum service life
rating of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements of the
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and NIOSH, except for escape
self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA) used only for emergency escape
purposes.

(6) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided with an indicator
which automatically sounds an audible alarm when the remaining service life
of the apparatus is reduced to within a range of 20 to 25 percent of its
rated service time.

(b) "Positive-pressure breathing apparatus." (1) The employer shall assure
that self-contained breathing apparatus ordered or purchased after July 1,
1981, for use by fire brigade members performing interior structural fire
fighting operations, are of the pressure-demand or other positive-pressure
type.  Effective July 1, 1983, only pressure-demand or other
positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be worn by fire
brigade members performing interior structural fire fighting.

(2) This paragraph does not prohibit the use of a self-contained breathing
apparatus where the apparatus can be switched from a demand to a
positive-pressure mode.  However, such apparatus shall be in the
positive-pressure mode when fire brigade members are performing interior
structural fire fighting operations.

(3) Negative-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with a rated
service life of more than 2 hours and which have a minimum protection factor
of 5,000, as determined by an acceptable quantitative fit test performed on
each individual, is acceptable for use only during those interior structural
fire fighting situations for which the employer demonstrates that long
duration breathing apparatus is necessary. Quantitative fit test procedures
shall be available for inspection by the Assistant Secretary or authorized
representative.  Such negative-pressure breathing apparatus will continue to
be acceptable for 18 months after a positive-pressure breathing apparatus
with the same or longer-rated service life is certified by NIOSH.  After this
18-month period, all self-contained breathing apparatus used for these long
duration situations shall be of the positive-pressure type.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0075)

1926.99 [Reserved]

16. In 1926.102, new paragraphs (a)(6) through (8) are added to read as
follows:

1926.102  Eye and Face Protection
	(a) General. * * * * * * * (6) Protectors shall meet the following
minimum requirements: (i) They shall provide adequate protection against the
particular hazards for which they are designed.

(ii) They shall be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designated
conditions.

(iii) They shall fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with the
movements of the wearer.

(iv) They shall be durable.

(v) They shall be capable of being
disinfected.

(vi) They shall be easily cleanable.

(7) Every protector shall
be distinctly marked to facilitate identification only of the
manufacturer.

(8) When limitations or precautions are indicated by the manufacturer, they
shall be transmitted to the user and care taken to see that such limitations
and precautions are strictly observed.

17. New paragraphs (d) through (i) are added to 1926.103.  The text of the
standards reads as follows:

1926.103  Respiratory protection.

(d) "Permissible practice. (1) In the control of those occupational diseases
caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists,
gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors, the primary objective shall be to prevent
atmospheric contamination.  This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by
accepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement
of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less
toxic materials).  When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or
while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used
pursuant to the following requirements.

(2) Respirators shall be provided by the employer when such equipment is
necessary to protect the health of the employee.  The employer shall provide
the respirators which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended.
The employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a
respiratory protective program which shall include the requirements outlined
in paragraph (e) of this section.

(3) The employee shall use the provided respiratory protection in accordance
with instructions and training received.

(e) "Requirements for a minimal acceptable program." (1) Written standard
operating procedures governing the selection and use of respirators shall be
established.

(2) Respirators shall be selected on the basis of hazards to which the
worker is exposed.

(3) The user shall be instructed and trained in the proper use of
respirators and their limitations.

(4) [Reserved]

(5) Respirators shall be regularly cleaned and
disinfected.  Those used by more than one worker shall be thoroughly cleaned
and disinfected after each use.

(6) Respirators shall be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary
location.

(7) Respirators used routinely shall be inspected during cleaning. Worn or
deteriorated parts shall be replaced.  Respirators for emergency use such as
self-contained devices shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a month
and after each use.

(8) Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee
exposure or stress shall be maintained.

(9) There shall be regular inspection and evaluation to determine the
continued effectiveness of the program.

(10) Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring use of respirators
unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the
work and use the equipment.  The local physician shall determine what health
and physical conditions are pertinent. The respirator user's medical status
should be reviewed periodically (for instance, annually).

(11) Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by the
Mine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11.

(f) "Air quality." (1) Compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, and
liquid oxygen used for respiration shall be of high purity.  Oxygen shall
meet the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia for medical or
breathing oxygen.  Breathing air shall meet at least the requirements of the
specification for Grade D breathing air as described in Compressed Gas
Association Commodity Specification G-7.1-1966.  Compressed oxygen shall not
be used in supplied-air respirators or in open circuit self-contained
breathing apparatus that have previously used compressed air.  Oxygen must
never be used with air line respirators.

(2) Breathing air may be supplied to respirators from cylinders or air
compressors.

(i) Cylinders shall be tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping
Container Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49
CFR part 178).

(ii) The compressor for supplying air shall be equipped with necessary
safety and standby devices.  A breathing air-type compressor shall be used.
Compressors shall be constructed and situated so as to avoid entry of
contaminated air into the system and suitable in-line air purifying sorbent
beds and filters installed to further assure breathing air quality.  A
receiver of sufficient capacity to enable the respirator wearer to escape
from a contaminated atmosphere in event of compressor failure, and alarms to
indicate compressor failure and overheating shall be installed in the system.
 If an oil-lubricated compressor is used, it shall have a high-temperature or
carbon monoxide alarm, or both.  If only a high-temperature alarm is used,
the air from the compressor shall be frequently tested for carbon monoxide to
insure that it meets the specifications in paragraph (f)(1) of this section.

(3) Air line couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for other gas
systems to prevent inadvertent servicing of air line respirators with
nonrespirable gases or oxygen.

(4) Breathing gas containers shall be marked in accordance with American
National Standard Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to
Identify the Material Contained, Z48.1-1954; Federal Specification
BB-A-1034a, June 21, 1968, Air, Compressed for Breathing Purposes; or Interim
Federal Specification GG-B-00675b, April 27, 1965, Breathing Apparatus,
Self-Contained.

(g) "Use of respirators." (1) Standard procedures shall be developed for
respirator use.  These should include all information and guidance necessary
for their proper selection, use, and care.  Possible emergency and routine
uses of respirators should be anticipated and planned for.

(2) The correct respirator shall be specified for each job.  The respirator
type is usually specified in the work procedures by a qualified individual
supervising the respiratory protective program. The individual issuing them
shall be adequately instructed to insure that the correct respirator is
issued.

(3) Written procedures shall be prepared covering safe use of respirators in
dangerous atmospheres that might be encountered in normal operations or in
emergencies.  Personnel shall be familiar with these procedures and the
available respirators.

(i) In areas where the wearer, with failure of the respirator, could be
overcome by a toxic or oxygen-deficient atmosphere, at least one additional
man shall be present.  Communications (visual, voice, or signal line) shall
be maintained between both or all individuals present.  Planning shall be
such that one individual will be unaffected by any likely incident and have
the proper rescue equipment to be able to assist the other(s) in case of
emergency.

(ii) When self-contained breathing apparatus or hose masks with blowers are
used in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health, standby men must
be present with suitable rescue equipment.

(iii) Persons using air line respirators in atmospheres immediately
hazardous to life or health shall be equipped with safety harnesses and
safety lines for lifting or removing persons from hazardous atmospheres or
other and equivalent provisions for the rescue of persons from hazardous
atmospheres shall be used.  A standby man or men with suitable self-contained
breathing apparatus shall be at the nearest fresh air base for emergency
rescue.

(4) Respiratory protection is no better than the respirator in use, even
though it is worn conscientiously.  Frequent random inspections shall be
conducted by a qualified individual to assure that respirators are properly
selected, used, cleaned, and maintained.

(5) For safe use of any respirator, it is essential that the user be
properly instructed in its selection, use, and maintenance.  Both supervisors
and workers shall be so instructed by competent persons. Training shall
provide the men an opportunity to handle the respirator, have it fitted
properly, test its face-piece-to-face seal, wear it in normal air for a long
familiarity period, and, finally, to wear it in a test atmosphere.

(i) Every respirator wearer shall receive fitting instructions including
demonstrations and practice in how the respirator should be worn, how to
adjust it, and how to determine if it fits properly. Respirators shall not be
worn when conditions prevent a good face seal.  Such conditions may be a
growth of beard, sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, or
temple pieces on glasses. Also, the absence of one or both dentures can
seriously affect the fit of a facepiece.  The worker's diligence in observing
these factors shall be evaluated by periodic check.  To assure proper
protection, the facepiece fit shall be checked by the wearer each time he
puts on the respirator.  This may be done by following the manufacturer's
facepiece fitting instructions.

(ii) Providing respiratory protection for individuals wearing corrective
glasses is a serious problem.  A proper seal cannot be established if the
temple bars of eye glasses extend through the sealing edge of the full
facepiece.  As a temporary measure, glasses with short temple bars or without
temple bars may be taped to the wearer's head.  Wearing of contact lenses in
contaminated atmospheres with a respirator shall not be allowed.  Systems
have been developed for mounting corrective lenses inside full facepieces.
When a workman must wear corrective lenses as part of the facepiece, the
facepiece and lenses shall be fitted by qualified individuals to provide good
vision, comfort, and a gas-tight seal.

(iii) If corrective spectacles or goggles are required, they shall be worn
so as not to affect the fit of the facepiece.  Proper selection of equipment
will minimize or avoid this problem.

(h) "Maintenance and care of respirators." (1) A program for maintenance and
care of respirators shall be adjusted to the type of plant, working
conditions, and hazards involved, and shall include the following  basic
services:

{i} Inspection for defects (including a leak check),

{ii} Cleaning
and disinfecting,

{iii} Repair,

{iv} Storage

Equipment shall be properly maintained to retain its original effectiveness.

(2) - (i) All respirators shall be inspected routinely before and after each
use.  A respirator that is not routinely used but is kept ready for emergency
use shall be inspected after each use and at least monthly to assure that it
is in satisfactory working condition.

(ii) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and
oxygen cylinders shall be fully charged according to the manufacturer's
instructions.  It shall be determined that the regulator and warning devices
function properly.

(iii) Respirator inspection shall include a check of the tightness of
connections and the condition of the facepiece, headbands, valves, connecting
tube, and canisters.  Rubber or elastomer parts shall be inspected for
pliability and signs of deterioration.  Stretching and manipulating rubber or
elastomer parts with massaging action will keep them pliable and flexible and
prevent them from taking a set during storage.

(iv) A record shall be kept of inspection dates and findings for respirators
maintained for emergency use.

(3) Routinely used respirators shall be collected, cleaned, and disinfected
as frequently as necessary to insure that proper protection is provided for
the wearer.  Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be cleaned and
disinfected after each use.

(4) Replacement or repairs shall be done only by experienced persons with
parts designed for the respirator.  No attempt shall be made to replace
components or to make adjustment or repairs beyond the manufacturer's
recommendations.  Reducing or admission valves or regulators shall be
returned to the manufacturer or to a trained technician for adjustment or
repair.

(5)(i) After inspection, cleaning, and necessary repair, respirators shall
be stored to protect against dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive
moisture, or damaging chemicals.  Respirators placed at stations and work
areas for emergency use should be quickly accessible at all times and should
be stored in compartments built for the purpose. The compartments should be
clearly marked.  Routinely used respirators, such as dust respirators, may be
placed in plastic bags.  Respirators should not be stored in such places as
lockers or tool boxes unless they are in carrying cases or cartons.

(ii) Respirators should be packed or stored so that the facepiece and
exhalation valve will rest in a normal position and function will not be
impaired by the elastomer setting in an abnormal position.

(iii) Instructions for proper storage of emergency respirators, such as gas
masks and self-contained breathing apparatus, are found in "use and care"
instructions usually mounted inside the carrying case lid.

(i) "Identification of gas mask canisters." (1) The primary means of
identifying a gas mask canister shall be by means of properly worded labels.
The secondary means of identifying a gas mask canister shall be by a color
code.

(2) All who issue or use gas masks falling within the scope of this section
shall see that all gas mask canisters purchased or used by them are properly
labeled and colored in accordance with these requirements before they are
placed in service and that the labels and colors are properly maintained at
all times thereafter until the canisters have completely served their
purpose.

(3) On each canister shall appear in bold letters the following:

  (i) --
  Canister for ________________
(Name for atmospheric contaminant)

or

  Type N Gas Mask Canister


(ii) In addition, essentially the following wording shall appear beneath the
appropriate phrase on the canister label: "For respiratory protection in
atmospheres containing not more than _____________

percent by volume of ______________."
	(Name of atmospheric contaminant)

(4) Canisters having a special high-efficiency filter for protection against
radionuclides and other highly toxic particulates shall be labeled with a
statement of the type and degree of protection afforded by the filter.  The
label shall be affixed to the neck end of, or to the gray stripe which is
around and near the top of, the canister.  The degree of protection shall be
marked as the percent of penetration of the canister by a 0.3-micron-diameter
dioctyl phthalate (DOP) smoke at a flow rate of 85 liters per minute.

(5) Each canister shall have a label warning that gas masks should be used
only in atmospheres containing sufficient oxygen to support life (at least 16
percent by volume), since gas mask canisters are only designed to neutralize
or remove contaminants from the air.

(6) Each gas mask canister shall be painted a distinctive color or
combination of colors indicated in Table E-5.  All colors used shall be such
that they are clearly identifiable by the user and clearly distinguishable
from one another. The color coating used shall offer a high degree of
resistance to chipping, scaling, peeling, blistering, fading, and the effects
of the ordinary atmospheres to which they may be exposed under normal
conditions of storage and use.  Appropriately colored pressure sensitive tape
may be used for the stripes.
 

TABLE E-5
Atmospheric contaminants to be protected against Colors assigned(1)
Acid gases White.
Hydrocyanic acid gas White with 1/2-inch green stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Chlorine gas White with 1/2-inch yellow stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Organic vapors Black
Ammonia gas Green.
Acid gases and ammonia gas Green with 1/2-inch white stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Carbon monoxide Blue.
Acid gases and organic vapors Yellow.
Hydrocyanic acid gas and chloropicrin vapor Yellow with 1/2-inch blue stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Acid gases, organic vapors, and ammonia gases Brown
Radioactive materials, excepting tritium and noble gases Purple (Magenta)
Particulates (dusts, fumes, mists, fogs, or smokes) in combination with any of the above gases or vapors Canister color for contaminant, as designated above, with 1/2-inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top
All of the above atmospheric contaminants Red with 1/2-inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top
Footnote(1) Gray shall not be assigned as the main color for a canister
designed to remove acids or vapors.

NOTE: Orange shall be used as a complete body, or stripe color to represent
gases not included in this table.  The user will need to refer to the
canister label to determine the degree of protection the canister will
afford.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0099)

18. In 1926.150, new paragraphs (c)(1)(xi) through (xiv) are added to read
as follows:

1926.150  Fire protection.

* * * * * *

(c) Portable firefighting equipment- (1) Fire extinguishers and small hose
lines.

* * * * * *

(xi) "Employment and training." Where the employer has provided portable
fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also
provide an educational program to familiarize employees with the general
principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipient
stage fire fighting.

(xii) The employer shall provide the education required in paragraph
(c)(1)(xi) of this section upon initial employment and at least annually
thereafter.

(xiii) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are
maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in their
designated places at all times except during use.

(xiv) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are
subjected to an annual maintenance check.  Stored pressure extinguishers do
not require an internal examination.  The employer shall record the annual
maintenance date and retain this record for one year after the last entry or
the life of the shell, whichever is less.  The record shall be available to
the Assistant Secretary upon request.

19.  In 1926.152, new paragraphs (b)(5) and (h) through (k) are added to
read as follows:

1926.152  Flammable and combustible liquids.

* * * * * *

(b) "Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids."

* * * * * * (5) "Quantity." The quantity of flammable or combustible liquids
kept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for
operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift.
Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable or combustible liquids shall
be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important
buildings or cut off in a standard manner.

* * * * * * *

(h) "Scope." This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of
flammable and combustible liquids with a flashpoint below 200 deg. F (93.33
deg. C).  This section does not apply to:

(1) Bulk transportation of flammable and combustible liquids; and

(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected
with oil burning equipment.

(i) "Tank storage" - (1) "Design and construction of tanks" - (i)
"Materials." (A) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided in
paragraphs (i)(1)(i)(B) through (E) of this section.

(B) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation
underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks
located above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustible
construction.

(C) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to
specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for
the material used.

(D) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable or combustible
liquids having a gravity of 40 deg. API or heavier. Concrete tanks with
special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in
accordance with sound engineering practice.

(E) [Reserved]

(F) Special engineering consideration shall be
required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of
water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable or combustible
liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 deg. F.

(ii) "Fabrication." (A) [Reserved] (B) Metal tanks shall be welded,
riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a
combination of these methods.  Filler metal used in brazing shall be
nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 deg. F. and
below that of the metal joined.

(iii) "Atmospheric tanks." (A) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in
accordance with acceptable good standards of design.  Atmospheric tanks may
be built in accordance with:

{1} Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel
Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58,
Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids,
Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside tanks for
Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.

{2} American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12A, Specification for Oil
Storage Tanks with Riveted Shells, Seventh Edition, September 1951, or No.
650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.

{3} American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted
Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962;
No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition,
August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks,
Fifth Edition, March 1961.  Tanks built in accordance with these standards
shall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in
oil-producing areas.

(B) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons
(9,462.5 L) capacity may be used aboveground.

(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.

(D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable or
combustible liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.

(iv) "Low pressure tanks." (A) The normal operating pressure of the tank
shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.

(B) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable
standards of design.  Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:

{1} American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620.  Recommended Rules for
the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,
Third Edition, 1966.

{2} The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.

(C) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.,
requirements in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section and shall be limited
to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.

This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.

(D) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks. (v)
"Pressure vessels." (A) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall not
exceed the design pressure of the vessel.

(B) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired
Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
1968.

(vi) "Provisions for internal corrosion." When tanks are not designed in
accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards,
or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design
formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or
linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected
during the design life of the tank.

(2) "Installation of outside aboveground tanks."

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) "Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground
tanks."

(A) The distance between any two flammable or combustible liquid
storage tanks shall not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).

(B) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, the
distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth the
sum of their diameters.  When the diameter of one tank is less than one-half
the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shall
not be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.

(C) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities are
located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000
gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be less
than 3 feet (0.912 m).

(D) Where unstable flammable or combustible liquids are stored, the distance
between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of their
diameters.

(E) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular
pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that inside
tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.

(F) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and a
flammable or combustible liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6.08 m),
except in the case of flammable or combustible liquid tanks operating at
pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which
will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions of
paragraphs (i)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section shall apply.  Suitable means
shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable or combustible
liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by
diversion curbs or grading.  When flammable or combustible liquid storage
tanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall
be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3.04 m) away from the
centerline of the wall of the diked area.  The foregoing provisions shall not
apply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473.125 L) or
less capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons
(2,081.75 L) or less capacity.

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) "Normal venting for aboveground tanks." (A)
Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the
development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone
roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric
tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature
changes.

(B) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: {1} The American
Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and
Low-Pressure Storage Tanks; or {2} other accepted standard; or {3} shall be
at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is
larger but in no case less than 1 1/4 inch (3.175 cm) normal inside diameter.

(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to
prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying
and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of
the tank or vessel.  Protection shall also be provided to prevent
overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump
discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.

(D) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal
connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size
shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.

(E) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. or
less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in
such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in
the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(F) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IA liquids shall be equipped
with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to
pressure or vacuum conditions.  Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB
and IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally
closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with
approved flame arresters.

"Exemption:" Tanks of 3,000 bbls (84 m(3)) capacity or less containing crude
petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric
tanks under 1,000 gallons (3,785 L) capacity containing other than Class IA
flammable liquids may have open vents.  (See paragraph (i)(2)(vi)(B) of this
section.) (G) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph
(i)(2)(iv)(F) of this section may be omitted for Class IB and IC liquids
where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result
in tank damage.

(v) "Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks."

(A) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or
device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure
fires.

(B) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in paragraph
(i)(2)(v)(A) of this section may take the form of a floating roof, lifter
roof, a weak room-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving
construction.  The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail
preferential to any other seam.

(C) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure
relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency
vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank
if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are
stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization,
decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account.
The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not
less than that derived from Table F-10 except as provided in paragraph
(i)(2)(v)(E) or (F) of this section.  Such device may be a self-closing
manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under
internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves.  The
wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the
total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed
area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet (9.12 m) above grade of the
exposed shell are of a vertical tank.

       TABLE F-10 - WETTED AREA VERSUS CUBIC FEET (METERS)
                       FREE AIR PER HOUR
                (For Table, see printed copy)


(D) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the
total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table F-10,
except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800
square feet (257.6 m(2)), the total rate of venting shall be calculated by
the following formula:

CFH=1,107A(0.82)

Where:

CFH=Venting requirement, in cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour.
A=Exposed wetted surface, in square feet (m(2)).

  	NOTE: The foregoing formula is based on Q=21,000A(0.82).


(E) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable
liquid may be determined by the following formula:

V=1337+L square root   M

  	V= Cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour from Table F-10.
  	L= Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per
     pound.
 	 M= Molecular weight of specific liquids.


(F) The required airflow rate of paragraph (i)(2)(v)(C) or (E) of this
section may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following
schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be
used for any one tank.

0.5 for drainage in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section
for tanks over 200 square feet (18.4 m(2)) of wetted area.

0.3 for approved water spray. 0.3 for approved insulation. 0.15 for
approved water spray with approved insulation.

(G) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency
venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged to
discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of
the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(H) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening
pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and
the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet (meters)
per hour of air at 60 deg. F. (15.55 deg C) and at a pressure of 14.7
p.s.i.a.

(I) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches (30.48 cm) and
smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type
and size of vent.  These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if
certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an
outside agency.  The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12
inches (30.48 cm) nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts
or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is
actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area
are stated, the word "calculated" appears on the nameplate, and the
computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated
orifice area.

(vi) "Vent piping for aboveground tanks." (A) Vent piping shall be
constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(B) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I liquids are adjacent
to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are
released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet
(3.648 m) above the adjacent ground level.  In order to aid their dispersion,
vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent
walls.  Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be
trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 feet (1.52 m)
from building openings.

(C) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to
discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may
be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire
exposure.

(vii) "Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks" - (A) "Drainage and
diked areas." The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be
provided with drainage as in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section, or
shall be diked as provided in (i)(2)(vii)(C) of this section, to prevent
accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or
reaching waterways.

(B) "Drainage." Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by
means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with
the following:

(1) [Reserved] (2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant
land or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller
than that of the largest tank served.  This termination area and the route of
the drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable or combustible
liquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously
expose tanks or adjoining property.

(C) "Diked areas." Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is
accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the
volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:

{1} Except as provided in paragraph (1)(2)(vii)(C)(2) of this section, the
volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest
amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked
area, assuming a full tank.  The capacity of the diked area enclosing more
than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other
than the largest tank below the height of the dike.

{2} For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleum
with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked area
shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by the
enclosure, assuming a full tank.  The capacity of the diked enclosure shall
be calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of all
tanks within the enclosure.

{3} Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid
masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head.
Earthen walls 3 feet (0.912 m) or more in height shall have a flat section at
the top not less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide.  The slope of an earthen wall
shall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which the
wall is constructed.

{4} The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of
6 feet (1.824 m) above interior grade.

{5} [Reserved]

{6} No loose combustible material, empty or full drum
or barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.
(viii) "Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks."
(A) - (B) - (C) [Reserved] (D) Openings for gaging shall be provided
with a vaportight cap or cover.

(E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, and
asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the
possibility of generating static electricity.  A fill pipe entering the top
of a tank shall terminate within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of the
tank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.

(F) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be
located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition
and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening.  Such
connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use.  The connection
shall be properly identified.

(3) "Installation of underground tanks" - (i) "Location." Evacuation for
underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of
foundations of existing structures.  Underground tanks or tanks under
buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations
and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to
the tank.  The distance from any part of tank storing Class I liquids to the
nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m),
and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet (0.912
m). The distance from any part of a tank storing Class II or Class III
liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall be
not less than 1 foot (0.304 m).

(ii) "Depth and cover." Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations
and surrounded with at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of noncorrosive, inert
materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place.  The
tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank
into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off
the protective coating of coated tanks.  Tanks shall be covered with a
minimum of 2 feet(0.608 m) of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1
foot (0.304 m) of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced
concrete not less than 4 inches (10.16 cm) thick.  When underground tanks
are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against
damage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet (0.912 m) of earth
cover, or 18 inches (45.72 cm) of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches (15.24 cm)
of reinforced concrete or 8 inches (20.32 cm) of asphaltic concrete.  When
asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it
shall extend at least 1 foot (0.304 m) horizontally beyond the outline of the
tank in all directions.

(iii) "Corrosion protection." Corrosion protection for the tank and its
piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:

(A) Use of protective coatings or wrappings; (B) Cathodic protection; or, (C) Corrosion resistant materials of
construction.

(iv) "Vents." (A) Location and arrangement of vents for Class I
liquids.  Vent pipes from tanks storing Class I liquids shall be so located
that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe
opening, and not less than 12 feet (3,648 m) above the adjacent ground level.
 Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors.  Vent
pipes 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be
obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure.  Vent pipe
outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building
openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions.  If the vent pipe
is less than 10 feet (3.04 m) in length, or greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm)
in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and
pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located
in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the
outlet.

(B) Size of vents.  Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in
size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the
tank is being filled.  Vent pipes shall be not less than 1 1/4 inch (3.175
cm) nominal inside diameter.
 

TABLE F-11 - VENT LINE DIAMETERS
Maximum flow
GPM (L)
Pipe length(1)
50 feet   (15.2 m) 100 feet   (30.4 m) 200 feet   (60.8 m)
Inches      (cm)    Inches      (cm)    Inches      (cm)   
100   (378.5)    1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/4   (3.175)
200   (757)       1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/4   (3.175)
300   (1,135.5) 1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/2   (3.81)  
400   (1,514)    1 1/4   (3.175) 1 1/2   (3.81)   2   (5.08)  
500   (1,892.5) 1 1/2   (3.81)   1 1/2   (3.81)   2   (5.08)  
600   (2,271)    1 1/2   (3.81)   2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)  
700   (2,649.5) 2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)  
800   (3,028)    2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)   3   (7.62)  
900   (3,406.5) 2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)   3   (7.62)  
1,000   (3,785)    2   (5.08)   2   (5.08)   3   (7.62)  
Footnote(1) Vent lines of 50 feet (15.2 m), 100 feet (30.4 m), and 200 feet
(60.8 m) of pipe plus 7 ells.

(C) Location and arrangement of vents for Class II or Class III liquids.
Vent pipes from tanks storing Class II or Class III flammable liquids shall
terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening.
Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level.  They may be fitted with
return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign
material.

(D) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (3)(iv)(C)
of this section.  Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tank
without sags or traps in which liquid can collect.  They shall be located so
that they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the vent
pipe shall enter the tank through the top.

(E) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to
discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may
be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

(v) "Tank openings other than vents." (A) Connections for all tank openings
shall be vapor or liquid tight.

(B) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be
provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover.  If inside a building, each such
opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release
by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.

(C) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Fill
lines shall be sloped toward the tank.

(D) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, and
asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the
possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches
(15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.

(E) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be
located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition
and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. Such
connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use.  The connection
shall be properly identified.

(4) "Installation of tanks inside of buildings" - (i) "Location."

Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in
paragraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.

(ii) "Vents." Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in
paragraphs (i)(2)(iv), (v), (vi)(B), and (3)(iv) of this section, except that
emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be
permitted.  Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.

(iii) "Vent piping." Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with
paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) "Tank openings other than vents." (A) Connections for all tank openings
shall be vapor or liquidtight.  Vents are covered in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) of
this section.

(B) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid can
normally flow shall be provided with an internal or external valve located as
close as practical to the shell of the tank.  Such valves, when external, and
their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical
characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel.  When
materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the
pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire
exposures.

(C) Flammable or combustible liquid tanks located inside of buildings,
except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable or
combustible liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing
heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level,
except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow
in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank.  This function may be
incorporated in the valve required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this
section, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve
required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this section.

(D) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see
paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(F) of this section), shall be provided with a vaportight
cap or cover.  Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow
and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other
approved device.

(E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, and
asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the
possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches
(15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.

(F) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessive
vibration of the pipe.

(G) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at a
location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m)
away from any building opening.  The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closed
and liquidtight when not in use.  The fill connection shall be properly
identified.

(H) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other means
shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.

(5) "Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations" -

(i) "General." Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank
supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel.  Single wood
timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside
aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest
point.

(ii) "Fire resistance." Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected
by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, except
that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches (30.48 cm)
high at their lowest point.  Water spray protection or its equivalent may be
used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.

(iii) "Spheres." The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as
spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.

(iv) "Load distribution." Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the
excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.

(v) "Foundations." Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of
concrete, masonry, piling, or steel.  Tank foundations shall be designed to
minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize
corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.

(vi) "Flood areas." Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected
to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall be
observed.

(A) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable or
combustible liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level within
the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank is
provided with a guiding structure such as described in paragraphs
(i)(5)(vi)(M), (N), and (O) of this section.

(B) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations where
there is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loading
partially empty tanks with water.

(C) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that
more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquid
storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage,
shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised,
or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum
flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowable
liquid storage capacity: "Provided, however," That the submerged part of the
tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter.  Or, as an
alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides,
designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product,
shall be provided.

(D) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its storage
capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored,
attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficient
weight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable or
combustible liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood
stage, or adequately secured by other means.

(E) [Reserved]

(F) At locations where there is no ample and
dependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquids
is impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or
for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when empty
and submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weighting
with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by other
means.  Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it will
safety resist external pressures due to high ground water or flood
waters.

(G) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply
available, underground tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids, so
installed that more than 70 percent of their storage capacity will be
submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, or
secured by other means, as to prevent movement by such tanks when filled with
flammable or combustible liquids, and submerged by flood waters to the
established flood stage.

(H) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall be
provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tank
shell.  Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or other
material suitable for use with the liquid being stored.  Cast iron shall not
be permitted.

(I) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall be
entirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source of
water shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than 10
feet (3.04 m) below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.

(J) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or so
designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughout
the rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet (3.04 m) below the lowest tank
to the level of the potential flood stage.

(K) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise of
water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential average
rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.

(L) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insure
that it is in satisfactory operating condition.

(M) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundations
shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of a
tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.

(N) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral
movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent
to not less than 25 pounds per square foot (1.05 kg m(2)) acting on the
projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.

(O) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where
swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be
designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot
(2.1 kg m(2)).

(P) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be started
as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage.  The rate of filling
shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or the
established average potential rate of rise).

(Q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at all
times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.

(R) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closed
position when water loading has been completed.

(S) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floating
tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall be
disconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach the
bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tank
are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tank
shell.

(T) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection with
water loading operations shall be closed and locked.

(U) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raised
to and secured at its highest position.

(V) Inspections.  The Assistant Secretary or his designated representative
shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammable
or combustible liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoing
requirements, in order to assure the following:

(1) That all flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are in compliance
with these requirements and so maintained.

(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies
are properly posted.

(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out
such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of
such valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.

(vii) "Earthquake areas." In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports
and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such
shocks.

(6) "Sources of ignition." In locations where flammable vapors may be
present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or
controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames,
lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat,
sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical
and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.

(7) "Testing" - (i) "General." All tanks, whether shop built or field
erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in
accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they were
built.  The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp,
American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance
with this strength test.  Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes
shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with
good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on
testing in the codes listed in paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A), (iv)(B), or (v)(B)
of this section.

(ii) "Strength." When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such
that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the
tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (68.94 kPa), the tank and related
piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head
thus imposed.

(iii) "Tightness." In addition to the strength test called for in paragraphs
(i)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section, all tanks and connections shall be tested
for tightness.  Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be
made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the
tank in service.  In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be
considered to be the test for tank tightness.  Underground tanks and piping,
before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for
tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per
square inch (20.68 kPa) and not more than 5 pounds per square inch (34.47
kPa).

(iv) "Repairs." All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an
acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service.  Mechanical caulking
is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in
the roof.

(v) "Derated operations." Tanks to be operated at pressures below their
design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of paragraphs
(i)(7)(i) or (ii) of this section, based upon the pressure developed under
full emergency venting of the tank.

(j) "Piping, valves, and fittings" - (1) "General" - (i) "Design."

The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test,
and inspection of piping systems containing flammable or combustible liquids
shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses.
 Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31
series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facie
evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.

(ii) "Exceptions." This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:

(A) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected
directly thereto.

(B) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.

(C) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressure vessel
code.

(iii) "Definitions." As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist of
pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure
containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers,
and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing,
distributing, metering, or controlling flow.

(2) "Materials for piping, valves, and fittings" - (i) "Required materials."
 Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron, or
malleable iron, except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2)(ii), (iii) and (iv)
of this section.

(ii) "Exceptions." Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable
iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the
flammable or combustible liquid handled.  Material other than steel, nodular
iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying
principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.

(iii) "Linings." Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or
noncombustible linings.

(iv) "Low-melting materials." When low-melting point materials such as
aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as
plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special
consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure.  If such
materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, they
shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any
spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose
persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by
remote valves.

(3) "Pipe joints." Joints shall be made liquid tight.  Welded or screwed
joints or approved connectors shall be used.  Threaded  joints and
connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping
compound.  Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of
combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used
inside buildings.  They may be used outside of buildings above or below
ground.  If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent
disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that
any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons,
important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote
valves.

(4) "Supports." Piping systems shall be substantially supported and
protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from
settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.

(5) "Protection against corrosion." All piping for flammable or combustible
liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external
corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.

(6) "Valves." Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to
operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in
connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control
properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical
damage.  Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcars
or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks,
shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against
backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is
possible.

(7) "Testing" All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use
shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated
pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum
anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square
inch gage at the highest point of the system.  This test shall be maintained
for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and
connections, but for at least 10 minutes.

(k) "Marine service stations" - (1) "Dispensing." (i) The dispensing area
shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe
ingress and egress of craft to be fueled.  Dispensing units shall in all
cases be at least 20 feet (6.08 m) from any activity involving fixed sources
of ignition.

(ii) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without
integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks
or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.

(iii) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open
latch.

(2) "Tanks and pumps." (i) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing
unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as
provided in paragraphs (k)(2)(ii)and (iii) of this section.

(ii) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to
dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable
portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, and
piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100
gallons (4,163.5 L) aggregate capacity.

(iii) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above
ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks
impractical.

(iv) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the
dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control
valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in
1926.152(c)(8) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by
gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.

(3) "Piping." (i) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be
as described in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, except that, where
dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant
flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the
floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.
 

TABLE F-19 - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS AREAS - SERVICE STATIONS
Location Class I Group D division Extent of classified area
Underground tank:
Fill opening 1 Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
2 Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet (3.04 m) from a loose fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet (1.52 M) from a tight fill connection.
Vent - Discharging upward 1 Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet (0.912 m) and 5 feet (1.52 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Dispenser:
Pits 1 Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Dispenser enclosure 1 The area 4 feet (1.216 m) vertically above base within the enclosure and 18 inches (45.72 cm) horizontally in all directions.
Outdoor 2 Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Indoor:
With mechanical ventilation 2 Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
With gravity ventilation Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade or floor level within 25 feet (7.6 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Remote pump - Outdoor 1 Any pit, box or space below grade level if any part is within a horizontal distance of 10 feet (3.04 m) from any edge of pump.
2 Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 10 feet (3.04 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.
Remote pump - Indoor 1 Entire area within any pit.
2 Within 5 feet (1.52 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet (3.04 m) above floor or grade level within 25 feet (6.08 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.
Lubrication or service room 1 Entire area within any pit.
2 Area up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above floor or grade level within entire lubrication room.
Dispenser for Class I liquids 2 Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any fill or dispensing point, extending in all directions.
Special enclosure inside building per 1910.106(f)(1)(ii)
Sales, storage and rest rooms (1) If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of a Division 1 area, the entire room shall be classified as Division 1.
Footnote(1) Ordinary.

(ii) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be
provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the
shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is
attached.

(iii) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.

(iv) Piping handling Class I liquids shall be grounded to control stray
currents.

(4) "Definition; as used in this section:" Marine service station shall mean
that portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids used as
fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves,
or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shall
include all facilities used in connection therewith.

20.  In 1926.153, new paragraphs (a)(3) and (m) through (o) are added to
read as follows:

1926.153  Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).
	(a) Approval of equipment and systems.

* * * * * * *

(3) "Definition." As used in this section, "Containers" - All vessels, such
as tanks, cylinders, or drums, used for transportation or storing liquefied
petroleum gases.

* * * * * *

(m) "Systems utilizing containers other than DOT containers" - (1)
"Application."  This paragraph applies specifically to systems utilizing
storage containers other than those constructed in accordance with DOT
specifications.  Paragraph (b) of this section applies to this paragraph
unless otherwise noted in paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) "Design pressure and classification of storage containers."  Storage
containers shall be designed and classified in accordance with Table F-31.
 

Table F-31
Container type For gases with vapor press. Not to exceed lb. per sq. in.gage at 100 deg. F.
(37.8 deg. C.)
Minimum design pressure of container,
lb. per sq. in. gage
1949 and earlier editions of ASME Code (Par. U-68, U-69) 1949 edition of ASME Code
(Par. U-200, U-201);
1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of ASME Code; All editions of API-ASME Code(3)
80 (1) 80 (1) 80 (1) 100 (1)
100 100 100 125
125 125 125 156
150 150 150 187
175 175 175 219
200 (2) 215 200 250
Footnote(1) New storage containers of the 80 type have not been authorized
since Dec. 31, 1947.

Footnote(2) Container type may be increased by increments of 25.  The
minimum design pressure of containers shall per 100 percent of the container
type designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the ASME
Code (Par. U-68 and U-69).  The minimum design pressure of containers shall
be 125 percent of the container type designation when constructed under: (1)
the 1949 ASME Code (Par. U-200 and U-201), (2) 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962,
1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of the ASME Code, and (3) all editions
of the API-ASME Code.

Footnote(3) Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is not
authorized after July 1, 1061.

(3) Containers with foundations attached (portable or semiportable b
containers with suitable steel "runners" or "skids" and popularly known in
the industry as "skid tanks") shall be designed, installed, and used in
accordance with these rules subject to the following provisions:

(i) If they are to be used at a given general location for a temporary
period not to exceed 6 months they need not have fire-resisting foundations
or saddles but shall have adequate ferrous metal supports.

(ii) They shall not be located with the outside bottom of the container
shell more than 5 feet (1.52 m) above the surface of the ground unless
fire-resisting supports are provided.

(iii) The bottom of the skids shall not be less than 2 inches (5.08 cm) or
more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) below the outside bottom of the container
shell.

(iv) Flanges, nozzles, valves, fittings, and the like, having communication
with the interior of the container, shall be protected against physical
damage.

(v) When not permanently located on fire-resisting foundations, piping
connections shall be sufficiently flexible to minimize the possibility of
breakage or leakage of connections if the container settles, moves, or is
otherwise displaced.

(vi) Skids, or lugs for attachment of skids, shall be secured to the
container in accordance with the code or rules under which the container is
designed and built (with a minimum factor of safety of four) to withstand
loading in any direction equal to four times the weight of the container and
attachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded weight.

(4) Field welding where necessary shall be made only on saddle plates or
brackets which were applied by the manufacturer of the tank.

(n) When LP-Gas and one or more other gases are stored or used in the same
area, the containers shall be marked to identify their content. Marking shall
be in compliance with American National Standard Z48.1-1954, "Method of
Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers To Identify the Material
Contained."

(o) "Damage from vehicles." When damage to LP-Gas systems from vehicular
traffic is a possibility, precautions against such damage shall be taken.

21.  A new undesignated center heading and 1926.156 and 1926.157 are added
to read as follows:

1926.156  Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all fixed
extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for
automatic sprinkler systems which are covered by 1910.159.

(2) This section also applies to fixed systems not installed to meet a
particular OSHA standard, but which, by means of their operation, may expose
employees to possible injury, death, or adverse health consequences caused by
the extinguishing agent.  Such systems are only subject to the requirements
of paragraphs (b)(4) through (b)(7) and (c) of this section.

(3) Systems otherwise covered in paragraph (a)(2) of this section which are
installed in areas with no employee exposure are exempted from the
requirements of this section.

(b) "General requirements." (1) Fixed extinguishing system components and
agents shall be designed and approved for use on the specific fire hazards
they are expected to control or extinguish.

(2) If for any reason a fixed extinguishing system becomes inoperable, the
employer shall notify employees and take the necessary temporary precautions
to assure their safety until the system is restored to operating order.  Any
defects or impairments shall be properly corrected by trained personnel.

(3) The employer shall provide a distinctive alarm or signaling system which
complies with 1926.159 and is capable of being perceived above ambient noise
or light levels, on all extinguishing systems in those portions of the
workplace covered by the extinguishing system to indicate when the
extinguishing system is discharging.  Discharge alarms are not required on
systems where discharge is immediately recognizable.

(4) The employer shall provide effective safeguards to warn employees
against entry into discharge areas where the atmosphere remains hazardous to
employee safety or health.

(5) The employer shall post hazard warning or caution signs at the entrance
to, and inside of, areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems which use
agents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety and health.

(6) The employer shall assure that fixed systems are inspected annually by a
person knowledgeable in the design and function of the system to assure that
the system is maintained in good operating condition.

(7) The employer shall assure that the weight and pressure of refillable
containers is checked at least semi-annually.  If the container shows a loss
in net content or weight of more than 5 percent, or a loss in pressure of
more than 10 percent, it shall be subjected to maintenance.

(8) The employer shall assure that factory charged nonrefillable containers
which have no means of pressure indication are weighted at least
semi-annually.  If a container shows a loss in net weight or more than 5
percent it shall be replaced.

(9) The employer shall assure that inspection and maintenance dates are
recorded on the container, on a tag attached to the container, or in a
central location.  A record of the last semi-annual check shall be maintained
until the container is checked again or for the life of the container,
whichever is less.

(10) The employer shall train employees designated to inspect, maintain,
operate, or repair fixed extinguishing systems and annually review their
training to keep them up-to-date in the functions they are to perform.

(11) The employer shall not use chlorobromomethane or carbon tetrachloride
as an extinguishing agent where employees may be exposed.

(12) The employer shall assure that systems installed in the presence of
corrosive atmospheres are constructed of non-corrosive material or otherwise
protected against corrosion.

(13) Automatic detection equipment shall be approved, installed and
maintained in accordance with 1926.158.

(14) The employer shall assure that all systems designed for and installed
in areas with climatic extremes shall operate effectively at the expected
extreme temperatures.

(15) The employer shall assure that at least one manual station is provided
for discharge activation of each fixed extinguishing system.

(16) The employer shall assure that manual operating devices are identified
as to the hazard against which they will provide protection.

(17) The employer shall provide and assure the use of the personal
protective equipment needed for immediate rescue of employees trapped in
hazardous atmospheres created by an agent discharge.

(c) "Total flooding systems with potential health and safety hazards to
employees." (1) The employer shall provide an emergency action plan in
accordance with 1926.35 for each area within a workplace that is protected by
a total flooding system which provides agent concentrations exceeding the
maximum safe levels set forth in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(6) of 1926.157.

(2) Systems installed in areas where employees cannot enter during or after
the system's operation are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (c) of
this section.

(3) On all total flooding systems the employer shall provide a pre-discharge
employee alarm which complies with 1926.159, and is capable of being
perceived above ambient light or noise levels before the system discharges,
which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior
to system discharge.

(4) The employer shall provide automatic actuation of total flooding systems
by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected
with a pre-discharge employee alarm system to give employees time to safely
exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1926.157   Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

(a) "Scope and application" - (1) "Scope."  This section applies to all
fixed extinguishing systems, using a gas as the extinguishing agent,
installed to meet a particular OSHA standard.  These systems shall also
comply with 1926.156.  In some cases, the gas may be in a liquid state during
storage.

(2) "Application." The requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(4) through
(b)(6) shall apply only to total flooding systems.

(b) "Specific requirements." (1) Agents used for initial supply and
replenishment shall be of the type approved for the system's application.
Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable
unless it is processed to remove excess water and oil.

(2) Except during overhaul, the employer shall assure that the designed
concentration of gaseous agents is maintained until the fire has been
extinguished or is under control.

(3) The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levels
of gaseous agent or its decomposition products.

(4) The employer shall assure that the designed extinguishing concentration
is reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge except for Halon systems
which must achieve design concentration within 10 seconds.

(5) The employer shall provide a distinctive pre-discharge employee alarm
capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels when agent
design concentrations exceed the maximum safe level for employee exposure.  A
pre-discharge employee alarm for alerting employees before system discharge
shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design
concentration of 10 percent or greater.  The pre-discharge employee alarm
shall provide employees time to safely exit the discharge area prior to
system discharge.

(6)(i) Where egress from an area cannot be accomplished within one minute,
the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in concentrations greater than 7
percent.

(ii) Where egress takes greater than 30 seconds but less than one minute,
the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in a concentration greater then 10
percent.

(iii) Halon 1301 concentrations greater than 10 percent are only permitted
in areas not normally occupied by employees provided that any employee in the
area can escape within 30 seconds.  The employer shall assure that no
unprotected employees enter the area during agent discharge.

22. A new undesignated center heading and 1926.158 and 1926.159 are added to
read as follows:

Other Fire Protection Systems

1926.158 Fire detection systems.

(a) "Scope and application." This section applies to all automatic fire
detection systems installed to meet the requirements of a particular OSHA
standard.

(b) "Installation and restoration." (1) The employer shall assure that all
devices and equipment constructed and installed to comply with this standard
are approved for the purpose for which they are intended.

(2) The employer shall restore all fire detection systems and components to
normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm.
Spare detection devices and components which are normally destroyed in the
process of detecting fires shall be available on the premises of from a local
supplier in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of the
system.

(c) "Maintenance and testing." (1) The employer shall maintain all systems
in an operable condition except during repairs or maintenance.

(2) The employer shall assure that fire detectors and fire detection systems
are tested and adjusted as often as needed to maintain proper reliability and
operating condition except that factory calibrated detectors need not be
adjusted after installation.

(3) The employer shall assure that pneumatic and hydraulic operated
detection systems installed after January 1, 1981, are equipped with
supervised systems.

(4) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of
fire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivity
adjustments are performed by a trained person knowledgeable in the operation
and functions of the system.

(5) The employer shall also assure that fire detectors that need to be
cleaned of dirt, dust, or other particulates in order to be fully operational
are cleaned at regular periodic intervals.

(d) "Protection of fire detectors." (1) The employer shall assure that fire
detection equipment installed outdoors or in the presence of corrosive
atmospheres be protected from corrosion.  The employer shall provide a
canopy, hood, or other suitable protection for detection equipment requiring
protection from the weather.

(2) The employer shall locate or otherwise protect detection equipment so
that it is protected from mechanical or physical impact which might render it
inoperable.

(3) The employer shall assure that detectors are supported independently of
their attachment to wires or tubing.

(e) "Response time." (1) The employer shall assure that fire detection
systems installed for the purpose of actuating fire extinguishment or
suppression systems shall be designed to operate in time to control or
extinguish a fire.

(2) The employer shall assure that fire detection systems installed for the
purpose of employee alarm and evacuation be designed and installed to provide
a warning for emergency action and safe escape of employees.

(3) The employer shall not delay alarms or devices initiated by fire
detector actuation for more than 30 seconds unless such delay is necessary
for the immediate safety of employees.  When such delay is necessary, it
shall be addressed in an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of
1926.35.

(f) "Number, location and spacing of detecting devices."  The employer shall
assure that the number, spacing and location of fire detectors is based upon
design data obtained from field experience, or tests, engineering surveys,
the manufacturer's recommendations, or a recognized testing laboratory
listing.

1926.159  Employer alarm systems.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all emergency
employee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHA standard.  This section
does not apply to those discharge or supervisory alarms required on various
fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression,
alarm or detection systems unless they are intended to be employee alarm
systems.

(2) The requirements in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing
and inspection shall apply to all local fire alarm signaling systems used for
alerting employees regardless of the other functions of the system.

(3) All pre-discharge employee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHA
standard shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) through (4), (c),
and (d)(1) of this section.

(b) "General requirements." (1) The employee alarm system shall provide
warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action
plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or
the immediate work area, or both.

(2) The employee alarm shall be capable of being perceived above ambient
noise or light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the
workplace.  Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who would
not otherwise be able to recognize the audible or visual alarm.

(3) The employee alarm shall be distinctive and recognizable as a signal to
evacuate the work area or to perform actions designated under the emergency
action plan.

(4) The employer shall explain to each employee the preferred means of
reporting emergencies, such as manual pull box alarms, public address
systems, radio or telephones.  The employer shall post emergency telephone
numbers near telephones, or employee notice boards, and other conspicuous
locations when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies.  Where a
communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency
messages shall have priority over all non-emergency messages.

(5) The employer shall establish procedures for sounding emergency alarms in
the workplace.  For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a
particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure
for sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm.  Such
workplaces need not have a back-up system.

(c) "Installation and restoration." (1) The employer shall assure that all
devices, components, combinations of devices or systems constructed and
installed to comply with this standard are approved.  Steam whistles, air
horns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meeting
the requirements of this section are considered to meet this requirement for
approval.

(2) The employer shall assure that all employee alarm systems are restored
to normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or
alarm.  Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destruction
shall be available in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt
restoration of the system.

(d) "Maintenance and testing." (1) The employer shall assure that all
employee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except when
undergoing repairs or maintenance.

(2) The employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of
non-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months.  A different
actuation device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation device
system so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests.

(3) The employer shall maintain or replace power supplies as often as is
necessary to assure a fully operational condition.  Back-up means of alarm,
such as employee runners or telephones, shall be provided when systems are
out of service.

(4) The employer shall assure that employee alarm circuitry installed after
January 1, 1981, which is capable of being supervised is supervised and that
it will provide positive notification to assigned personnel whenever a
deficiency exists in the system.  The employer shall assure that all
supervised employee alarm systems are tested at least annually for
reliability and adequacy.

(5) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of
employee alarms are done by persons trained in the designed operation and
functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system.

(e) "Manual operation." The employer shall assure that manually operated
actuation devices for use in conjunction with employee alarms are
unobstructed, conspicuous and readily accessible.

23. In 1926.200, a new paragraph (c)(3) is added to read as follows:

1926.200  Accident prevention signs and tags.

* * * *  *
	(c) Caution signs.

* * * * * *

(3) Standard color of the background shall be yellow; and the panel, black
with yellow letters.  Any letters used against the yellow background shall be
black.  The colors shall be those of opaque glossy samples as specified in
Table 1 of American National Standard Z53.1-1967.

* * * * * *

24.  In 1926.250, new paragraphs (c) and (d) are added to read as follows:

1926.250   General requirements for storage.

* * * * * *

(c) "Housekeeping." Storage areas shall be kept free from accumulation of
materials that constitute hazards from tripping, fire, explosion, or pest
harborage.  Vegetation control will be exercised when necessary.

(d) "Dockboards (bridge plates)." (1) Portable and powered dockboards shall
be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.

(2) Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by being
anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their slipping.

(3) Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on portable
dockboards to permit safe handling.

(4) Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from
being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.

25.  In 1926.251, new paragraphs (a)(5) and (6), (b)(6)(i) and (ii), (c)(6)
through (15), (d)(3) through (6), and (e)(3) through (8) are added to read as
follows:

1926.251   Rigging equipment for material handling.

* * * * *
	(a) General.

* * * * *

(5) "Scope."  This section applies to slings used in conjunction with other
material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in
employments covered by this part.  The types of slings covered are those made
from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber
rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon,
polyester, and polypropylene).

(6) "Inspections." Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings
and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competent
person designated by the employer.  Additional inspections shall be performed
during sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defective
slings shall be immediately removed from service.
	(b) Alloy steel chains.

* * * * *

(6) "Inspections." (i) In addition to the inspection required by other
paragraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel
chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the
basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C)
nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life of
slings used in similar circumstances.  Such inspections shall in no event be
at intervals greater than once every 12 months.

(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month
in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall
make such record available for examination.
	(c) Wire rope.

* * * * *

(6) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift
devices.

(7) Sling legs shall not be kinked.

(8) Slings used in a basket
hitch shall have the loads balanced to prevent slippage.

(9) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.

(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its load
while the sling is being tightened around the load.

(11) Shock loading is prohibited.

(12) A sling shall not be pulled
from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.

(13) "Minimum sling lengths." (i) Cable laid and 6 X 19 and 6 X 37 slings
shall have minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component rope
diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.

(ii) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 times
the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.

(iii) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shall
have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.

(14) "Safe operating temperatures." Fiber core wire rope slings of all
grades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed to
temperatures in excess of 200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C). When nonfiber core wire
rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400 deg. F (204.44
deg. C) or below minus 60 deg. F (15.55 deg. C), recommendations of the sling
manufacturer regarding use at that temperature shall be followed.

(15) "End attachments." (i) Welding of end attachments, except covers to
thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.

(ii) All welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof tested by the
manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior to
initial use.  The employer shall retain a certificate of proof test, and make
it available for examination.
	(d) Natural rope, and synthetic fiber-

* * * * * *

(3) "Safe operating temperatures." Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings,
except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus
20 deg. F (-28.88 deg. C) to plus 180 deg. F (82.2 deg. C) without decreasing
the working load limit.  For operations outside this temperature range and
for wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be
followed.

(4) "Splicing." Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless they have
been spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and in
accordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:

(i) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks,
and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each
side of the splice center line.

(ii) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least four
full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full tucks,
four on each side of the center line.

(iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface of the
rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks.  This applies to all types of
fiber rope and both eye and short splices.  For fiber rope under 1 inch (2.54
cm) in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope diameters beyond
the last full tuck.  For fiber rope 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter and larger,
the tail shall project at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the last full
tuck.  Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the tail
shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at lest two
additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope
diameters beyond the last full tuck).

(iv) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope between eye
splices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.

(v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.

(vi) Clamps not
designed specifically for fiber ropes shall not be used for
splicing.

(vii) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide an
included angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye is
placed over the load or support.

(5) "End attachments." Fiber rope slings shall not be used if end
attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.

(6) "Removal from service." Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall be
immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are
present:
	(i) Abnormal wear. (ii) Powdered fiber between strands. (iii) Broken
or cut fibers. (iv) Variations in the size or roundness of strands. (v)
Discoloration or rotting. (vi) Distortion of hardware in the sling. (e)
Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).

* * * * * *

(3) "Webbing." Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and
selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.

(4) "Fittings." Fittings shall be:

(i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and

(ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the
webbing.

(5) "Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of
eyes."

Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing
and to form eyes.  The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a
sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the
sling.

(6) "Environmental conditions." When synthetic web slings are used, the
following precautions shall be taken:

(i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or
liquids of acids or phenolics are present.

(ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes,
vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes,
vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.

(7) "Safe operating temperatures."  Synthetic web slings of polyester and
nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 deg. F (82.2 deg.
C).  Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of
200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C).

(8) "Removal from service." Synthetic web slings shall be immediately
removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:
	(i) Acid or caustic burns;
	(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
	(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
	(iv) Broken or worn stitches; or (v) Distortion of
fittings.

26.  In 1926.300, new paragraphs (b)(3) through (7) are added to read as
follows:

1926.300  General requirements.

* * * * * * *

(b) Guarding. (1) When power operated tools are designed to accommodate
guards, they shall be equipped with such guards when in use.

(3) "Types of guarding." One or more methods of machine guarding shall be
provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from
hazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points,
rotating parts, flying chips and sparks.  Examples of guarding methods are -
barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc.

(4) "Point of operation guarding." (i) Point of operation is the area on a
machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed.

(ii) The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee
to injury, shall be guarded.  The guarding device shall be in conformity with
any appropriate standards therefor, or, in the absence of applicable specific
standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator
from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating
cycle.

(iii) Special handtools for placing and removing material shall be such as
to permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand in
the danger zone.  Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding required
by this section, but can only be used to supplement protection provided.

(iv) The following are some of the machines which usually require point of
operation guarding:
	{a} Guillotine cutters. {b} Shears. {c} Alligator shears. {d}
Powered presses. {e} Milling machines. {f} Power saws. {g} Jointers. {h}
Portable power tools. {i} Forming rolls and calenders. (5) "Exposure of
blades." When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than 7 feet (2.128
m) above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded.  The guard
shall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm).

(6) "Anchoring fixed machinery." Machines designed for a fixed location
shall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving.

(7) "Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery - exposure adjustment."

Safety guards of the types described in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this
section, where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall be
constructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to the
constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel.  The maximum angular exposure
above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle as specified in paragraphs
(b)(3) and (4) of this section shall never be exceeded, and the distance
between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of the
peripheral member at the top shall never exceed 1/4 inch (0.635 cm).  (See
Figures O-18, O-19, O-20, O-21, O-22, and O-23.)

* * * * * *

27.  In 1926.302, new paragraph (b)(10) is added to read as follows:

1926.302  Power-operated hand tools.

* * * * * *
	(b) Pneumatic power tools.

* * * * * *

(10) "Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles."  The blast cleaning nozzles shall be
equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually.  A support
shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.

27.  In 1926.302, new paragraph (b)(10) is added to read as follows:

1926.302  Power-operated hand tools.

* * * * * *
	(b) Pneaumatic hand tools.

* * * * * *

(10) Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles.  The blast cleaning nozzles shall be
equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually.  A support
shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.

28.  In paragraph (b) of 1926.303, the existing text is designated as
paragraph (b)(1) and a new paragraph (b)(2) is added; in addition, a new
paragraph (e) is added.  The new paragraphs read as follows:

1926.303  Abrasive wheels and tools.
	(b) Guarding.

* * * * * *

(2) "Guarding design." The safety guard shall cover the spindle end, nut,
and flange projections.  The safety guard shall be mounted so as to maintain
proper alignment with the wheel, and the strength of the fastenings shall
exceed the strength of the guard, except:

(i) Safety guards on all operations where the work provides a suitable
measure of protection to the operator, may be so constructed that the spindle
end, nut, and outer flange are exposed; and where the nature of the work is
such as to entirely cover the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guard
may be omitted; and

(ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines
designed as portable saws.

* * * * * * *

(e) "Work rests." On offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be used to
support the work.  They shall be of rigid construction and designed to be
adjustable to compensate for wheel wear.  Work rests shall be kept adjusted
closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/8 inch (0.3175 cm) to
prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest, which may
cause wheel breakage.  The work rest shall be securely clamped after each
adjustment.  The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel in motion.

29. In 1926.304, new paragraphs (g) through (i) are added to read as follows:

1926.304  Woodworking tools *    *    *    *    *    *

(g) "Radial saws." (1) The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper
portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw
arbor.  The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of such
material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw
teeth, etc., and will defect sawdust away from the operator.  The sides of
the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter
of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the
thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give
maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.

(h) "Hand-fed crosscut table saws." (1) Each circular crosscut table saw
shall be guarded by a hood which shall meet all the requirements of paragraph
(c)(1) of this section for hoods for circular ripsaws.

(i) "Hand-fed ripsaws." (1) Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded
by a hood which shall completely enclose the portion of the saw above the
table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut.  The hood and
mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself
to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but it
shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw
or to passage of the material being sawed.  The hood shall be made of
adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable
operation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protect
the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth.  It shall be made of
material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely cause tooth
breakage. the hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation will
be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mounting
shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other
force tending to throw it out of line.

30.  New paragraph (d) is added to 1926.305 to read as follows:

1926.305  Jacks - lever and rachet, screw, and hydraulic. *    *    *    *
 *    *

(d)(1) "Operation and maintenance." (i) After the load has been raised, it
shall be cribbed, blocked, or otherwise secured at once.

(ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with
an adequate antifreeze liquid.

(iii) All jacks shall be properly lubricated at regular intervals.

(iv) Each jack shall be thoroughly inspected at times which depend upon the
service conditions.  Inspections shall be not less frequent than the
following:

(a) For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months,

(b) For jacks sent out of shop for special work, when sent out and when
returned,

(c) For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediately
before and immediately thereafter.

(v) Repair or replacement parts shall be examined for possible
defects.

(vi) Jacks which are out of order shall be tagged accordingly, and
shall not be used until repairs are made.

31.  New 1926.306 and 1926.307 are added to read as follows:

1926.306  Air receivers

(a) "General requirements - (1) "Application." This section applies to
compressed air receivers, and other equipment used in providing and utilizing
compressed air for performing operations such as cleaning, drilling,
hoisting, and chipping.  On the other hand, however, this section does not
deal with the special problems created by using compressed air to convey
materials nor the problems created when men work in compressed air as in
tunnels and caissons.  This section is not intended to apply to compressed
air machinery and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam
railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment.

(2) "New and existing equipment." (i) All new air receivers installed after
the effective date of these regulations shall be constructed in accordance
with the 1968 edition of the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section
VIII.

(ii) All safety valves used shall be constructed, installed and maintained
in accordance with the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII
Edition 1968.

(b) "Installation and equipment requirements" - (1) "Installation."

Air receivers shall be so installed that all drains, handholes, and manholes
therein are easily accessible.  Under no circumstances shall an air receiver
be buried underground or located in an inaccessible place.

(2) "Drains and traps." A drain pipe and valve shall be installed at the
lowest point of every air receiver to provide for the removal of accumulated
oil and water.  Adequate automatic traps may be installed in addition to
drain valves.  The drain valve on the air receiver shall be opened and the
receiver completely drained frequently and at such intervals as to prevent
the accumulation of excessive amounts of liquid in the receiver.

(3) "Gages and valves." (i) Every air receiver shall be equipped with an
indicating pressure gage (so located as to be readily visible) and with one
or more spring-loaded safety valves.  The total relieving capacity of such
safety valves shall be such as to prevent pressure in the receiver from
exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the receiver by more than
10 percent.

(ii) No valve of any type shall be placed between the air receiver and its
safety valve or valves.

(iii) Safety appliances, such as safety valves, indicating devices and
controlling devices, shall be constructed, located, and installed so that
they cannot be readily rendered inoperative by any means, including the
elements.

(iv) All safety valves shall be tested frequently and at regular intervals
to determine whether they are in good operating condition.

1926.307  Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

(a) "General requirements." (1) This section covers all types and shapes of
power-transmission belts, except the following when operating at two hundred
and fifty (250) feet per minute or less: (i) Flat belts 1 inch (2.54 cm) or
less in width, (ii) flat belts 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in width which are
free from metal lacings or fasteners, (iii) round belts 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) or
less in diameter; and (iv) single strand V-belts, the width of which is
thirteen thirty-seconds (13/32) inches or less.

(2) Vertical and inclined belts (paragraphs (e)(3) and (4) of this section)
if not more than 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) wide and running at a speed of less
than one thousand (1,000) feet per minute, and if free from metal lacings or
fastening may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pully guard.

(3) For the Textile Industry, because of the presence of excessive deposits
of lint, which constitute a serious fire hazard, the sides and face sections
only of nip-point belt and pully guards are required, provided the guard
shall extend at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the rim of the pulley on the
in-running and off-running sides of the belt and at least 2 inches (5.08 cm)
away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.

(4) This section covers the principal features with which power transmission
safeguards shall comply.

(b) "Prime-mover guards" - (1) "Flywheels." Flywheels located so that any
part is 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above floor or platform shall be guarded in
accordance with the requirements of this subparagraph:

(i) With an enclosure of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire;

(ii) With guard rails placed not less than 15 inches (38.1 cm) nor more than
20 inches (50.8 cm) from rim.  When flywheel extends into pit or is within
12 inches (30.48 cm) of floor, a standard toeboard shall also be provided;

(iii) When the upper rim of flywheel protrudes through a working floor, it
shall be entirely enclosed or surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.

(iv) For flywheels with smooth rims 5 feet (1.52 m) or less in diameter,
where the preceding methods cannot be applied, the following may be used: A
disk attached to the flywheel in such manner as to cover the spokes of the
wheel on the exposed side and present a smooth surface and edge, at the same
time providing means for periodic inspection.  An open space, not exceeding 4
inches (10.16 cm) in width, may be left between the outside edge of the disk
and the rim of the wheel if desired, to facilitate turning the wheel over.
Where a disk is used, the keys or other dangerous projections not covered by
disk shall be cut off or covered.  This subdivision does not apply to
flywheel with solid web centers.

(v) Adjustable guard to be used for starting engine or for running
adjustment may be provided at the flywheel of gas or oil engines.  A slot
opening for jack bar will be permitted.

(vi) Wherever flywheels are above working areas, guards shall be installed
having sufficient strength to hold the weight of the flywheel in the event of
a shaft or wheel mounting failure.

(2) "Cranks and connecting rods." Cranks and connecting rods, when exposed
to contact, shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (n) of
this section, or by a guardrail as described in paragraph (o)(5) of this
section.

(3) "Tail rods or extension piston rods."  Tail rods or extension piston
rods shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of this
section, or by a guardrail on sides and end, with a clearance of not less
than 15 (38.1 cm) nor more than 20 inches (50.8 cm) when rod is fully
extended.

(c) "Shafting" - (1) "Installation." (i) Each continuous line of shafting
shall be secured in position against excessive endwise movement.

(ii) Inclined and vertical shafts, particularly inclined idler shafts, shall
be securely held in position against endwise thrust.

(2) "Guarding horizontal shafting." (i) All exposed parts of horizontal
shafting 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from floor or working platform, excepting
runways used exclusively for oiling, or running adjustments, shall be
protected by a stationary casing enclosing shafting completely or by a trough
enclosing sides and top or sides and bottom of shafting as location requires.

(ii) Shafting under bench machines shall be enclosed by a stationary casing,
or by a trough at sides and top or sides and bottom, as location requires.
The sides of the trough shall come within at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the
underside of table, or if shafting is located near floor within 6 inches
(15.24 cm) of floor.  In every case the sides of trough shall extend at least
2 inches (5.08 cm) beyond the shafting or protuberance.

(3) "Guarding vertical and inclined shafting."  Vertical and inclined
shafting 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from floor or working platform, excepting
maintenance runways, shall be enclosed with a stationary casing in accordance
with requirements of paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.

(4) "Projecting shafts ends." (i) Projecting shaft ends shall present a
smooth edge and end and shall not project more than one-half the diameter of
the shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.

(ii) Unused keyways shall be filled up or covered.

(5)
"Power-transmission apparatus located in basements."  All mechanical power
transmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms used
exclusively for power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordance
with this section, except that the requirements for safeguarding belts,
pulleys, and shafting need not be complied with when the following
requirements are met:

(i) The basement, tower, or room occupied by transmission equipment is
locked against unauthorized entrance.

(ii) The vertical clearance in passageways between the floor and power
transmission beams, ceiling, or any other objects, is not less than 5 ft. 6
in. (1.672 m).

(iii) The intensity of illumination conforms to the requirements of ANSI
A11.1-1965 (R-1970).

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) The route followed by the oiler is protected in
such manner as to prevent accident.

(d) "Pulleys" - (1) "Guarding."  Pulleys, any parts of which are 7 feet
(2.128 m) or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded in
accordance with the standards specified in paragraphs (m) and (o)  of this
section.  Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which
the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976
m) from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.

(2) "Location of pulleys." (i) Unless the distance to the nearest fixed
pulley, clutch, or hanger exceeds the width of the belt used, a guide shall
be provided to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side where
insufficient clearance exists.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) "Broken pulleys."  Pulleys with cracks, or
pieces broken out of rims, shall not be used.

(4) "Pulley speeds."  Pulleys intended to operate at rim speed in excess of
manufacturers normal recommendations shall be specially designed and
carefully balanced for the speed at which they are to operate.

(e) "Belt, rope, and chain drives" - (1) "Horizontal belts and ropes."

(i) Where both runs of horizontal belts are 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from
the floor level, the guard shall extend to at least 15 inches (38.1 cm) above
the belt or to a standard height (see Table O-12), except that where both
runs of a horizontal belt are 42 inches (106.68 cm) or less from the floor,
the belt shall be fully enclosed.

(ii) In powerplants or power-development rooms, a guardrail may be used in
lieu of the guard required by paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) "Overhead horizontal belts." (i) Overhead horizontal belts, with lower
parts 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from the floor or platform, shall be guarded
on sides and bottom in accordance with paragraph (o)(3) of this section.

(ii) Horizontal overhead belts more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor or
platform shall be guarded for their entire length under the following
conditions:

(a) If located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet or
more per minute.

(b) If center to center distance between pulleys is 10 feet (3.04 m) or more.

(c) If belt is 8 inches (20.32 cm) or more in width.

(iii) Where the
upper and lower runs of horizontal belts are so located that passage of
persons between them would be possible, the passage shall be
either:

(a) Completely barred by a guardrail or other barrier in accordance with
paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section; or (b) Where passage is regarded as
necessary, there shall be a platform over the lower run guarded on either
side by a railing completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or by
a solid barrier.  The upper run shall be so guarded as to prevent contact
therewith either by the worker or by objects carried by him.  In powerplants
only the lower run of the belt need be guarded.

(iv) Overhead chain and link belt drives are governed by the same rules as
overhead horizontal belts and shall be guarded in the same manner as belts.

(3) "Vertical and inclined belts." (i) Vertical and inclined belts shall be
enclosed by a guard conforming to standards in paragraphs (m) and (o) of this
section.

(ii) All guards for inclined belts shall be arranged in such a manner that a
minimum clearance of 7 feet (2.128 m) is maintained between belt and floor at
any point outside of guard.

(4) "Vertical belts." Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than 7
feet (2.128 m) above floor or platform shall be guarded at the bottom in the
same manner as horizontal overhead belts, if conditions are as stated in
paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(a) and (c) of this section.

(5) "Cone-pulley belts." (i) The cone belt and pulley shall be equipped with
a belt shifter so constructed as to adequately guard the nip point of the
belt and pulley.  If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guard
the nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point shall be further
protected by means of a vertical guard placed in front of the pulley and
extending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.

(ii) If the belt is of the endless type or laced with rawhide laces, and a
belt shifter is not desired, the belt will be considered guarded if the nip
point of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard located in
front of the cone extending at least to the top of the largest step of the
cone, and formed to show the contour of the cone in order to give the nip
point of the belt and pulley the maximum protection.

(iii) If the cone is located less than 3 feet (0.912 m) from the floor or
working platform, the cone pulley and belt shall be guarded to a height of 3
feet (0.912 m) regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced with
rawhide.

(6) "Belt tighteners." (i) Suspended counterbalanced tighteners and all
parts thereof shall be of substantial construction and securely fastened; the
bearings shall be securely capped.  Means must be provided to prevent
tightener from falling, in case the belt breaks.

(ii) When suspended counterweights are used and not guarded by location,
they shall be so encased as to prevent accident.

(f) "Gears, sprockets, and chains" - (1) "Gears." Gears shall be guarded in
accordance with one of the following methods:

(i) By a complete enclosure; or (ii) By a standard guard as
described in paragraph (o) of this section, at least 7 feet (2.128 m) high
extending 6 inches (15.24 cm) above the mesh point of the gears; or (iii) By
a band guard covering the face of gear and having flanges extended inward
beyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides.  Where any portion
of the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than 6 feet (1.824 m)
from the floor a disk guard or a complete exposure to the height of 6 feet
(1.824 m) shall be required.

(2) "Hand-operated gears." Paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not apply
to hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts and which do not
continue to move after hand power is removed.  However, the guarding of these
gears is highly recommended.

(3) "Sprockets and chains." All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosed
unless they are more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above the floor or platform.
Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, protection
against falling shall be provided.  This subparagraph does not apply to
manually operated sprockets.

(4) "Openings for oiling." When frequent oiling must be done, openings with
hinged or sliding self-closing covers shall be provided.  All points not
readily accessible shall have oil feed tubes if lubricant is to be added
while machinery is in motion.

(g) "Guarding friction drives." The driving point of all friction drives
when exposed to contact shall be guarded, all arm or spoke friction drives
and all web friction drives with holes in the web shall be entirely enclosed,
and all projecting belts on friction drives where exposed to contact shall be
guarded.

(h) "Keys, setscrews, and other projections." (1) All projecting keys,
setscrews, and other projections in revolving parts shall be removed or made
flush or guarded by metal cover.  This subparagraph does not apply to keys or
setscrews within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys,
setscrews, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than 20 inches (50.8 cm) in
diameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.

(2) It is recommended, however, that no projecting setscrews or oilcups be
used in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.

(i) "Collars and couplings" - (1) "Collars." All revolving collars,
including split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws or bolts used in
collars shall not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.

(2) "Couplings." Shall couplings shall be so constructed as to present no
hazard from bolts, nuts, setscrews will, however, be permitted where they are
covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting
and are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.

(j) "Bearings and facilities for oiling." All drip cups and pans shall be
securely fastened.

(k) "Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys" - (1)
"Guards." Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys having projecting
parts, where such clutches are located 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above the
floor or working platform, shall be enclosed by a stationary guard
constructed in accordance with this section.  A "U" type guard is
permissible.

(2) "Engine rooms." In engine rooms a guardrail, preferably with toeboard,
may be used instead of the guard required by paragraph (k)(1) of this
section, provided such a room is occupied only by engine room attendants.
	(l) "Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners" -

(1) "Belt shifters." (i) Tight and loose pulleys on all new installations
made on or after August 31, 1971, shall be equipped with a permanent belt
shifter provided with mechanical means to prevent belt from creeping from
loose to tight pulley.  It is recommended that old installations be changed
to conform to this rule.

(ii) Belt shifter and clutch handles shall be rounded and be located as far
as possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of the
operator.  Where belt shifter are not directly located over a machine or
bench, the handles shall be cut off 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976 m) above floor level.

(2) "Belt shippers and shipper poles." The use of belt poles as substitutes
for mechanical shifter is not recommended.

(3) "Belt perches." Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practicable, belt
perches in form of brackets, rollers, etc., shall be used to keep idle belts
away from the shafts.

(4) "Belt fasteners." Belts which of necessity must be shifted by hand and
belts within 7 feet (2.128 m) of the floor or working platform which are not
guarded in accordance with this section shall not be fastened with metal in
any case, nor with any other fastening which by construction or wear will
constitute an accident hazard.

(m) "Standard guards - general requirements" - (1) Materials. (i) Standard
conditions shall be secured by the use of the following materials. Expanded
metal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron,
or iron pipe securely fastened to floor or frame of machine.

(ii) All metal should be free from burrs and sharp edges. (2)
"Methods of manufacturer." (i) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, and
wire mesh shall be securely fastened to frame.

(n) [Reserved]

(o) "Approved materials" - (1) Minimum requirements."
 The materials and dimensions specified in this paragraph shall apply to all
guards, except  horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards more
than 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor, or platform.

(i) [Reserved] (a) All guards shall be rigidly braced every 3 feet
(0.912 m) or fractional part of their height to some fixed part of machinery
or building structure.  Where guard is exposed to contact with moving
equipment additional strength may be necessary.

(2) "Wood guards." (i) Wood guards may be used in the woodworking and
chemical industries, in industries where the presence of fumes or where
manufacturing conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of metal guards;
also in construction work and in locations outdoors where extreme cold or
extreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable.  In all other
industries, wood guards shall not be used.

(3) "Guards for horizontal overhead belts." (i) Guards for horizontal
overhead belts shall run the entire length of the belt and follow the line of
the pulley to the ceiling or be carried  to the nearest wall, thus enclosing
the belt effectively.  Where belts are so located as to make it impracticable
to carry the guard to wall or ceiling, construction of guard shall be such as
to enclose completely the top and bottom runs of belt and the face of
pulleys.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Suitable reinforcement shall be provided for
the ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams, where such is necessary, to
sustain safely the weight and stress likely to be imposed by the guard.  The
interior surface of all guards, by which is meant the surface of the guard
with which a belt will come in contact, shall be smooth and free from all
projections of any character, except where construction demands it;
protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used.  Overhead belt guards shall
be at least one quarter wider than belt which they protect, except that this
clearance need not in any case exceed 6 inches (15.24 cm) on each side.
Overhead rope drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards shall be not less
than 6 inches (15.24 cm) wider than the drive on each side.  In overhead
silent chain-drive guards where the chain is held from lateral displacement
on the sprockets, the side clearances required on drives of 20 inch (50.8 cm)
centers or under shall be not less than 1/4 inch (0.635 cm) from the nearest
moving chain part, and on drives of over 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) from the nearest
moving chain part.

(4) "Guards for horizontal overhead rope and chain drives."

Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction shall conform to the rules
for overhead-belt guard.

(5) "Guardrails and toeboards." (i) Guardrail shall be 42 inches (106.68 cm)
in height, with midrail between top rail and floor.

(ii) Posts shall be not more than 8 feet (2.432 m) apart; they are to be
permanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, and
splinters.  If made of pipe, the post shall be 1 1/4 inches (3.175 cm) inside
diameter, or larger.  If made of metal shapes or bars their section shall be
equal in strength to that of 1 1/2 (3.81 cm) by 1 1/2 (3.81 cm) by 3/16 inch
angle iron.  If made of wood, the posts shall be two by four (2 X 4) inches
or larger. The upper rail shall be two by four (2 X 4) inches, or two one by
four (1 X 4) strips, one at the top and one at the side of posts.  The
midrail may be one by four (1 X 4) inches or more.  Where panels are fitted
with expanded metal or wire mesh as noted in Table O-12 the middle rails may
be omitted.  Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment,
additional strength may be necessary.

(iii) Toeboards shall be 4 inches (10.16 cm) or more in height, of wood,
metal, or of metal grill not exceeding 1 inch (2.54 cm) mesh.

(p) "Care of equipment" - (1) "General." All power-transmission equipment
shall be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days and be kept in good
working condition at all times.

(2) "Shafting." (i) Shafting shall be kept in alignment, free from rust and
excess oil or grease.

(ii) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammable
liquids exist, the hazard of static sparks from shafting shall be carefully
considered.

(3) "Bearings." Bearings shall be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.

(4) "Hangers." Hangers shall be inspected to make certain that all
supporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes are
adjusted properly.

(5) "Pulleys." (i) Pulleys shall be kept in proper alignment to prevent
belts from running off.

(6) "Care of belts."

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Inspection shall be made of belts, lacings, and
fasteners and such equipment kept in good repair.

(7) "Lubrication." The regular oilers shall wear tight-fitting clothing.
Machinery shall be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.

Subpart J -- Welding and Cutting

32.  In 1926.350, new paragraphs (a)(10) through (12) are added to read as
follows:

1926.350  Gas welding and cutting.

(a) "Transporting, moving, and storing compressed gas cylinders. *      *
 *     *     *     *

(10) Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel-gas cylinders
or combustible materials (especially oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20
feet (6.1 m) or by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.5 m) high
having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour.

(11) Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected,
well-ventilated, dry location, at least 20 feet (6.1 m) from highly
combustible materials such as oil or excelsior.  Cylinders should be stored
in definitely assigned places away from elevators, stairs, or gangways.
Assigned storage places shall be located where cylinders will not be knocked
over or damaged by passing or falling objects, or subject to tampering by
unauthorized persons.  Cylinders shall not be kept in unventilated enclosures
such as lockers and cupboards.

(12) The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases
in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks
shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965.

*     *    *    *    *    *

33.  In 1926.353, new paragraph (b)(3) is added to read as follows:

1926.353  Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating. *
*   *     *    *    *   *
	(b) "Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces."

*     *   *     *    *    *   *

(3) "Lifelines." Where a welder must enter a confined space through a
manhole or other small opening, means shall be provided for quickly removing
him in case of emergency.  When safety belts and lifelines are used for this
purpose they shall be so attached to the welder's body that his body cannot
be jammed in a small exit opening.  An attendant with a pre-planned rescue
procedure shall be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times and
be capable of putting rescue operations into effect.

Subpart K - Electrical

Safety-Related Work Practices

34. In 1926.416, new paragraphs (a)(4), (f), and (g) are added to read as
follows:

1926.416  General requirements.
	(a) "Protection of employees - "

*     *    *     *     *    *     *

(4) "Work on energized equipment." Only qualified persons may work on
electric circuit parts or equipment that have not been deenergized under the
procedures of 1926.417(d) of this section.  Such persons shall be capable of
working safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the proper
use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment,
insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools.

*     *    *     *     *    *     *

(f)(1) "Interlocks." Only a qualified person following the requirements of
paragraph (c) of this section may defeat an electrical safety interlock, and
then only temporarily while he or she is working on the equipment.  The
interlock system shall be returned to its operable condition when this work
is completed.

(2) "Portable electric equipment - Handling" - Portable equipment shall be
handled in a manner which will not cause damage.  Flexible electric cords
connected to equipment may not be used for raising or lowering the equipment.
 Flexible cords may not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such a
fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation.

(3) "Visual inspection." When an attachment plug is to be connected to a
receptacle (including an on a cord set), the relationship of the plug and
receptacle contacts shall first be checked to ensure that they are of proper
mating configurations.

(4) "Connecting attachment plugs." (i) Employees' hands may not be wet when
plugging and unplugging flexible cords and cord and plug connected equipment,
if energized equipment is involved.

(ii) Energized plug and receptacle connections may be handled only with
insulating protective equipment if the condition of the connection could
provide a conducting path to the employee's hand (if, for example, a cord
connector is wet from being immersed in water).

(iii) Locking type connectors shall be properly secured after connection.

(5) "Routine opening and closing of electric power and lighting circuits."
Load rated switches, circuit breakers, or other devices specifically designed
as disconnecting means shall be used for the opening, reversing, or closing
of circuits under load conditions. Cable connectors not of the load break
type, fuses, terminal lugs, and cable splice connections may not be used for
such purposes, except in an emergency.

(6) "Reclosing circuits after protective device operation." After a circuit
is deenergized by a circuit protective device, the circuit protective device,
the circuit may not be manually reenergized until it has been determined that
the equipment and circuit can be safely energized.  The repetitive manual
reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replaced fuses
is prohibited.

Note: When it can be determined from the design of the circuit and the
overcurrent devices involved that the automatic operation of a device was
caused by an overload rather than a fault condition, no examination of the
circuit or connected equipment is needed before the circuit is reenergized.

(7) "Test instruments and equipment - Use." Only qualified persons may
perform testing work on electric circuits or equipment.

(8) "Visual inspection." Test instruments and equipment and all associated
test leads, cables, power cords, probes, and connectors shall be visually
inspected for external defects and damage before the equipment is used.  If
there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to
injury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service, and no
employee may use it until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment
safe have been made.

(9) "Rating of equipment." Test instruments and equipment and their
accessories shall be rated for the circuits and equipment to which they will
be connected and shall be designed for the environment in which they will be
used.

(10) "Occasional use of flammable or ignitable materials."  Where flammable
materials are present only occasionally, electric equipment capable of
igniting them shall not be used, unless measures are taken to prevent
hazardous conditions from developing.  Such materials include, but are not
limited to: flammable gases, vapors, or liquids; combustible dust; and
ignitable fibers or flyings.

(g) "Use of equipment." (1) "Work on energized equipment."  Only qualified
persons may work on electric circuit parts or equipment that have not been
deenergized under the procedures of paragraph (b) of this section.  Such
persons shall be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall be
familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal
protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated
tools.

(2) "Overhead lines."  If work is to be performed near overhead lines, the
lines shall be deenergized and grounded, or other protective measures shall
be provided before work is started.  If the lines are to be deenergized,
arrangements shall be made with the person or organization that operates or
controls the electric circuits involved to deenergize and ground them.  If
protective measures, such as guarding, isolating, or insulating, are
provided, these precautions shall prevent employees from contacting such
lines directly with any part of their body or indirectly through conductive
materials, tools or equipment.

(i) "Unqualified persons." (A) When an unqualified person is working in an
elevated position near overhead lines, the location shall be such that the
person and the longest conductive object he or she may contact cannot come
closer to any unguarded, energized overhead line than the following
distances:

(1) For voltages to ground 50kV or below - 10 feet (305 cm);

(2) For voltages to ground over 50kV - 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10
cm) for every 10kV over 50kV.

(B) When an unqualified person is working on the ground in the vicinity of
overhead lines, the person may not bring any conductive object closer to
unguarded, energized overhead lines than the distances given in paragraph
(g)(2)(i)(A) of this section.

Note: For voltages normally encountered with overhead power line, objects
which do not have an insulating rating for the voltage involved are
considered to be conductive.

(ii) "Qualified persons." When a qualified person is working in the vicinity
of overhead lines, whether in an elevated position or on the ground, the
person may not approach or take any conductive object without an approved
insulating handle closer to exposed energized parts than shown in Table K-2
unless:

(A) The person is insulated from energized part (gloves, with sleeves if
necessary, rated for the voltage involved are considered to be insulation of
the person from the energized part on which work is performed), or (B) The
energized part is insulated both from all other conductive objects at a
different potential and from the person, or (C) The person is insulated from
all conductive objects at a potential different from that of the energized
part.
 

TABLE K-2 - APPROACH DISTANCES FOR QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES
- ALTERNATING CURRENT
Voltage range (phase to phase) Minimum approach distance
300 V and less Avoid contact
Over 300 V, not over 750 V 1 ft. 0 in. (30.5 cm)
Over 750 V, not over 2k V 1 ft. 6 in. (46 cm)
Over 2k V, not over 15k V 2 ft. 0 in. (61 cm)
Over 15k V, not over 37k V 3 ft. 0 in. (91 cm)
Over 37k V, not over 87.5kV 3 ft. 6 in. (107 cm)
Over 87.5k V, not over 121k V 4 ft. 0 in. (122 cm)
Over 121k V, not over 140k V 4 ft. 6 in. (137 cm)
(iii) "Vehicular and mechanical equipment." (A) Any vehicle or mechanical
equipment capable of having parts of its structure elevated near energized
overhead lines shall be operated so that a clearance of 10 ft. (305 cm) is
maintained.  If the voltage is higher than 50kV, the clearance shall be
increased 4 in. (10 cm) for every 10kV over that voltage.  However, under any
of the following conditions, the clearance may be reduced:

{1} If the vehicle is in transit with its structure lowered, the clearance
may be reduced to 4 ft. (1.22 cm).  If the voltage is higher than 50kV, the
clearance shall be increased 4 in. (10 cm) for every 10kV over that voltage.

{2} If insulating barriers are installed to prevent contact with the lines,
and if the barriers are rated for the voltage of the line being guarded and
are not a part of or an attachment to the vehicle or its raised structure,
the clearance may be reduced to a distance within the designed working
dimensions of the insulating barrier.

{3} If the equipment is an aerial lift insulated for the voltage involved,
and if the work is performed by a qualified person, the clearance (between
the uninsulated portion of the aerial lift and the power line) may be reduced
to the distance given in Table K-2.

(B) Employees standing on the ground may not contact the vehicle or
mechanical equipment or any of the structure that provides a conductive path
to employees on the ground can come closer to the line than permitted in
paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section.

(C) If any vehicle or mechanical equipment capable of having parts of its
structure elevated near energized overhead lines is intentionally grounded,
employees working on the ground near the point of grounding may not stand at
the grounding location whenever there is a possibility of overhead line
contact.  Additional precautions, such as the use of barricades or
insulation, shall be taken to protect employees from hazardous ground
potentials, depending on earth resistivity and fault currents, which can
develop within the first few feet or more outward from the grounding point.

(3) "Illumination." (i) Employees may not enter spaces containing exposed
energized parts, unless illumination is provided that enables the employees
to perform the work safely.

(ii) Where lack of illumination or an obstruction precludes observation of
the work to be performed, employees may not perform tasks near exposed
energized parts.  Employees may not reach blindly into areas which may
contain energized parts.

(4) "Confined or enclosed work spaces." When an employee works in a confined
or enclosed space (such as a manhole or vault) that contains exposed
energized parts, the employer shall provide, and the employee shall use,
protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials as necessary
to avoid inadvertent contact with these parts. Doors, hinged panels, and the
like shall be secured to prevent their swinging into an employee and causing
the employee to contact exposed energized parts.

(5) "Conductive materials and equipment."  Conductive materials and
equipment that are in contact with any part of an employee's body shall be
handled in a manner that will prevent them from contacting exposed energized
conductors or circuit parts. If an employee must handle long dimensional
conductive objects (such as ducts and pipes) in areas with exposed live
parts, the employer shall institute work practices (such as the use of
insulation, guarding, and material handling techniques) which will minimize
the hazard.

(6) "Portable ladders."  Portable ladders shall have nonconductive siderails
if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed
energized parts.

(7) "Conductive apparel." Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing (such
as watch bands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized aprons,
cloth with conductive thread, or metal headgear) may not be worn if they
might contact exposed energized parts.  However, such articles may be worn if
they are rendered nonconductive by covering, wrapping, or other insulating
means.

(8) "Housekeeping duties." Where live parts present an electrical contact
hazard, employees may not perform housekeeping duties at such close distances
to the parts that there is a possibility of contact, unless adequate
safeguards (such as insulating equipment or barriers) are provided.
Electrically conductive cleaning materials (including conductive solids such
as steel wool, metalized cloth, and silicon carbide, as well as conductive
liquid solutions) may not be used in proximity to energized parts unless
procedures are followed which will prevent electrical contact.

35. In 1926.417, a new paragraph (d) is added to read as follows:

1926.417  Lockout and tagging of circuits. *     *    *     *     *    *
*

(d) "Lockout and tagging." While any employee is exposed to contact with
parts of fixed electric equipment or circuits which have been deenergized,
the circuits energizing the parts shall be locked out or tagged or both in
accordance with the requirements of this paragraph. The requirements shall be
followed in the order in which they are presented (i.e., paragraph (d)(1)
first, than paragraph (d)(2), etc.).

Note 1: As used in this section, fixed equipment refers to equipment
fastened in place or connected by permanent wiring methods.

Note 2: Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with paragraphs (c)
through (f) of 1910.147 will also be deemed to comply with paragraph (d) of
this section provided that:

{1} The procedures address the electrical safety hazards covered by this
subpart; and

{2} The procedures also incorporate the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(3)(iv) and (d)(4)(ii) of this section.

(1) "Procedures." The employer shall maintain a written copy of the
procedures outlined in paragraph (d) and shall make it available for
inspection by employees and by the Assistant Secretary of Labor and his or
her authorized representatives.

Note: The written procedures may be in the form of a copy of paragraph (b)
of this section.

(2) "Deenergizing equipment." (i) Safe procedures for deenergizing circuits
and equipment shall be determined before circuits or equipment are
deenergized.

(ii) The circuits and equipment to be worked on shall be disconnected from
all electric energy sources.  Control circuit devices, such as push buttons,
selector switches, and interlocks, may not be used as the sole means for
deenergizing circuits or equipment.  Interlocks for electric equipment may
not be used as a substitute for lockout and tagging procedures.

(iii) Stored electric energy which might endanger personnel shall be
released.  Capacitors shall be discharged and high capacitance elements shall
be short-circuited and grounded, if the stored electric energy might endanger
personnel.

Note: If the capacitors or associated equipment are handled in meeting this
requirement, they shall be treated as energized.

(iv) Stored non-electrical energy in devices that could reenergize electric
circuit parts shall be blocked or relieved to the extent that the circuit
parts could not be accidentally energized by the device.

(3) "Application of locks and tags." (i) A lock and a tag shall be placed on
each disconnecting means used to deenergized circuits and equipment on which
work is to be performed, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(3)(iii) and (v)
of this section.  The lock shall be attached so as to prevent persons from
operating the disconnecting means unless they resort to undue force or the
use of tools.

(ii) Each tag shall contain a statement prohibiting unauthorized operation
of the disconnecting means and removal of the tag.

(iii) If a lock cannot be applied, or if the employer can demonstrate that
tagging procedures will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained
by the use of a lock, a tag may be used without a lock.

(iv) A tag used without a lock, as permitted by paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of
this section, shall be supplemented by at least one additional safety measure
that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by use of a lock.
 Examples of additional safety measures include the removal of an isolating
circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, or opening of an extra
disconnecting device.

(v) A lock may be placed without a tag only under the following conditions;

(A) Only one circuit or piece of equipment is deenergized, and (B)
The lockout period does not extend beyond the work shift, and (C) Employees
exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipment
are familiar with this procedure.

(4) "Verification of deenergized condition." The requirements of this
paragraph shall be met before any circuits or equipment can be considered and
worked as deenergized.

(i) A qualified person shall operate the equipment operating controls or
otherwise verify that the equipment cannot be restarted.

(ii) A qualified person shall use test equipment to test the circuit
elements and electrical parts of equipment to which employees will be exposed
and shall verify that the circuit elements and equipment parts are
deenergized.  The test shall also determine if any energized condition exists
as a result of inadvertently induced voltage or unrelated voltage backfeed
even though specific parts of the circuit have been deenergized and presumed
to be safe.  If the circuit to be tested is over 600 volts, nominal, the test
equipment shall be checked for proper operation immediately after this test.

(5) "Reenergizing equipment." These requirements shall be met, in the order
given, before circuits or equipment are reenergized, even temporarily.

(i) A qualified person shall conduct tests and visual inspections, as
necessary, to verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds, and
other such devices have been removed, so that the circuits and equipment can
be safely energized.

(ii) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the
circuit or equipment shall be warned to stay clear of circuits and equipment.

(iii) Each lock and tag shall be removed by the employee who applied it or
under his or her direct supervision.  However, if this employee is absent
from the workplace, then the lock or tag may be removed by a qualified person
designated to perform this task provided that:

(A) The employer ensures that the employee who applied the lock or tag is
not available at the workplace, and (B) The employer ensures that the
employee is aware that the lock or tag has been removed before he or she
resumes work at that workplace.

(iv) There shall be a visual determination that all employees are clear of
the circuits and equipment.

Subpart L - Scaffolding

36. In 1926.451, new paragraphs (a)(22) through (24) are added to read as
follows:

1926.451 Scaffolding.

(a) "General requirements. *     *    *     *     *    *     *

(22) Materials being hoisted onto a scaffold shall have a tag line.
(23) Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds. (24)
Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantities
to cause a hazard.

*     *    *     *     *    *     *

37.  A new 1926.453 is added to read as follows:

1926.453  Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

(a) "General requirements" - (1) "Application." This section is intended to
prescribe rules and requirements for the design, construction, and use of
mobile work platforms (including ladder stands but not including aerial
ladders) and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers).  This standard is
promulgated to aid in providing for the safety of life, limb, and property,
by establishing minimum standards for structural design requirements and for
the use of mobile work platforms and towers.

(2) "Working loads." (i) Work platforms and scaffolds shall be capable of
carrying the design load under varying circumstances depending upon the
conditions of use.  Therefore, all parts and appurtenances necessary for
their safe and efficient utilization must be integral parts of the design.

(ii) Specific design and construction requirements are not apart of this
section because of the wide variety of materials and design possibilities.
However, the design shall be such as to produce a mobile ladder stand or
scaffold that will safely sustain the specified loads.  The material selected
shall be of sufficient strength to meet the test requirements and shall be
protected against corrosion or deterioration.

{a} The design working load of ladder stands shall be calculated on the
basis of one or more 200-pound (90.6 kg) persons together with 50 pounds
(22.65 kg) of equipment each.

{b} The design load of all scaffolds shall be calculated on the basis of:

"Light"  -  Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 25 pounds
per square foot (1.05 kg m(2)).

"Medium" -  Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 50 pounds
per square foot (2.1 kg m(2)).

"Heavy"  -  Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 75 pounds
per square foot (3.15 kg m(2)).

All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be capable of supporting at least four
times the design working load.

(iii) The materials used in mobile ladder stands and scaffolds shall be of
standard manufacture and conform to standard specifications of strength,
dimensions, and weights, and shall be selected to safely support the design
working load.

(iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners used in the construction of ladders,
scaffolds, and towers shall be of adequate size and in sufficient numbers at
each connection to develop the designed strength of the unit.  Nails shall be
driven full length.  (All nails should be immediately withdrawn form
dismantled lumber.) (v) All exposed surfaces shall be free from sharp edges,
burrs or other safety hazards.

(3) "Work levels." (i) The maximum work level height shall not exceed four
(4) times the minimum or least base dimensions of any mobile ladder stand or
scaffold.  Where the basic mobile unit does not meet this requirement,
suitable outrigger frames shall be employed to achieve this least base
dimension, or provisions shall be made to guy or brace the unit against
tipping.

(ii) The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20
inches (50.8 cm) for mobile scaffolds (towers).  Ladder stands shall have a
minimum step width of 16 inches (40.64 cm).

(iii) The supporting structure for the work level shall be rigidly braced,
using adequate cross bracing or diagonal bracing with rigid platforms at each
work level.

(iv) The steps of ladder stands shall be fabricated from slip resistant
treads.

(v) The work level platform of scaffolds (towers) shall be wood, aluminum,
or plywood planking, steel or expanded metal, for the full width of the
scaffold, except for necessary openings.  Work platforms shall be secured in
place. All planking shall be 2-inch (5.08 cm) (nominal) scaffold grade
minimum 1,500 f. (stress grade) construction grade lumber or equivalent.

(vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet (3.04 m) or higher above the ground or
floor shall have a standard (4-inch (10.16 cm) nominal) toeboard.

(vii) All work levels 10 feet (3.04 m) or higher above the ground or floor
shall have a guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the equivalent installed no
less than 36 inches (0.912 m) or more than 42 inches (106.68 cm) high, with a
midrail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.

(viii) A climbing ladder or stairway shall be provided for proper access and
egress, and shall be affixed or built into the scaffold and so located that
its use will not have a tendency to tip the scaffold.  A landing platform
shall be provided at intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.12 m).

(4) "Wheels or casters." (i) Wheels or casters shall be properly designed
for strength and dimensions to support four (4) times the design working
load.

(ii) All scaffold casters shall be provided with a positive wheel and/or
swivel lock to prevent movement.  Ladder stands shall have at least two (2)
of the four (4) casters and shall be of the swivel type.

(iii) Where leveling of the elevated work platform is required, screw jacks
or other suitable means for adjusting the height shall be provided in the
base section of each mobile unit.

(b) "Mobile tubular welded sectional folding scaffolds" - (1) "General."

Units including sectional stairway and sectional ladder scaffolds shall be
designed to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) "Stairway." An integral stairway and work platform shall be incorporated
into the structure of each sectional folding stairway scaffold.

(3) "Bracing." An integral set of pivoting and hinged folding diagonal and
horizontal braces and a detachable work platform shall be incorporated into
the structure of each sectional folding ladder scaffold.

(4) "Sectional folding stairway scaffolds." Sectional folding stairway
scaffolds shall be designed as medium duty scaffolds except for high
clearance.  These special base sections shall be designed as light duty
scaffolds.  When upper sectional folding stairway scaffolds are used with a
special high clearance base, the load capacity of the entire scaffold shall
be reduced accordingly.  The width of a sectional folding stairway scaffold
shall not exceed 4 1/2 feet (1.368 m).  The maximum length of a sectional
folding stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet (1.824 m) (5) "Sectional
folding ladder scaffolds." Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall be
designed as light duty scaffolds including special base (open end) sections
which are designed for high clearance.  For certain special applications the
6'-(1.824 m) folding ladder scaffolds, except for special high clearance base
sections, shall be designed for use as medium duty scaffolds.  The width of a
sectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 4 1/2 feet (1.368 m).  The
maximum length of a sectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet
6 inches (1.976 m) for a 6'-(1.824 m) long unit, 8 feet 6 inches (2.584 m)
for an 8'-(2.432 m) unit or 10 feet 6 inches (3.192 m) for a 10'-(3.04 m)
long unit.

(6) "End frames." The end frames of sectional ladder and stairway scaffolds
shall be designed so that the horizontal bearers provide supports for
multiple planking levels.

(7) "Erection." Only the manufacturer of the scaffold or his qualified
designated agent shall be permitted to erect or supervise the erection of
scaffolds exceeding 50 feet (15.2 m) in height above the base, unless such
structure is approved in writing by a licensed professional engineer, or
erected in accordance with instructions furnished by the manufacturer.

Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

38.  In 1926.550, a new paragraph (a)(19) is added to read as follows:

1926.550  Cranes and derricks.
	(a) "General requirements."

*     *     *     *     *     *

(19) All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of
suspended loads.

*     *     *     *     *     *

Subpart O - Motor Vehicles, Merchanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

39.  In 1926.600, new paragraph (a)(7) is added to read as follows:

1926.600  Equipment.
	(a) "General requirements."

*     *     *     *     *     *

(7) "Rolling railroad cars." Derail and/or bumper blocks shall be provided
on spur railroad tracks where a rolling car could contact other cars being
worked, enter a building, work or traffic areas.

*     *     *     *     *     *

40.  In 1926.602, new paragraphs (c)(1)(vii) and (viii) are added to read as
follows:

1926.602  Material handling equipment. *     *     *     *     *     *

(c) "Lifting and hauling (other than equipment covered under subpart N of
this part).(1)*** *     *     *     *     *     *

(vii) Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered
industrial trucks.  A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of
trucks is authorized.

(viii) Whenever a truck is equipped with vertical only, or vertical and
horizontal controls elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks for lifting
personnel, the following additional precautions shall be taken for the
protection of personnel being elevated.

(A) Use of a safety platform firmly secured to the lifting carriage and/or
forks.

(B) Means shall be provided whereby personnel on the platform can shut off
power to the truck.

(C) Such protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by the
operating conditions shall be provided.

Subpart U - Blasting and Use of Explosives

41. In 1926.900, new paragraphs (s) and (t) are added to read as follows:

1926.900  General provisions. *     *     *     *     *     *

(s) Buildings used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to the
requirements of this section.

(1) Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on wood
studs.

(2) Floors in a mixing plant shall be of concrete or of other nonabsorbent
materials.

(3) All fuel oil storage facilities shall be separated from the mixing plant
and located in such a manner that in case of tank rupture, the oil will drain
away from the mixing plant building.

(4) The building shall be well ventilated.

(5) Heating units which
do not depend on combustion processes, when properly designed and located,
may be used in the building.  All direct sources of heat shall be provided
exclusively from units located outside the mixing building.

(6) All internal-combustion engines used for electric power generation shall
be located outside the mixing plant building, or shall be properly ventilated
and isolated by a firewall.  The exhaust systems on all such engines shall be
located so any spark emission cannot be a hazard to any materials in or
adjacent to the plant.

(t) Buildings used for the mixing of water gels shall conform to the
requirements of this subdivision.

(1) Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on wood
studs.

(2) Floors in a mixing plant shall be of concrete or of other nonabsorbent
materials.

(3) Where fuel oil is used all fuel oil storage facilities shall be
separated from the mixing plant and located in such a manner that in case of
tank rupture, the oil will drain away from the mixing plant building.

(4) The building shall be well ventilated.

(5) Heating units that do
not depend on combustion processes, when properly designed and located, may
be used in the building.  All direct sources of heat shall be provided
exclusively from units located outside of the mixing building.

(6) All internal-combustion engines used for electric power generation shall
be located outside the mixing plant building, or shall be properly ventilated
and isolated by a firewall.  The exhaust systems on all such engines shall be
located so any spark emission cannot be a hazard to any materials in or
adjacent to the plant.

42.  In 1926.905, new paragraph (u) is added to read as follows:

1926.905  Loading of explosives or blasting agents. *     *     *     *     *

(u) When loading blasting agents pneumatically over electric blasting caps,
semiconductive delivery hose shall be used and the equipment shall be bonded
and grounded.

43.  In 1926.914, new paragraph (aa) is added to read as follows:

1926.914  Definitions applicable to this subpart. *     *     *     *     *

(aa) "Semiconductive hose." Semiconductive hose - a hose with an electrical
resistance high enough to limit flow of stray electric currents to safe
levels, yet not so high as to prevent drainage of static electric charges to
ground; hose of not more than 2 megohms resistance over its entire length and
of not less than 5,000 ohms per foot meets the requirement.

Subpart X - Stairways and Ladders

44. In 1926.1050, a new paragraph defining "ladder stands" is added to read
as follows:

1926.1050  Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this subpart. *
    *     *     *     *    *

(b) *     *     *     *     *    *

"Ladder stand." A mobile fixed size self-supporting ladder consisting of a
wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs.  The assembly may include
handrails.

45.  In part 1926, a new subpart Y - Diving is added to read as follows:

Subpart Y - Diving

General

1926.1071  Scope and application

(a) "Scope." (1) This subpart (standard) applies to every place of
employment within the waters of the United States, or within any State, the
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands,
American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake
Island, Johnston Island, the Canal Zone, or within the Outer Continental
Shelf lands as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (67 Stat.
462, 43 U.S.C. 1331), where diving and related support operations are
performed.

(2) This standard applies to diving and related support operations conducted
in connection with all types of work and employments, including general
industry, construction, ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking and
longshoring.  However, this standard does not apply to any diving operation:

(i) Performed solely for instructional purposes, using open-circuit,
compressed-air SCUBA and conducted within the no-decompression limits;

(ii) Performed solely for search, rescue, or related public safety purposes
by or under the control of a governmental agency; or (iii) Governed by 45 CFR
part 46 (Protection of Human Subjects, U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services) or equivalent rules or regulations
established by another federal agency, which regulate research, development,
or related purposes involving human subjects.

(iv) Defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction and
control of a diving program containing at least the following elements:

(A) Diving safety manual which includes at a minimum: Procedures covering
all diving operations specific to the program; procedures for emergency care,
including recompression and evacuation; and criteria for diver training and
certification.

(B) Diving control (safety) board, with the majority of its members being
active divers, which shall at a minimum have the authority to: Approve and
monitor diving projects; review and revise the diving safety manual; assure
compliance with the manual; certify the depths to which a diver has been
trained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and, assure adherence
to the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by and is in continuous contact
with another diver in the water) for SCUBA diving.

(b) "Application in emergencies." An employer may deviate from the
requirements of this standard to the extent necessary to prevent or minimize
a situation which is likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or major
environmental damage, provided that the employer:

(1) Notifies the Area Director, Occupational Safety and Health
Administration within 48 hours of the onset of the emergency situation
indicating the nature of the emergency and extent of the deviation from the
prescribed regulations; and

(2) Upon request from the Area Director, submits such information in writing.

(c) "Employer obligation." The employer shall be responsible for compliance
with:
	(1) All provisions of this standard of general applicability; and

(2) All requirements pertaining to specific diving modes to the extent
diving operations in such modes are conducted.

1926.1072  Definitions.
	As used in this standard, the listed terms are defined as follows:

"Acfm:" Actual cubic feet per minute. "ASME Code of equivalent:"
ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, or an equivalent code which the employer can demonstrate
to be equally effective.

"ATA:" Atmosphere absolute. "Bell:" An enclosed compartment,
pressurized (closed bell) or unpressurized (open bell), which allows the
diver to be transported to and from the underwater work area and which may be
used as a temporary refuge during diving operations.

"Bottom time:" The total elasped time measured in minutes from the time when
the diver leaves the surface in descent to the time that the diver begins
ascent.

"Bursting pressure:" The pressure at which a pressure containment device
would fail structurally.

"Cylinder:" A pressure vessel for the storage of gases.
"Decompression chamber:" A pressure vessel for human occupancy such as a
surface decompression chamber, closed bell, or deep diving system used to
decompress divers and to treat decompression sickness.

"Decompression sickness:" A condition with a variety of symptoms which may
result from gas or bubbles in the tissue of divers after pressure reduction.

"Decompression table:" A profile or set of profiles of depth-time
relationships for ascent rates and breathing mixtures to be followed after a
specific depth-time exposure or exposures.

"Dive location:" A surface or vessel from which a diving operation is
conducted.

"Dive-location reserve breathing gas:" A supply system of air or mixed-gas
(as appropriate) at the dive location which is independent of the primary
supply system and sufficient to support divers during the planned
decompression.

"Dive team:" Divers and support employees involved in a diving operation,
including the designated person-in-charge.

"Diver:" An employee working in water using underwater apparatus which
supplies compressed breathing gas at the ambient pressure.

"Diver-carried reserve breathing gas:" A diver-carried supply of air or
mixed gas (as appropriate) sufficient under standard operating conditions to
allow the diver to reach the surface, or another source of breathing gas, or
to be reached by a standby diver.

"Diving mode:" A type of diving requiring specific equipment, procedures and
techniques (SCUBA, surface-supplied air, or mixed gas).

"Fsw:" Feet of seawater (or equivalent static pressure head). "Heavy
gear: Diver-worn deep-sea dress including helmet, breastplate, dry suit, and
weighted shoes.

"Hyperbaric conditions:" Pressure conditions in excess of surface pressure.

"Inwater stage:" A suspended underwater platform which supports a diver in
the water.

"Liveboating:" The practice of supporting a surface-supplied air or mixed
gas diver from a vessel which is underway.

"Mixed-gas diving:" A diving mode in which the diver is supplied in the
water with a breathing gas other than air.

"No-decompression limits:" The depth-time limits of the "no-decompression
air dives", U.S. Navy Diving Manual or equivalent limits which the employer
can demonstrate to be equally effective.

"Psi(g):" Pounds per square inch (gauge). "Scientific diving" means
diving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, or
educational  activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is to
perform scientific research tasks. Scientific diving does not include
performing any tasks usually associated with commercial diving such as;
Placing or removing heavy objects underwater; inspection of pipelines and
similar objects; construction; demolition; cutting or welding; or the use of
explosives.

"SCUBA diving:" A dive mode independent of surface supply in which the diver
uses open circuit self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

"Standby diver:" A diver at the dive location available to assist a diver in
the water.

Surface-supplied air diving:" A diving mode in which the diver in the water
is supplied from the dive location with compressed air for breathing.

"Treatment table:" A depth-time and breathing gas profile designed to treat
decompression sickness.

"Umbilical:" The composite hose bundle between a dive location and a diver
or bell, or between a diver and a bell, which supplies the diver or bell with
breathing gas, communications, power, or heat as appropriate to the diving
mode or conditions, and includes a safety line between the diver and the dive
location.

"Volume tank:" A pressure vessel connected to the outlet of a compressor and
used as an air reservoir.

"Working pressure:" The maximum pressure to which a pressure containment
device may be exposed under standard operating conditions.

Personnel Requirements

1926.1076  Qualifications of dive team.

(a) "General." (1) Each dive team member shall have the experience or
training necessary to perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner.

(2) Each dive team member shall have experience or training in the following:
	(i) The use of tools, equipment and systems relevant to assigned tasks;
	(ii) Techniques of the assigned diving mode; and
	(iii) Diving operations and emergency procedures. (3) All dive team
members shall be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid
(American Red Cross standard course or equivalent).

(4) Dive team members who are exposed to or control the exposure of others
to hyperbaric conditions shall be trained in diving-related physics and
physiology.

(b) "Assignments." (1) Each dive team member shall be assigned tasks in
accordance with the employee's experience or training,. except that limited
additional tasks may be assigned to an employee undergoing training provided
that these tasks are performed under the direct supervision of an experienced
dive team member.

(2) The employer shall not require a dive team member to be exposed to
hyperbaric conditions against the employee's will, except when necessary to
complete decompression or treatment procedures.

(3) The employer shall not permit a dive team member to dive or be otherwise
exposed to hyperbaric conditions for the duration of any temporary physical
impairment or condition which is known to the employer and is likely to
affect adversely the safety or health of a dive team member.

(c) "Designated person-in-charge." (1) The employer or an employee
designated by the employer shall be at the dive location in charge of all
aspects of the diving operation affecting the safety and health of dive team
members.

(2) The designated person-in-charge shall have experience and training in
the conduct of the assigned diving operation.

General Operations Procedures

1926.1080  Safe practices manual.

(a) "General." The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practices
manual which shall be made available at the dive location to each dive team
member.

(b) "Contents." (1) The safe practices manual shall contain a copy of this
standard and the employer's policy for implementing the requirements of this
standard.

(2) For each diving mode engaged in, the safe practices manual shall include:
	(i) Safety procedures and checklists for diving operations:
	(ii) Assignments and responsibilities of the dive team members;
	(iii) Equipment procedures and checklists; and
	(iv) Emergency procedures for fire, equipment failure, adverse environmental
conditions, and medical illness and injury.

(The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (b) were
approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0069)

1926.10810  Pre-dive procedures.

(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirements
prior to each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Emergency aid." A list shall be kept at the dive location of the
telephone or call numbers of the following:
	(1) An operational decompression chamber (if not at the dive location);
	(2) Accessible hospitals;
	(3) Available physicians;
	(4) Available means of transportation; and
	(5) The nearest U.S. Coast Guard Rescue Coordination Center.

(c)
"First aid supplies." (1) A first aid kit appropriate for the diving
operation and approved by a physician shall be available at the dive
location.

(2) When used in a decompression chamber or bell, the first aid kit shall be
suitable for use under hyperbaric conditions.

(3) In addition to any other first aid supplies, an American Red Cross
standard first aid handbook or equivalent, and a bag-type manual resuscitator
with transparent mask and tubing shall be available at the dive location.

(d) "Planning and assessment."  Planning of a diving operation shall include
an assessment of the safety and health aspects of the following:
	(1) Diving mode;
	(2) Surface and underwater conditions and hazards;
	(3) Breathing gas supply (including reserves);
	(4) Thermal protection;
	(5) Diving equipment and systems;
	(6) Dive team assignments and physical fitness of dive team members
(including any impairment known to the employer);
	(7) Repetitive dive designation or residual inert gas status of dive team
members;
	(8) Decompression and treatment procedures (including altitude corrections);
and
	(9) Emergency procedures. (e) "Hazardous activities." To minimize
hazards to the dive team, diving operations shall be coordinated with other
activities in the vicinity which are likely to interfere with the diving
operation.

(f) "Employee briefing." (1) Dive team members shall be briefed on:

(i) The tasks to be undertaken;

(ii) Safety procedures for the diving mode;

(iii) Any unusual hazards or environmental conditions likely to affect the
safety of the diving operation; and

(iv) Any modifications to operating procedures necessitated by the specific
diving operation.

(2) Prior to making individual dive team member assignments, the employer
shall inquire into the dive team member's current state of physical fitness,
and indicate to the dive team member the procedure for reporting physical
problems or adverse physiological effects during and after the dive.

(g) "Equipment inspection." The breathing gas supply system including
reserve breathing gas supplies, masks, helmets, thermal protection, and bell
handling mechanism (when appropriate) shall be inspected prior to each dive.

(h) "Warning signal." When diving from surfaces other than vessels in areas
capable of supporting marine traffic, a rigid replica of the international
code flag "A" at least one meter in height shall be displayed at the dive
location in a manner which allows all-round visibility, and shall be
illuminated during night diving operations.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0069)

1926.1082  Procedures during dive.

(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirements
which are applicable to each diving operation unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Water entry and exit." (1) A means capable of supporting the diver
shall be provided for entering and exiting the water.

(2) The means provided for exiting the water shall extend below the water
surface.

(3) A means shall be provided to assist an injured diver from the water or
into a bell.

(c) "Communications." (1) An operational two-way voice communication system
shall be used between:

(i) Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member at
the dive location or bell (when provided or required); and

(ii) The bell and the dive location.

(2) An operational, two-way
communication system shall be available at the dive location to obtain
emergency assistance.

(d) "Decompression tables." Decompression, repetitive, and no-decompression
tables (as appropriate) shall be at the dive location.

(e) "Dive profiles." A depth-time profile, including when appropriate any
breathing gas changes, shall be maintained for each diver during the dive
including decompression.

(f) "Hand-held power tools and equipment." (1) Hand-held electrical tools
and equipment shall be de-energized before being placed into or retrieved
from the water.

(2) Hand-held power tools shall not be supplied with power from the dive
location until requested by the diver.

(g) "Welding and burning." (1) A current supply switch to interrupt the
current flow to the welding or burning electrode shall be:

(i) Tended by a dive team member in voice communication with the diver
performing the welding or burning; and

(ii) Kept in the open position except when the diver is welding or burning.

(2) The welding machine frame shall be grounded.

(3) Welding and
burning cables, electrode holders, and connections shall be capable of
carrying the maximum current required by the work, and shall be properly
insulated.

(4) Insulated gloves shall be provided to divers performing welding and
burning operations.

(5) Prior to welding or burning on closed compartments, structures or pipes,
which contain a flammable vapor or in which a flammable vapor may be
generated by the work, they shall be vented, flooded, or purged with a
mixture of gases which will not support combustion.

(h) "Explosives." (1) Employers shall transport, store, and use explosives
in accordance with this section and the applicable provisions of CFR 1910.109
and 1926.912.

(2) Electrical continuity of explosive circuits shall not be tested until
the diver is out of the water.

(3) Explosives shall not be detonated while the diver is in the
water. (i) "Termination of dive.  The working interval of a dive shall be
terminated when:

(1) A diver requests termination;

(2) a diver fails to respond correctly to communications or signals from a
dive team member;

(3) Communications are lost and can not be quickly re-established between
the diver and a dive team member at the dive location, and between the
designated person-in-charge and the person controlling the vessel in
liveboating operations; or (4) A diver begins to use diver-carried reserve
breathing gas or the dive-location reserve breathing gas.

1926.1083  Post-dive procedures.

(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirements
which are applicable after each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Precautions." (1) After the completion of any dive, the employer shall:

(i) Check the physical condition of the diver;

(ii) Instruct the diver to report any physical problems or adverse
physiological effects including symptoms of decompression sickness;

(iii) Advise the diver of the location of a decompression chamber which is
ready for use; and

(iv) Alert the diver to the potential hazards of flying after
diving. (2) For any dive outside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100
fsw or using mixed gas as a breathing mixture, the employer shall instruct
the diver to remain awake and in the vicinity of the decompression chamber
which is at the dive location for at least one hour after the dive (including
decompression or treatment as appropriate).

(c) "Recompression capability." (1) A decompression chamber capable of
recompressing the diver at the surface to a minimum of 165 fsw (6 ATA) shall
be available at the dive location for:

(i) Surface-supplied air diving to depths deeper than 100 fsw and shallower
than 220 fsw;

(ii) Mixed gas diving shallower than 300 fsw; or

(iii) Diving
outside the no-decompression limits shallower than 300 fsw.

(2) A
decompression chamber capable of recompressing the diver at the surface to
the maximum depth of the dive shall be available at the dive location for
dives deeper than 300 fsw.

(3) The decompression chamber shall be:
	(i) Dual-lock;
	(ii) Multiplace; and
	(iii) Located within 5 minutes of the dive location.

(4) The
decompression chamber shall be equipped with: (i) A pressure gauge for each
pressurized compartment designed for human occupancy;

(ii) A built-in-breathing-system with a minimum of one mask per occupant;

(iii) A two-way voice communication system between occupants and a dive team
member at the dive location;

(iv) A viewport; and

(v) Illumination capability to light the interior.

(5) Treatment
tables, treatment gas appropriate to the diving mode, and sufficient gas to
conduct treatment shall be available at the dive location.

(6) A dive team member shall be available at the dive location during and
for at least one hour after the dive to operate the decompression chamber
(when required or provided).

(d) "Record of dive." (1) The following information shall be recorded and
maintained for each diving operation:
	(i) Names of dive team members including designated person-in-charge;
	(ii) Date, time, and location;
	(iii) Diving modes used;
	(iv) General nature of work performed;
	(v) Approximate underwater and surface conditions (visibility, water
temperature and current); and
	(vi) Maximum depth and bottom time for each diver.

(2) For each dive
outside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100 fsw or using mixed gas,
the following additional information shall be recorded and
maintained:
	(i) Depth-time and breathing gas profiles;
	(ii) Decompression table designation (including modification); and
	(iii) Elapsed time since last pressure exposure if less than 24 hours or
repetitive dive designation for each diver.

(3) For each dive in which decompression sickness is suspected or symptoms
are evident, the following additional information shall be recorded and
maintained:

(i) Description of decompression sickness symptoms (including depth and time
of onset); and

(ii) Description and results of treatment.

(e) "Decompression
procedure assessment." The employer shall: (1) Investigate and evaluate each
incident of decompression sickness based on the recorded information,
consideration of the past performance of decompression table used, and
individual susceptibility;

(2) Take appropriate corrective action to reduce the probability of
recurrence of decompression sickness; and

(3) Prepare a written evaluation of the decompression procedure assessment,
including any corrective action taken, within 45 days of the incident of
decompression sickness.

(The information collection requirements contained in paragraphs (d) and (e)
were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0069)

Specific Operations Procedures

1926.1084 SCUBA diving.

(a) "General." Employers engaged in SCUBA diving shall comply with the
following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Limits." SCUBA diving shall not be conducted:

(1) At depths deeper than 130 fsw;

(2) At depths deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits
unless a decompression chamber is ready for use;

(3) Against currents exceeding one (1) knot unless line-tended; or

(4) In enclosed or physically confined spaces unless line-tended. (c)
"Procedures." (1) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the
water.

(2) A diver shall be line-tended from the surface, or accompanied by another
diver in the water in continuous visual contact during the diving operations.

(3) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when diving
is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.

(4) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for each
diver consisting of:

(i) A manual reserve (J valve); or

(ii) An independent reserve
cylinder with a separate regulator or connected to the underwater breathing
apparatus.

(5) The valve of the reserve breathing gas supply shall be in the closed
position prior to the dive.

1926.1085  Surface-supplied air diving.

(a) "General." Employers engaged in surface-supplied air diving shall comply
with the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Limits." (1) Surface-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at
depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutes
or less may be conducted to depths of 220 fsw.

(2) A decompression chamber shall be ready for use at the dive location for
any dive outside the no-decompression limits or deeper than 100 fsw.

(3) A bell shall be used for dives with an inwater decompression time
greater than 120 minutes, except when heavy gear is worn or diving is
conducted in physically confining spaces.

(c) "Procedures." (1) Each diver shall be continuously tended while in the
water.

(2) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when diving
is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.

(3) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supply
sufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive including
decompression.

(4) For dives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits:
	(i) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver in the water;
	(ii) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water;
	(iii) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for
each diver except when heavy gear is worn; and
	(iv) A dive-location reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided.

(5) For heavy-gear diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression
limits:

(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to the
diver in the water shall be available to the standby diver.

(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided to divers in the water.

(6)
Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit, a
diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided whenever the
diver is prevented by the configuration of the dive area from ascending
directly to the surface.

1926.1086  Mixed-gas diving.

(a) "General." Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with the
following requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(b) "Limits." Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when:

(1) A decompression chamber is ready for use at the dive location; and

(i) A bell is used at depths greater than 220 fsw or when the dive involves
inwater decompression time or greater than 120 minutes, except when heavy
gear is worn or when diving in physically confining spaces; or (ii) A closed
bell is used at depths greater than 300 fsw, except when diving is conducted
in physically confining spaces.

(c) "Procedures." (1) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver in
the water.

(2) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the
water. 

(3) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when
diving is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.

(4) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supply
sufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive including
decompression.

(5) Each diving operation shall have a dive-location reserve breathing gas
supply.

(6) When heavy gear is worn:

(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to the
diver in the water shall be available to the standby diver; and

(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided for divers in the water.

(7)
An inwater stage shall be provided for divers without access to a bell for
dives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits.

(8) When a closed bell is used, one dive team member in the bell shall be
available and tend the diver in the water.

(9) Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit,
a diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for each
diver:

(i) Diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits;

or

(ii) Prevented by the configuration of the dive area from directly ascending
to the surface.

1926.1087  Liveboating.

(a) "General."  Employers engaged in diving operations involving liveboating
shall comply with the following requirements.

(b) "Limits." Diving operations involving liveboating shall not be conducted:

(1) With an inwater decompression time of greater than 120 minutes;

(2) Using surface-supplied air at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that
dives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be conducted to depths of
220 fsw;

(3) Using mixed gas at depths greater than 220 fsw;

(4) In rough seas which significantly impede diver mobility or work
function; or

(5) In other than daylight hours.

(c) "Procedures." (1) The
propeller of the vessel shall be stopped before the diver enters or exits the
water.

(2) A device shall be used which minimizes the possibility of entanglement
of the diver's hose in the propeller of the vessel.

(3) Two-way voice communication between the designated person-in-charge and
the person controlling the vessel shall be available while the diver is in
the water.

(4) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the
water.

(5) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be carried by
each diver engaged in liveboating operations.

Equipment Procedures and Requirements

1926.1090  Equipment.

(a) "General." (1) All employers shall comply with the following
requirements, unless otherwise specified.

(2) Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration or maintenance
service shall be recorded by means of a tagging or logging system, and
include the date and nature of work performed, and the name or initials of
the person performing the work.

(b) "Air compressor system." (1) Compressors used to supply air to the diver
shall be equipped with a volume tank with a check valve on the inlet side, a
pressure gauge, a relief valve, and a drain valve.

(2) Air compressor intakes shall be located away from areas containing
exhaust or other contaminants.

(3) Respirable air supplied to a diver shall not contain:
	(i) A level of carbon monoxide (CO) greater than 20 p/m;
	(ii) A level of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) greater than 1,000 p/m;
	(iii) A level of oil mist greater than 5 milligrams per cubic meter;
or 
	(iv) A noxious or pronounce odor. 

(4) The output of air compressor systems
shall be tested for air purity every 6 months by means of samples taken at
the connection to the distribution system, except that non-oil lubricated
compressors need not be tested for oil mist.

(c) "Breathing gas supply hoses." (1) Breathing gas supply hoses shall:

(i) Have a working pressure at least equal to the working pressure of the
total breathing gas system;

(ii) Have a rated bursting pressure at least equal to 4 times the working
pressure;

(iii) Be tested at least annually to 1.5 times their working pressure;

and (iv) Have their open ends taped, capped or plugged when not in use.

(2)
Breathing gas supply hose connectors shall: (i) Be made of
corrosion-resistant materials; (ii) Have a working pressure at least equal to
the working pressure of the hose to which they are attached; and
(iii) Be resistant to accidental disengagement.

(3) Umbilicals
shall: (i) Be marked in 10-ft. increments to 100 feet beginning at the
diver's end, and in 50 ft. increments thereafter;
(ii) Be made of kink-resistant materials; and
(iii) Have a working pressure greater than the pressure equivalent to the
maximum depth of the dive (relative to the supply source) plus 100 psi.

(d) "Buoyancy control. (1) Helmets or masks connected directly to the dry
suit or other buoyancy-changing equipment shall be equipped with an exhaust
valve.

(2) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing equipment not directly connected
to the helmet or mask shall be equipped with an exhaust valve.

(3) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy compensator shall have an
inflation source separate from the breathing gas supply.

(4) An inflatable flotation device capable of maintaining the diver at the
surface in a face-up position, having a manually activated inflation source
independent of the breathing supply, an oral inflation device, and an exhaust
valve shall be used for SCUBA diving.

(e) "Compressed gas cylinders." Compressed gas cylinders shall:

(1) Be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with the
applicable provisions of 29 CFR 1910.101 and 1910.169 through 1910.171 and
1926.306;

(2) Be stored in a ventilated area and protected from excessive heat;

(3) Be secured from falling; and

(4) Have shut-off valves recessed into the cylinder or protected by a cap,
except when in use or manifolded, or when used for SCUBA diving.

(f) "Decompression chambers." (1) Each decompression chamber manufactured
after the effective date of this standard, shall be built and maintained in
accordance with the ASME Code or equivalent.

(2) Each decompression chamber manufactured prior to the effective date of
this standard shall be maintained in conformity with the code requirements to
which it was built, or equivalent.

(3) Each decompression chamber shall be equipped with:

(i) Means to maintain the atmosphere below a level of 25 percent oxygen by
volume;

(ii) Mufflers on intake and exhaust lines, which shall be regularly
inspected and maintained;

(iii) Suction guards on exhaust line openings; and

(iv) A means for extinguishing fire, and shall be maintained to minimize
sources of ignition and combustible material.

(g) "Gauges and timekeeping devices." (1) Gauges indicating diver depth
which can be read at the dive location shall be used for all dives except
SCUBA.

(2) Each depth gauge shall be deadweight tested or calibrated against a
master reference gauge every 6 months, and when there is a discrepancy
greater than two percent (2 percent) of full scale between any two equivalent
gauges.

(3) A cylinder pressure gauge capable of being monitored by the diver during
the dive shall be worn by each SCUBA diver.

(4) A timekeeping device shall be available at each dive location.

(h) "Masks and helmets."  (1) Surface-supplied air and mixed-gas masks and
helmets shall have:

(i) A non-return valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask and
hose which shall close readily and positively; and

(ii) An exhaust valve.

(2) Surface-supplied air masks and helmets
shall have a minimum ventilation rate capability of 4.5 acfm at any depth at
which they are operated or the capability of maintaining the diver's inspired
carbon dioxide partial pressure below 0.02 ATA when the diver is producing
carbon dioxide at the rate of 1.6 standard liters per minute.

(i) "Oxygen safety." (1) Equipment used with oxygen or mixtures containing
over forty percent (40 percent) by volume oxygen shall be designed for oxygen
service.

(2) Components (except umbilicals) exposed to oxygen or mixtures containing
over forty percent (40 percent) by volume oxygen shall be cleaned of
flammable materials before use.

(3) Oxygen systems over 125 psig and compressed air systems over 500 psig
shall have slow-opening shut-off valves.

(j) "Weights and harnesses." (1) Except when heavy gear is worn, divers
shall be equipped with a weight belt or assembly capable of quick release.

(2) Except when heavy gear is worn or in SCUBA diving, each diver shall wear
a safety harness with:

(i) A positive buckling device;

(ii) An attachment point for the umbilical to prevent strain on the mask or
helmet; and

(iii) A lifting point to distribute the pull force of the line over the
diver's body.

(The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (a)(2) were
approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0069)

Recordkeeping

1926.1091  Recordkeeping requirements.
	(a)(1) [Reserved] (2) The employer shall record the occurrence of
any diving-related injury or illness which requires any dive team member to
be hospitalized for 24 hours or more, specifying the circumstances of the
incident and the extent of any injuries or illnesses.

(b) "Availability of records." (1) Upon the request of the Assistant
Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, or the Director,
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health
and Human Services of their designees, the employer shall make available for
inspection and copying any record or document required by this standard.

(2) Records and documents required by this standard shall be provided upon
request to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary
in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i).  Safe practices
manuals (1926.1080), depth-time profiles (1926.1082), recordings of dives
(1926.1083), decompression procedure assessment evaluations (1926.1083), and
records of hospitalizations (1926.1091) shall be provided in the same manner
as employee exposure records or analyses using exposure or medical records.
Equipment inspections and testing records which pertain to employees
(1926.1090) shall also be provided upon request to employees and their
designated representatives.

(3) Records and documents required by this standard shall be retained by the
employer for the following period:

(i) Dive team member medical records (physician's reports) (1926.1076) - 5
years;

(ii) Safe practices manual (1926.1080) - current document only;

(iii) Depth-time profile (1926.1082) - until completion of the recording of
dive, or until completion of decompression procedure assessment where there
has been an incident of decompression sickness;

(iv) Recording of dive (1926.1083) - 1 year, except 5 years where there has
been an incident of decompression sickness;

(v) Decompression procedure assessment evaluations (1926.1083) - 5 years;

(vi) Equipment inspections and testing records (1926.1090) - current entry
or tag, or until equipment is withdrawn from service;

(vii) Records of hospitalizations (1926.1091) - 5 years. (4) After
the expiration of the retention period of any record required to be kept for
five (5) years, the employer shall forward such records to the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health and Human
Services.  The employer shall also comply with any additional requirements
set forth at 29 CFR 1926.33(h).

(5) In the event the employer ceases to do business:

(i) The successor employer shall receive and retain all dive and employee
medical records required by this standard; or (ii) If there is no successor
employer, dive and employee medical records shall be forwarded to the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health
and Human Services.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0058)

1926.1092  Effective date.

This standard shall be effective on October 20, 1977, except that for
provisions where decompression chambers or bells are required and such
equipment is not yet available, employers shall comply as soon as possible
thereafter buy in no case later than 6 months after the effective date of the
standard.

Appendix A to Subpart Y - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit
Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

The following disorders may restrict or limit occupational exposures to
hyperbaric conditions depending on severity, presence of residual effects,
response to therapy, number of occurrences, diving mode, or degree and
duration of isolation.
	History of seizure disorder other than early febrile convulsions.
Malignancies (active) unless treated and without recurrence for 5 yrs.
Chronic inability to equalize sinus and/or middle ear pressure. Cystic or
cavitary disease o;f the lungs. Impaired organ function caused by alcohol or
drug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,
antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or
insulin).
	Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or restrictive
lung disease. Vestibular end organ destruction. Pneumothorax. Cardiac
abnormalities (e.g., pathological heart block, valvular disease,
intraventricular condition defects other than isolated right bundle branch
block, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, coronary artery disease).

Appendix B to Subpart Y - Guidelines for Scientific Diving

This appendix contains guidelines that will be used in conjunction with
1926.1071(a)(2)(iv) to determine those scientific diving programs, which are
exempt from the requirements for commercial diving.  The guidelines are as
follows:

1. The diving Control Board consists of a majority of active scientific
divers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific diving
program's operations.

2. The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement of
science; therefore, information and data resulting from the project are
non-proprietary.

3. The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and data
gatherer.  Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associated
with commercial diving are not included within scientific diving.

4. Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must use
scientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and, therefore,
are scientists or scientists in training.

46. In part 1926, a new subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances is added
to read as follows:

Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances

AUTHORITY: Sections 6 and 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C.
655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Orders Nos. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR
25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736) or 1-90 (55 FR 9033) as applicable; and 29 CFR
part 1911.
	Section 1926.1102 not issued under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911;
also issued under 5 U.S.C. 653.
	Section 1926.1103 through 1926.1118 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653.
Section 1926.1128 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653. Section 1926.1145 and
1926.1147 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653. Section 1926.1148 also issued
under 29 U.S.C. 653.

1926.1100 - 1926.1101 [Reserved]

1926.1102  Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

Coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which
volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding
asphalt), wood, and other  organic matter.  Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS
64742-93-4) is not covered under the "coal tar pitch volatiles" standard.

1926.1103  4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
4-Nitrobiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92933 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section:

(1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono
disperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Nitrobiphenyl. The
clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl where
containment prevents the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas,
non-regulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Nitrobiphenyl or its safe
disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl which may result in exposure to
or contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, which is impervious to the passage
of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should
leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an-average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion of
any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl in an
open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor
in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to 4-Nitrobiphenyl.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Nitrobiphenyl." A regulated area
shall be established by an employer where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is manufactured,
processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas
shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following
category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Nitrobiphenyl within an
isolated system such as a "glove box' shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Nitrobiphenyl
is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including
piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while
4-Nitrobiphenyl is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before other
activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is contained
in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged
into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph
shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Nitrobiphenyl handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit,from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any
operations involving work in an area where direct contact with
4-Nitrobiphenyl could result, each authorized employee entering that area
shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency
has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco, products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training." - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-
Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents
identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs
(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are
accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or
employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall
have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of
this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 4-Nitrobiphenyl contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements wanting of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers
required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the
largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any
instance. "Provided", That no such required lettering need be more than 1
inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements."  No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, including
local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
4-Nitrobiphenyl;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
4-Nitrobiphenyl in each regulated area, (iii) The number of employees in each
regulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities;
and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Nitrobiphenyl is present in each regulated area;
e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled, (2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the
release of 4-
Nitrobiphenyl into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall
be reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence
of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on
any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to
the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0085)

1926.1104  alpha-Naphthylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
alpha-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 134327 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of alpha-Naphthylamine.

(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructive
distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of alpha-Naphthylamine.
The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine where
containment prevents the release of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas,
nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of alpha-Naphthylamine or its
safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of alpha-Naphthylamine from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of alpha-Naphthylamine which may result in exposure
to or contact with alpha-Naphthylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of alpha-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to the
passage of alpha-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry of
alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained, so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving alpha-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertion
of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine
in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type
hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the
entry of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to alpha-Naphthylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing alpha-Naphthylamine." A regulated
area shall be established by an employer where alpha-Naphthylamine is
manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All
such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the
following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with alpha-Naphthylamine within an
isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
alpha-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed
system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed
while alpha-Naphthylamine is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations, involving
"laboratory type hoods" or in locations where alpha-Naphthylamine is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), and shoe covers and gloves prior to entering a regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in alpha-Naphthylamine handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection maybe substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exist of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any
operations involving work in an area where direct contact with
alpha-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employee entering that area
shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected areas shall be decontaminated prior to the
resumption of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours, for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known, contact with alpha-Naphthylamine such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing ,and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control."  (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove alpha-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited. (e) "Signs,
information and training." - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be
followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of
alpha-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents
identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of alpha-Naphthylamine and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(vii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have alpha-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm).  Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of alpha-Naphthylamine, including
local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
alpha-Naphthylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director.  Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
alpha-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which alpha-Naphthylamine is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of
alpha-Naphthylamine into any area where employees may be potentially exposed
shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedures used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance."  At no cost to the employee, a program of
medical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees
considered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized
employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause be maintained complete and accurate records of all such
medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the
employee's employment.  Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i).  These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director (iii) Any physician who conducts a
medical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employer
a statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specific
exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0084)

1926.1105  [Reserved]

1926.1106  Methyl chloromethyl ether.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
methyl chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 107302
is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but
shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the
labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of methyl chloromethyl ether.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section. (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of methyl chloromethyl
ether. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a
shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this
section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether
where containment prevents the release of methyl chloromethyl ether into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of methyl chloromethyl ether or
its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of methyl chloromethyl ether from the
work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting fn the release of methyl chloromethyl ether which may result in
exposure to or contact with methyl chloromethyl ether.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonrogulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of methyl chloromethyl ether, which is impervious to
the passage of methyl chloromethyl ether, and which would prevent the entry
of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of
containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving methyl chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require the
insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and
arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employor
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethyl
ether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory
type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against
the entry of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated
areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to methyl chloromethyl ether.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing methyl chloromethyl ether."  A
regulated area shall be established by an employer where methyl chloromethyl
ether is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or
stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the
requirements for the following category or categories describing the
operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with methyl chloromethyl ether
within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and
arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other
activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where methyl
chloromethyl ether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed
system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed
while methyl chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall be
restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open-vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where methyl chloromethyl ether is
contained in an otherwise "closed system." but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.
	(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt and
pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in methyl chloromethyl ether handling operations
shall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air
respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance
with 1926.103.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any
operations involving work in an area where direct contact with methyl
chloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering that area
shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
induding gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with methyl chloromethyl ether
such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove methyl chloromethyl ether from the surfaces of materials, equipment
and the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training." (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to
regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQURIED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification."  (i) Containers of methyl
chloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have, contents
identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of methyl chloromethyl ether and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees ether than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have methyl chloromethyl ether contents with corrosive
or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance:  "Provided", That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements."  No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of methyl chloromethyl ether
including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving methyl chloromethyl ether
which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of methyl
chloromethyl ether;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations."  Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
methyl chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which methyl chloromethyl ether is present in each
regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,
released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of methyl
chloromethyl ether into any area where employees may be potentially exposed
shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances be taken, with specific completion
dates, of the incident, and measures taken or to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

1926.1107  3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts).

(a) "Scope and application."  (1) This section applies to any area in which
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry
Number 91941 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or
stored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers except for
the labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this
section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1 percent by weight or volume of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
(or its salts). The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an
entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise
required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or
its salts) where containment prevents the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
(or its salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine or
its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its
salts) from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which may
result in exposure to or contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment, of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), which is
impervious to the passage of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and which
would prevent the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should
leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) within the hood does not
require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his
hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in an open vessel, which is not in an
isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording
equivalent protection against the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its
salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to 3,3,-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its
salts)."  A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is manufactured, processed, used,
repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled
in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories
describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or
its salts) within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their
hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in
other activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is stored in sealed containers, or
contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports
or openings closed while 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is contained
within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its
salts) is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred,
charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions
of this subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) handling
operations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half- face,
filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with
1926.103. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be -
substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall-be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountain's are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any
operations involving work in an area where direct contact with
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report. in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or
its salts), such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible,
unless contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control."  (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement.  Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established  and implemented to
remove 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) from the surfaces of materials,
equipment and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training." (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containers required under paragraphs
(c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are
accessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other
employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may
have contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or
other proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containers
required under paragraphs (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) contents
with corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning
of such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected
portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance:  "Provided", That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements."  No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination."  (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its
salts), including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purpose;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific Information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts);

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary, and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is present in
each regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used
repackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 3,3'-
Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into any area where employees may be
potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.
(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination, and (C) A report of any medical
treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program
implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas. and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids of
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shall
also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0083)

1926.1108  bis-Chloromethyl ether.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
bis-chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 542881 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of bis-chloromethyl ether.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of training 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um
particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of bis-chloromethyl ether.
The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether
where containment prevents the release of bis-chloromethyl ether into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of bis-chloromethyl ether or
its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of bis-chloromethyl ether form the
work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of bis-chloromethyl ether which may result in
exposure to or contact with bis-chloromethyl ether.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment, of bis-chloromethyl ether and which is impervious to
the passage of, bis-chloromethyl ether and which would prevent the entry of
bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of
containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving bis-chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require the
insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and
arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving bis-chloromethyl
ether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory
type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against
the entry of bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas,
or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to bis-chloromethyl ether.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing bis-chloromethyl ether." A regulated
area shall be established by an employer where bis-chloromethyl ether is
manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All
such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the
following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with bis-chloromethyl ether within
an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms
upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities
not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where bis-chloromethyl
ether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system,
including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while
bis-chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall be restricted to
authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where bis-chloromethyl ether is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
paragraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in bis-chloromethyl ether handling operations shall
be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air
respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance
with 1926.103.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area. (5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any
operations involving work in an area where direct contact with
bis-chloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering that
area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency
has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated ad
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency.  A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with bis-chloromethyl ether such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products, are prohibited in regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.52(f)(4).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas.  Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement.  Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed form a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove bis-chloromethyl ether form the surfaces of materials, equipment and
the decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to
regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER - SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER - SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identifications." (i) Containers of bis-chloromethyl
ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B),
and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled
only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance
with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification
limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of bis-chloromethyl ether and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have bis-chloromethyl ether contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by
subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2
inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not
be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not
less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such required
lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of bis-chloromethyl ether,
including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving bis-chloromethyl ether
which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
bis-chloromethyl ether;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and implant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
bis-chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which bis-chloromethyl ether is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of bis-chloromethyl
ether into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be
reported in accordance with this subparagraph.  (i) A report of the
occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a
report on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24
hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations.  Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0087)

1926.1109  beta-Naphthylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
beta-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 91598 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of beta-Naphthylamine.

(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructive
distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Naphthylamine. The
clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine where
containment prevents the release of beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas,
nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Naphthylamine or its
safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Naphthylamine from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of beta-Naphthylamine which may result in exposure
to or contact with beta-Naphthylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of beta-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to the
passage of beta-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry of
beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving beta-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertion
of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine in
an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood,
nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to beta-Naphthylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Naphthylamine." A regulated area
shall be established by an employer where beta-Naphthylamine is manufactured,
processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas
shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following
category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Naphthylamine within an
isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
beta-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed
system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed
while beta-Naphthylamine is contained within: (i) Access shall be restricted
to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Naphthylamine is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
paragraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(ii)
Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so
that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.
Exhaust air shall not be, discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas
or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be
introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the
local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Naphthylamine handling operations shall be
provided with, and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit, from the, regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with beta-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v)  of this section shall be implemented. (i)
The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has
been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Naphthylamine, such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done, so in a manner that does not cause
contamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove beta-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOODS REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification."  (i) Containers of
beta-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance, with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents
identification limited to generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of beta-Naphthylamine and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this  section
which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have beta-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on
containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of
the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any
instance: "Provided", That no such required lettering need be more than 1
inch (2.54 cm,) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information, or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Naphthylamine, including
local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Naphthylamine which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination, practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
beta-Naphthylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information, required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s), regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
beta-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which beta-Naphthylamine is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Naphthylamine
into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in
accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the
incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any
medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the
nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
with in 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation, of the procedure used in determining the
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination;

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less, often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof shall
be forwarded by registered mail to, the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated, representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination, required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0089)

1926.1110  Benzidine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
Benzidine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92875 is manufactured,
processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply to
transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements
under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume in Benzidine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono dispense aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of Benzidine. The clean
change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, when
the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Benzidine where containment
prevents the release of Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas,
or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Benzidine or its safe
disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Benzidine from the work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of Benzidine which may result in exposure to or
contact with Benzidine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of Benzidine, which is impervious to the passage of
Benzidine, and which would prevent the entry of Benzidine into regulated
areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage or
spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving Benzidine within the hood does not require the insertion of any
portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open vessel system" means an operation involving Benzidine in an open
vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in
any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to Benzidine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing Benzidine." A regulated area shall be
established by an employer where Benzidine is manufactured, processed, used,
repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled
in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories
describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Benzidine within an isolated
system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completion
of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associated
with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Benzidine is
stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including
piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Benzidine is
contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Benzidine is contained in an
otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into
other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall
apply. (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in Benzidine handling operations shall be provided
with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator for
dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A respirator affording
higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v)  Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required
to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit
and at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with Benzidine could result, each authorized employee entering
that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious
garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in
accordance with 1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency
has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Benzidine such employee
shall be required to shower as soon as possible unless contraindicated by
physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove Benzidine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping an dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training"- (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Benzidine and
containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and
(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled
only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance
with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification
limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of Benzidine and containers required under paragraphs
(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are
accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or
employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall
have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of
this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have Benzidine contents with corrosive or irritating
properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, if
appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Benzidine, including local and
systemic toxicity;

(B)The specific nature of the operation involving Benzidine which could
result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G)  Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of Benzidine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports"- (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location
of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area:

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
Benzidine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which Benzidine is present in each regulated area;
e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Benzidine into any
area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in
accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the
incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any
medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the
nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0082)

1926.1111  4-Aminodiphenyl.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
4-Aminodiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92671 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Aminodiphenyl. The
clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl where
containment prevents the release of 4-Arninodiphenyl into regulated areas,
nonregulated area, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Aminodiphenyl or its safe
disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Aminodiphenyl from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl which may result in exposure to
or contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of 4-Aminodiphenyl, which is impervious to the passage
of 4-Aminodiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Aminodiphenyl into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should
leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving 4-Aminodiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion of
any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl in an
open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor
in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
4-Aminodiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to 4-Aminodiphenyl.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Aminodiphenyl." A regulated area
shall be established by an employer where 4-Aminodiphenyl is manufactured,
processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas
shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following
category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Aminodiphenyl within an
isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Aminodiphenyl
is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including
piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while
4-Aminodiphenyl is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations. "Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Aminodiphenyl is contained
in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged
into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph
shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Aminodiphenyl handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as, soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove 4-Aminodiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training" - (1) Signs. (i) Entrances to regulated areas shall
be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyl
and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and
(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled
only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance
with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identification
limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs
(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are
accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees or
employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall
have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of
this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 4-Aminodiphenyl contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by
subparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm).
Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2
the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point
type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need be
more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive including, but not
necessarily limited to: A training and indoctrination program (A) The nature
of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Aminodiphenyl, including local and systemic
toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
4-Aminodiphenyl;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in this
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location
of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
4-Aminodiphenyl in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Aminodiphenyl is present in each regulated area;
e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl
into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in
accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the
incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any
medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the
nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management an Budget under control number
(1218-0090)

1926.1112  Ethyleneimine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
Ethyleneimine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 151564 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under (e)(2), paragraphs (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of Ethyleneimine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of Ethyleneimine. The
clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine where
containment prevents the release of Ethyleneimine into regulated areas,
nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Ethyleneimine or its safe
disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Ethyleneimine from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of Ethyleneimine which may result in exposure to or
contact with Ethyleneimine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of Ethyleneimine, which is impervious to the passage of
Ethyleneimine, and which would prevent the entry of Ethyleneimine into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should
leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving Ethyleneimine within the hood does not require the insertion of any
portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine in an
open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor
in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
Ethyleneimine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to Ethyleneimine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing Ethyleneimine." A regulated area
shall be established by an employer where Ethyleneimine is manufactured,
processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas
shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following
category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Ethyleneimine within an
isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Ethyleneimine is
stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, including
piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Ethyleneimine
is contained within: Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Ethyleneimine is contained in
an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged into
other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shall
apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so
that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.
Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas or
the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall be
introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of the
local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt and
pants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in Ethyleneimine handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air
respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure- demand type, in accordance
with 1926.103.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with Ethyleneimine could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood;

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Ethyleneimine, such employee
shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by
physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running
potable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same level
with locations where a direct exposure of Ethyleneimine would be most likely
as a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking. storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1928.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove Ethyleneimine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training"- (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to
regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Ethyleneimine and
containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and
(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handled
only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordance
with paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have contents identification
limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of Ethyleneimine and containers required under paragraphs
(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are
accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees or
employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall
have contents identification which includes the full chemical name and
Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) of
this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have Ethyleneimine contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Ethyleneimine, including local
and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving, Ethyleneimine which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
Ethyleneimine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports"- (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant location
of the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of,
Ethyleneimine in each,regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which Ethyleneimine is present in each regulated area;
e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Ethyleneimine into
any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in
accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the
incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any
medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the
nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0080)

1926.1113  beta-Propiolactone.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
beta-Propiolactone, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 57578 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of beta-Propiolactone.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Propiolactone. The
clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone where
containment prevents the release of beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas,
nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Propiolactone or its
safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Propiolactone from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of beta-Propiolactone which may result in exposure
to or contact with beta-Propiolactone.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of beta-Propiolactone, which is impervious to the
passage of beta-Propiolactone, and which would prevent the entry of
beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving beta-Propiolactone within the hood does not require the insertion
of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone in
an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood,
nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of
beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external
environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to beta-Propiolactone.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Propiolactone." A regulated area
shall be established by an employer where beta-Propiolactone is manufactured,
processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas
shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the following
category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Propiolactone within an
isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon
completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not
associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
beta-Propiolactone is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed
system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed
while beta-Propiolactone is contained within. Access shall be restricted to
authorized employees only.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Propiolactone is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Propiolactone handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied air
respirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordance
with 1926.103.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with beta-Propiolactone could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean,
impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood
in accordance with 1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency
has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Propiolactone, such
employee shall be required to shower soon as possible, unless contraindicated
by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running
potable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same level
with locations where a direct exposure to beta-Propiolactone would be most
likely as a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove beta-Propiolactone from the surfaces of materials, equipment and the
decontamination facility.

(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to
regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of
beta-Propiolactone and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents
identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietary
identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of beta-Propiolactone and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have beta-Propiolactone contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches. Labels on containers
required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of the
largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in any
instance: Provided, That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inch
in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Propiolactone, including
local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Propiolactone which
could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
beta-Propiolactone;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
beta-Propiolactone in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which beta-Propiolactone is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Propiolactone
into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported in
accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of the
incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on any
medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to the
nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agent, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i).  These records shall also
be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0079)

1926.1114  2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
2-Acetylaminofluorene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 53963 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter is
one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 um
particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of 2-Acetylaminofluorene.
The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene where
containment prevents the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated
areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 2-Acetylaminofluorene or its
safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the work
environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene which may result in
exposure to or contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, which is impervious to the
passage of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, and which would prevent the entry of
2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of
containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene within the hood does not require the
insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and
arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene
in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type
hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the
entry of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or
the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to 2-Acetylaminofluorene.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 2-Acetylaminofluorene."  A regulated
area shall be established by an employer where 2-Acetylaminofluorene is
manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All
such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the
following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 2-Acetylaminofluorene within
an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms
upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities
not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
2-Acetylaminofluorene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a
closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings
closed while 2-Acetylaminofluorene is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In  operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 2-Acetylaminofluorene is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 2-Acetylaminofluorene handling operations shall be
provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene could result, each authorized
employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,
including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene, such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the surfaces of materials, equipment and
the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of
2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only
to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained
in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents
identification, limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other
proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.
	(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"

displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have 2-Acetylaminofluorene contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by
subparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm).
Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2
the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point
type in any instance; Provided, That no such required lettering need be more
than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) The
nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, including local
and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene
which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
2-Acetylaminofluorene;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees, shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
2-Acetylaminofluorene in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 2-Acetylaminofluorene is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of
2-Acetylaminofluorene into any area where employees may be potentially
exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shall
also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0088)

1926.1115  4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 60117
is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but
shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the
labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and
have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are
otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Dimeth-ylaminoazo-benzene
where containment prevents the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene or
its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from the
work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which may result in
exposure to or contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, which is impervious to
the passage of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which would prevent the entry of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of
containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene within the hood does not require the
insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and
arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated
system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent
protection against the entry of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated
areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene." A
regulated area shall be established by an employer where
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,
released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance
with the requirements for the following category or categories describing the
operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and
arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other
activities not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a
closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings
closed while 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene handling operations
shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exist of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene could result, each authorized
employee entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear
clear, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air
supplied hood in accordance with 1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs
(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.
(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency
has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene,
such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
room shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of such
employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from the surfaces of materials, equipment
and the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required under paragraph (c)(4)(v)
and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible
only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees
trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have
contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other
proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
 displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

  (iv) Containers which have 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene contents with
corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning of
such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected
portions of the body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by
subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2
inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not
be less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not
less than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required
lettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene,
including local and sytemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for the application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and
purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices;

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is present in each
regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,
released, stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into any area where employees may be potentially
exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examination, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examination. Records shall be maintained for the duration of the
employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shall
also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0044)

1926.1116  N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which
N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 62759 is
manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall
not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing less
than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"
is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3
um particles.

(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to be
in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothing
and/or protective equipment in an environment free of N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower
room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.

(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine
where containment prevents the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into
regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine or
its safe disposal.

(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Health
and Human Services to act for the Director.

(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of N-Nitrosodimethylamine from the
work environment.

(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances
resulting in the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine which may result in
exposure to or contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated and
nonregulated areas.

(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than the
vessel of containment of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, which is impervious to the
passage of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, and which would prevent the entry of
N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the
external environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of
containment occur.

(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the top
and bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average
linear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per
minute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operation
involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine within the hood does not require the
insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and
arms.

(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employer
where entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.

(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving
N-Nitrosodimethylamine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system,
a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent
protection against the entry of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas,
nonregulated areas, or the external environment.

(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employee
against contact with or exposure to N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted and
controlled.

(c) "Requirements for areas containing N-Nitrosodimethylamine." A regulated
area shall be established by an employer where N-Nitrosodimethylamine is
manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All
such areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the
following category or categories describing the operation involved:

(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with N-Nitrosodimethylamine within
an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms
upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities
not associated with the isolated system.

(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where
N-Nitrosodimethylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a
closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings
closed while N-Nitrosodimethylamine is contained within:

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon
each exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before
engaging in other activities.

(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations as
defined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.

(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging point
operations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving
"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where N-Nitrosodimethylamine is
contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or
discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of this
subparagraph shall apply.

(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;

(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust
ventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the
operation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,
nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean
makeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct
operation of the local exhaust system.

(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full
body protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and
pants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.

(iv) Employees engaged in N-Nitrosodimethylamine handling operations shall
be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type
respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A
respirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.

(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to
remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and
at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment in
impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination or
disposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, as
required under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.

(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on
each exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and before
engaging in other activities.

(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.

(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.

(5)
"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,
maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, where
direct contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine could result, each authorized
employee entering that area shall:

(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garment,
including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with
1926.103.

(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;

(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.

(d) "General regulated area requirements."

(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediate
measures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be
implemented.

(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the
emergency has been determined.

(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and
the potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption
of normal operations.

(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within
24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the time
of the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatment
shall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)
of this section.

(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine, such
employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless
contraindicated by physical injuries.

(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in
paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,
storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application of
cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other
products for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in
regulated areas.

(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washing
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, shower
facilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).

(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change
rooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.

(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a
separate room.

(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoor
systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect to
nonregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy this
requirement. Clean make-up air in equal volume shall replace air removed.

(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from a
regulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contamination
in nonregulated areas or the external environment.

(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented to
remove N-Nitrosodimethylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and
the decontamination facility.

(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.

(e) "Signs,
information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areas
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph
(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREA

IMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED AT
ALL TIMES

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,
and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures that
must be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.

(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of
N-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and
(c)(6)(vii) (B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible
only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees
trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have
contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other
proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.

(ii) Containers of N-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required under
paragraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section
which are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized
employees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this
section shall have contents identification which includes the full chemical
name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph
(a)(1) of this section.

(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"
displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.

(iv) Containers which have N-Nitrosodimethylamine contents with corrosive or
irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,
noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the
body.

(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph
(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08
cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8
point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need
be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.

(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near any
required sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from the
effect of any required warning, information or instruction.

(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to being
authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training and
indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:

(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of N-Nitrosodimethylamine,
including local and systemic toxicity;

(B) The specific nature of the operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylamine
which could result in exposure;

(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,
including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;

(D) The purpose of and application of decontamination practices and purposes;

(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;

(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;

(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation
of conditions and situations which may result in the release of
N-Nitrosodimethylamine;

(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and
practices.

(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program and annually thereafter.

(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and
employees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in their
application.

(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request
to authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, the
information required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of this
section shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Any
changes in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15
calendar days of such change.

(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated and
the address of each regulated area;

(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of
N-Nitrosodimethylamine in each regulated area;

(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normal
operations including maintenance activities; and

(iv) The manner in which N-Nitrosodimethylamine is present in each regulated
area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,
stored, or otherwise handled.

(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of
N-Nitrosodimethylamine into any area where employees may be potentially
exposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.

(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at
that time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employees
shall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.

(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Director
within 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:

(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of time
involved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining this
figure;

(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible
employee exposure and area contamination; and

(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical
surveillance program implemented; and

(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or
to be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar
releases.

(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medical
surveillance shall be established and implemented for employees considered
for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.

(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulated
area, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.
The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, family
and occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.

(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,
not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.

(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider
whether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reduced
immunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids or
cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.

(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to this
paragraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of all
such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of
the employee's employment. Upon termination of an employee's employment,
including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceases
business without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,
shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.

(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request to
employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary in
accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shall
also be provided upon request to the Director.

(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by this
paragraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee's
suitability for employment in the specific exposure.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0081)

1926.1117  Vinyl chloride.

(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section includes requirements for the
control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical
Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014.

(2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging,
repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl
chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products
made of polyvinyl chloride.

(3) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or
polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportation
may regulate the hazards covered by this section.

(b) "Definitions." (1) Action level means a concentration of vinyl chloride
of 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.

(2) "Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or his designee.

(3) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the
employer whose duties require him to enter a regulated area or any person
entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the
purpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring
procedures.

(4) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or his
designee.

(5) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment
failure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, result
in massive release of vinyl chloride.

(6) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly from
polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing at
temperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of the
polyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.

(7) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity where
a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a
consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation,
which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible
exposure limit.

(8) "OSHA Area Director" means the Director for the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration Area Office having jurisdiction over the geographic
area in which the employer's establishment is located.

(9) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymer
before such is converted to a fabricated product.

(10) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer. (c) "Permissible
exposure limit." (1) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at
concentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and (2) No
employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5
ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.

(3) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact with
liquid vinyl chloride.

(d) "Monitoring." (1) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shall
be undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employee
exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action
level.

(2) Where a determination conducted under paragraph (d)(1) of this section
shows any employee exposures, without regard to the use of respirators, in
excess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each such
employee shall be established. Such a program:

(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed,
without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissible
exposure limit.

(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee is
exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the action
level.

(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least two
consecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than 5 working days
apart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.

(3) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change which
may result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employer
has any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess of
the action level, a determination of employee exposure under paragraph (d)(1)
of this section shall be performed.

(4) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with a
confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 50 percent
from 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus 35 percent from over 0.5 ppm through
1.0 ppm, and plus or minus 25 percent over 1.0 ppm. (Methods meeting these
accuracy requirements are available in the "NIOSH Manual of Analytical
Methods").

(5) Employees or their designated representatives shall be afforded
reasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required by
this paragraph.

(e) "Regulated area." (1) A regulated area shall be established where:

(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted,
repackaged, stored, handled or used; and

(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure
limit.

(2) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized
persons. (f) "Methods of compliance." Employee exposures to vinyl chloride
shall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided in
paragraph (c) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personal
protective controls as follows:

(1) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately be
used to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.

(2) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can be
instituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or below
the permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduce
exposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented by
respiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section. A
program shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at or
below the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible,
solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon as
feasible.

(3) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished upon
request for examination and copying to authorized representatives of the
Assistant Secretary and the Director. Such plans shall be updated at least
every six months.

(g) "Respiratory protection." Where respiratory protection is required under
this section:

(1) The employer shall provide a respirator which meets the requirements of
this paragraph and shall assure that the employee uses such respirator,
except that until April 1, 1976, wearing of respirators shall be at the
discretion of each employee for exposures not in excess of 25 ppm, measured
over any 15-minute period. Until April 1, 1976, each employee who chooses not
to wear an appropriate respirator shall be informed at least quarterly of the
hazards of vinyl chloride and the purpose, proper use, and limitations of
respiratory devices.

(2) Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by the
Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, Department of the Interior, and
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the
provisions of 30 CFR part 11.

(3) A respiratory protection program meeting the requirements of 1926.103
shall be established and maintained.

(4) Selection of respirators for vinyl chloride shall be as follows:
Atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride Required apparatus
(i) Unknown, or above 3,600 p/m Open-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type, with full facepiece
(ii) Not over 3,600 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or
(iii) Not over 1,000 p/m (B) Combination type, supplied air respirator continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply Type C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet or hood
(iv) Not over 100 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied air respirator demand type, with full facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

(B) Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece, in demand mode; or

(C) Type C supplied air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece
(v) Not over 25 p/m (A) A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m, or

(B) Gas mask, front-or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m
(vi) Not over 10 p/m (A) Combination type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

(B) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece; or

(C) Any chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 p/m
(5)(i) Entry into unknown concentrations or concentrations greater than
36,000 ppm (lower explosive limit) may be made only for purposes of life
rescue; and

(ii) Entry into concentrations of less than 36,000 ppm, but greater than
3,600 ppm may be made only for purposes of life rescue, fire fighting, or
securing equipment so as to prevent a greater hazard from release of vinyl
chloride.

(6) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges shall be replaced prior to the
expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are
first used, whichever occurs first, and (ii) A continuous monitoring and
alarm system shall be provided where concentrations of vinyl chloride could
reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such
system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations
exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.

(7) Apparatus prescribed for higher concentrations may be used for any lower
concentration.

(h) "Hazardous operations." (1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations,
including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel
walls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;

{i} Respiratory protection in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (g) of this
section; and

{ii} Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride
or with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garments
shall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.

(2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each
use. (i) "Emergency situations." A written operational plan for emergency
situations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, or
otherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriate
portions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. The
plan shall specifically provide that:

(1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations of
existing hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in paragraph (h) of
this section;

(2) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not return
until conditions are controlled by the methods required in paragraph (f) of
this section and the emergency is abated.

(j) "Training." Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl
chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the
hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.

(1) The program shall include:

(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chloride
including specifically the carcinogenic hazard;

(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to
vinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protective
steps;

(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protective
devices;

(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessary
protective steps;

(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;

(vi) The purpose for, and a description of, the medical surveillance program;

(vii) Emergency procedures;

(viii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditions
which may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and

(ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and
indoctrination program, and annually thereafter.

(2) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request to
the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(k) "Medical surveillance." A program of medical surveillance shall be
instituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use of
respirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The program
shall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations and
tests in accordance with this paragraph. All medical examinations and
procedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed
physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.

(1) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medical
surveillance;

(i) A general physical examination shall be performed, with specific
attention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, or
dysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connective
tissues and the pulmonary system (See Appendix A).

(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:
	(A) Alcohol intake;
	(B) Past history of hepatitis;
	(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents,
including drugs and chemicals;
	(D) Past history of blood transfusions; and
	(E) Past history of hospitalizations.

(iii) A serum specimen shall
be obtained and determinations made of: (A) Total bilirubin; (B) Alkaline
phosphatase; (C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT); (D) Serum
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT); and (E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.

(2) Examinations provided in accordance with this paragraph shall be
performed at least:

(i) Every 6 months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chloride
or polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for 10 years or longer; and

(ii) Annually for all other employees.

(3) Each employee exposed to
an emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.

(4) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure to
vinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shall
be obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. A
copy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.

(5) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continued
exposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinyl
chloride.

(6) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medical
examinations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR part
74.

(7) If the examining physician determines that alternative medical
examinations to those required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section will
provide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent to
the exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternative
examinations as meeting the requirements of paragraph (k)(1) of this section,
if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician setting
forth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. This
statement shall be available upon request for examination and copying to
authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(l) "Signs and labels." (1) Entrances to regulated areas shall be posted
with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

(2) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currently
exists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL ONLY

(3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other
waste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDE

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(4) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME)

CONTAINS

VINYL CHLORIDE

VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

(5) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:

(i)

VINYL CHLORIDE

EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE

CANCER SUSPECT AGENT

or (ii) In accordance with 49 CFR parts 170 through 189, with the additional
legend:

CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT

applied near the label or placard.

(6) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label or
instruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of, any required
warning, information or instruction.

(m) "Records." (1) All records maintained in accordance with this section
shall include the name and social security number of each employee where
relevant.

(2) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shall
be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and the
Assistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a) through (e) and (g)
through (i). These records shall be provided upon request to the Director.
Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to the
Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:

(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrations
determined and identify the instruments and methods used;

(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individual
employee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other than
individual monitoring of employees; and

(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.

(ii) [Reserved] (iii)
Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment of
each employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.

(3) In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is no
successor to receive and retain his records for the prescribed period, these
records shall be transmitted by registered mail to the Director, and each
employee individually notified in writing of this transfer. The employer
shall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in 29 CFR
1926.33(h).

(n) "Reports." (1) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of a
regulated area, the following information shall be reported to the OSHA Area
Director. Any changes to such information shall be reported within 15 days.

(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or more
regulated areas; and

(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normal
operations, including maintenance.

(2) Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reported
within 24 hours to the OSHA Area Director. Upon request of the Area Director,
the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to the
nature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent future
emergencies of similar nature.

(3) Within 10 working days following any monitoring and measuring which
discloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use of
respirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employee
shall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement and
the steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissible
exposure limit.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number
1218-0010)

Appendix A to 1926.1117 - Supplementary Medical Information

When required tests under paragraph (k)(1) of this section show
abnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable,
preferably within 3 to 4 weeks. If tests remain abnormal, consideration
should be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinyl
chloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.
	Additional tests which may be useful:

A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,
and exfoliative abnormal cells.

B. Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume at 1
second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 X 17 inches (35.56 X
43.18 cm)).

C. Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic acid
dehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.

D. For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests:
Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.

1926.1118 Inorganic arsenic.

(a) "Scope and application." This section applies to all occupational
exposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply to
employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application,
the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically
preserved wood.

(b) "Definitions." "Action level" means a concentration of inorganic arsenic
of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 um/m(3)) averaged over any eight
(8) hour period.

"Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee.

"Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employer
whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person
entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the
purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring
procedures under paragraph (e) of this section.

"Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or designee.

"Inorganic arsenic" means copper aceto- arsenite and all inorganic compounds
containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

(c) "Permissible exposure limit." The employer shall assure that no employee
is exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 micrograms
per cubic meter of air (10 ug/m(3)), averaged over any 8-hour period.

(d) "Notification of use." (1) By October 1, 1978 or within 60 days after
the introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer who
is required to establish a regulated area in his workplaces shall report in
writing to the OSHA area office for each such workplace:

(i) The address of each such workplace;

(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulated
areas; and

(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and the
actions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.

(2) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information required
by paragraph (d)(1) of this section the employer shall report the changes in
writing within 60 days to the OSHA area office.

(e) "Exposure monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Determinations of airborne
exposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative of
each employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight (8) hour period.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure
which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuous
hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each
job classification in each work area.

(2) "Initial monitoring." Each employer who has a workplace or work
operation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and work
operation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganic
arsenic to which employees may be exposed.

(3) "Frequency." (i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure to
be below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except as
otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.

(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent
monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposure
limit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.

(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequent
monitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and below
the permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring at least
every six months.

(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until
at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven (7) days apart,
are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue
monitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events in
paragraph (e)(4) of this section occur.

(4) "Additional monitoring." Whenever there has been a production, process,
control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure to
inorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a
change which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic,
additional monitoring which complies with paragraph (e) of this section shall
be conducted.

(5) "Employee notification." (i) Within five (5) working days after the
receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in
writing of the results which represent that employee's exposures.

(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure
exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the
written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded
and a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to or
below the permissible exposure limit.

(6) "Accuracy of measurement." (i) The employer shall use a method of
monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of
95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations of
inorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 ug/m(3).

(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has
an accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or
minus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5
ug/m(3) but less than 10 ug/m(3).

(f) "Regulated area" - (1) "Establishment." The employer shall establish
regulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regard
to the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.

(2) "Demarcation." Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated from
the rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of persons
who will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.

(3) "Access." Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorized
persons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issued
pursuant there to enter such areas.

(4) "Provision of respirators." All persons entering a regulated area shall
be supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(2)
of this section.

(5) "Prohibited activities." The employer shall assure that in regulated
areas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobacco
and gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that these
activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers
required under paragraph (m) of this section. Drinking water may be consumed
in the regulated area.

(g) "Methods of compliance" - (1) "Controls." (i) The employer shall
institute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979,
engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below the
permissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer can
establish that such controls are not feasible.

(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to
reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shall
nonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable by
these controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators in
accordance with paragraph (h) of this section and other necessary personal
protective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategy
before respiratory protection is instituted.

(2) "Compliance Program." (i) The employer shall establish and implement a
written program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure
limit by means of engineering and work practice controls.

(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least the
following:

(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted;
e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size,
operating procedures and maintenance practices;

(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for
controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic;

(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible
exposure limit;

(D) Monitoring data;

(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls and
work practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaption
and implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessary
to meet the permissible exposure limit;

(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limit
with engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, the
employer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of the
effectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls and
institute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall include
in the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort and
maximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and

(G) Other relevant information.

(iii) Written plans for such a
program shall be submitted upon request to the Assistant Secretary and the
Director, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copying
by the Assistant Secretary, Director, any affected employee or authorized
employee representatives.

(iv) The plans required by this paragraph shall be revised and updated at
least every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.

(h) "Respiratory protection" - (1) "General." The employer shall assure that
respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee
exposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies.
Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

{i} During the time period necessary to install or implement feasible
engineering or work practice controls;

{ii} In work operations such as maintenance and repair activities in which
the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not
feasible;

{iii} In work situations in which engineering controls and supplemental work
practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the
permissible exposure limit; or {iv} In emergencies. (2) "Respirator
selection." {i} Where respirators are required under this section the
employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the use
of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I
below for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, or
Table II below for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vapor
pressure.

{ii} Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for
inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gases
such as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employee
as permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filter
with an appropriate gas sorbent. (See footnote in Table 1)
 

TABLE I-RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC PARTICULATE EXCEPT FOR THOSE WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) or firefighting.

(A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)). (A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.

(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3) (10 mg/m(3)). (A) Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high efficiency filters.(1)
(B) Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode.

(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3). (A) Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1)
(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3). (A) Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1)
(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.
  Footnote(1) High-efficiency filter - 99.97 pct efficiency against
0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.


TABLE II-RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENICALS
(SUCH AS ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE(2) AND ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE)
WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 U/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) or firefighting.

(A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3)
(20 mg/m(3)).
(A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.

(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3)
(10 mg/m(3)).
(A) Half-mask(2) supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.

(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3). (A) Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas canister.
(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3). (A) Half-mask(2) air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas cartridge.
(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.

Footnote(1) High efficiency filter - 99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3
micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.

Footnote(2) Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against
arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.

(iii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for
protection against dust, fume, and mist by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR part
11.

(3) "Respirator usage." (i) The employer shall assure that the respirator
issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the
respirator is fitted properly.

(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initial
fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing
respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.

(iii) Employers with more than 20 employees wearing respirators shall
perform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and least
semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure
respirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the
required protection as prescribed in Table I or II.

(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the
fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physician
trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear a
respirator while performing the required duty.

(4) "Respirator program." (i) The employer shall institute a respiratory
protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.103(e), (g), (h) and (i).

(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to
change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is
detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this
purpose.

(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas
to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation
associated with respirator use.

(5) "Commencement of respirator use." (i) The employer's obligation to
provide respirators commences on August 1, 1978 for employees exposed over
500 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later than
October 1, 1978 for employees exposed to over 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic
arsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978 for
employees exposed between 10 and 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic.

(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic may
choose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.

(iii) After December 1, 1978 any employee required to wear air-purifying
respirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if it
will give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and in
addition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for times
where exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.

(i) [Reserved] (j) "Protective work clothing and equipment" - (1)
"Provision and use."

Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenic
exists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shall
provide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriate
and clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;

(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eye
irritation, which comply with the requirements of 1926.102; and

(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenic
trichloride.

(2) "Cleaning and replacement." (i) The employer shall provide the
protective clothing required in paragraph (j)(1) of this section in a freshly
laundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee works
in areas where exposures are over 100 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic or in
areas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.

(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing
required by paragraph (j)(1) of this section.

(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and
equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.

(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed at
the completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in paragraph
(m)(1) of this section.

(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which is
to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in
the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the
container.

(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or launders
clothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful effects
including the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.

(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminated
protective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removed
from the workplace are labelled as follows:

Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust by
blowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water in
accordance with applicable local, State or Federal regulations.

(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic from
protective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.

(k) "Housekeeping" - (1) "Surfaces." All surfaces shall be maintained as
free as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.

(2) "Cleaning floors." Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminated
with inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, and
shoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevant
methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

(3) "Vacuuming." Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall be
used and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenic
into the workplace.

(4) "Housekeeping plan." A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shall
be kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying out
housekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collection
equipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the Assistant
Secretary.

(5) "Maintenance of equipment." Periodic cleaning of dust collection and
ventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried out
to maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the last
check of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.

(l) [Reserved] (m) "Hygiene facilities and practices" - (1) "Change
rooms." The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areas
or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic
arsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street
clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment
in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.51(i).

(2) "Showers." (i) The employer shall assure that employees working in
regulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from
inorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.

(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with
1926.51(f)(4).

(3) "Lunchrooms." (i) The employer shall provide for employees working in
regulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled,
positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to
employees working in regulated areas.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated area
or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure to
inorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.

(4) "Lavatories." The employer shall provide lavatory facilities which
comply with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).

(5) "Vacuuming clothes." The employer shall provide facilities for employees
working in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators,
exceeds 100 ug/m(3) to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or change
shoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or shower
rooms required by paragraph (j) of this section and shall assure that such
employees use such facilities.

(6) "Avoidance of skin irritation." The employer shall assure that no
employee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or to
skin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which is
likely to cause skin or eye irritation.

(n) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General" - (i) "Employees covered."

The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for the
following employees:

(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, without
regard to the use of respirators, at least 30 days per year; and

(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, without
regard to respirator use, for 30 days or more per year for a total of 10
years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessor
employers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. The
determination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shall
be based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurements
taken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with records
of exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controls
utilized and materials used by that employer.

(ii) "Examination by physician." The employer shall assure that all medical
examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a
licensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee,
without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.

(2) "Initial examinations." By December 1, 1978, for employees initially
covered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the time
of initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposed
over the action level at least 30 days per year, the employer shall provide
each affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including at
least the following elements:

(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smoking
history and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such as
breathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.

(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:

(A) A 14" by 17" (35.56 X 43.18 cm) posterior-anterior chest X-ray and
International Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;

(B) A nasal and skin examination;

(C) A sputum cytology examination; and

(D) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because of
the employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respirator
use.

(3) "Periodic examinations." (i) The employer shall provide the examinations
specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii)(A), (B), and (D) at least
annually for covered employees who are under 45 years of age with fewer than
10 years of exposure over the action level without regard to respirator use.

(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in paragraphs
(n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section at least semi-annually for other
covered employees.

(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specified
in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section within six (6) months
preceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide such
examinations to the employee upon termination of employment.

(4) "Additional examinations." If the employee for any reason develops signs
or symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic the
employer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medical
treatment.

(5) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide the
following information to the examining physician:

(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the
employee's exposure;

(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposure
level;

(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;
and

(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employee
which is not readily available to the examining physician.

(6) "Physician's written opinion." (i) The employer shall obtain a written
opinion from the examining physician which shall include:

(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;

(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected
medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of
material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganic
arsenic;

(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganic
arsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such as
respirators; and

(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the
results of the medical examination and any medical conditions which require
further explanation or treatment.

(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the written
opinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.

(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to the
affected employee.

(o) "Employee information and training" - (1) "Training program." (i) The
employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subject
to exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard to
respirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eye
irritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that those
employees participate in the training program.

(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978, for
employees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment for
those subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at least
quarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at least
annually for other covered employees thereafter; and the employer shall
assure that each employee is informed of the following:

(A) The information contained in Appendix A;

(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, and
the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganic
arsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;

(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;

(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program as
required by paragraph (n) of this section;

(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the
employee's job assignment; and

(F) A review of this standard. (2) "Access to training materials."
(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a
copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide; upon request, all materials relating to the
employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the
Director.

(p) "Signs and labels" - (1) "General." (i) The employer may use labels or
signs required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to,
or in combination with, signs and labels required by this paragraph.

(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any sign
or label required by this paragraph which contradicts or detracts from the
meaning of the required sign or label.

(2) "Signs." (i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areas
bearing the legend;

           DANGER

     INORGANIC ARSENIC

       CANCER HAZARD

  AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY

   NO SMOKING OR EATING

    RESPIRATOR REQUIRED

(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this paragraph are
illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.

(3) "Labels." The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shipping
and storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containing
inorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is bound
in such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposure
to inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels are
semiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass). The label shall bear the
following legend:

             DANGER

    CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC
         CANCER HAZARD 
 HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED 
USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION 
   OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

(q) "Recordkeeping" - (1) "Exposure monitoring." (i) The employer shall
establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by
paragraph (e) of this section.

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of the
samples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used to
determine representative employee exposure where applicable;

(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence
of their accuracy;

(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;

(D) Name, social security number, and job classification of the employees
monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is
intended to represent; and

(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of the
employee's exposure.

(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least 40
y