OSHA hereby promulgates safety requirements, including a permit system, for entry into those confined spaces, designated as permit- required confined spaces (permit spaces), which pose special dangers for entrants because their configurations hamper efforts to protect entrants from serious hazards, such as toxic, explosive or asphyxiating atmospheres. The new standard, 29 CFR 1910.146, provides a comprehensive, regulatory framework within which employers can effectively protect employees who work in permit spaces. Accordingly, the Agency has determined that it is necessary to promulgate a comprehensive standard to require employers to take appropriate measures for the protection of any employee assigned to enter a permit space. OSHA believes this new standard will help eliminate confusion and misunderstanding by clearly stating employer responsibilities. This document was prepared under the direction of Dorothy L. Strunk, Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for US/OSHA, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20210. It was signed at Washington, D.C., the 6th day of January, 1993 by Dorothy L. Strunk, Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor. The standard becomes effective on April 15, 1993 and may be found in full text in the OSHA Standards Database. The preamble may also be found in full text in a Preamble database on OCIS.