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Directives - (Archived) Table of Contents
• Record Type: Instruction
• Old Directive Number: CPL 2-2.54
• Title: Respiratory Protection Program Manual
• Information Date: 02/10/1992
• Status: Archived

Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and may no longer represent OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.

OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.54 February 10, 1992 Office of Science and Technology Assessment

Subject: RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM MANUAL

A. PURPOSE. This instruction sets forth accepted practices for respirator users, provides information and guidance on the proper selection, use, and care of respirators, and contains requirements for establishing an OSHA respirator program.

B. SCOPE. This instruction applies to all OSHA employees who need to wear a respirator to perform her/his duties.

C. IMPLEMENTATION. Detailed instructions for implementing the above requirements are prescribed in the following chapters.

D. BACKGROUND.

1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Compliance Safety and Health Officers (CSHO's) as well as other Agency personnel may be exposed to a variety of respiratory hazards while conducting safety and health compliance inspections, consultation or monitoring visits.
2. The human respiratory system can be protected by avoiding or minimizing exposure to harmful substances; however, in some cases this may not be possible and an appropriate respirator shall be required. Certain respirators can reduce/remove many contaminants from an atmosphere. When concentrations of these contaminants are too high to be reduced/removed or when oxygen levels are too low, other respirators are available which can supply breathing quality air to the wearer. Therefore, proper selection of the appropriate respirator for the conditions at hand is mandatory.

E. FEDERAL PROGRAM CHANGE. This instruction describes a Federal program change which affects State programs. Each Regional Administrator shall:

1. Ensure that this instruction is forwarded to each State designee using a format consistent with the Plan Change Two-Way Memorandum in Appendix P, OSHA Instruction STP 2.22A, CH-2.
2. Explain the technical content of this instruction to the State designee upon request.
3. Ensure that State designees acknowledge receipt of this Federal program change in writing to the Regional Administrator as soon as the State's intention is known, but not later than 70 calendar days after the date of issuance (10 days for mailing and 60 days for response). This acknowledgement should include an indication of the State's intention either to follow the respiratory program requirements in the following chapters of this instruction or to develop alternative "at least as effective" requirements. If the State adopts alternative requirements, ensure that it submits a plan supplement within six months, in accordance with OSHA Instruction STP 2.22A, CH-3, as appropriate, following the established schedule that is agreed upon by the State and Regional Administrator to submit non-Field Operations Manual/Technical Manual Federal Program Changes.
4. Inform each State designee that this instruction provides specific methods and guidelines for implementation of a respiratory program for Safety and Health Compliance Officers and sets out the requirements for a minimum acceptable respiratory protection program for the Agency. To ensure that State Compliance Officers are provided the minimum protection prescribed in 29 CFR 1910.134, each state must either follow the respiratory program requirements prescribed in following chapters of this instruction or develop alternative requirements which are as effective.
5. Review policies, instructions and guidelines issued by the State to determine if this change has been communicated to State personnel.

Gerard F. Scannell Assistant Secretary

DISTRIBUTION: National, Regional and Area Offices, All CSHOs, State Designees, 7(c)(1) Project Managers, NIOSH Regional Program Directors

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

PROGRAM MANUAL
Office of Science and Technology Assessment

1991

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I. RESPONSIBILITIES

A. NATIONAL OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 B. REGIONAL OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 C. AREA OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2 D. PROGRAM COORDINATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-3 E. CSHO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-5

Chapter II. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION II-1

Chapter III. SELECTION

A. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 B. AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2 C. ATMOSPHERE SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS. . . . . . . . . III-4 D. EMERGENCY ESCAPE RESPIRATORS. . . . . . . . . . . III-6

Chapter IV. TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV-1

Chapter V. FIT TESTING

A. QUANTITATIVE FIT TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1
1. PURPOSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 2. DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 3. APPARATUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 4. PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . V-3 5. EXERCISE REGIMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-5 6. CALCULATION OF FIT FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . V-7
B. QUALITATIVE FIT TESTING
1. PURPOSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 2. RESPIRATOR SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8 3. FIT TEST PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-8
C. OTHER REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V-12 D. RECORDKEEPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V-13

Chapter VI. MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VI-1

APPENDIX A Checklist and Inspection form for MSA SCBA A-1

APPENDIX B Inspection and Maintenance Procedures for

Survivair SCBA B-1

Chapter I

RESPONSIBILITIES

The guidelines established in this program may be supplemented as local needs dictate. However, the direction herein MUST be included in Regional and Area Office programs.

A. NATIONAL OFFICE - DIRECTORATE OF TECHNICAL SUPPORT SHALL.

1. Issue guidelines and directives that initiate and update the program.
2. Assist the Regional Administrators in complying with the programs.
3. Recommend appropriate respiratory protective equipment.
4. Audit and review the effectiveness of the program.
5. Administrate the respiratory protection program for the National Office personnel.

B. REGIONAL OFFICE/REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR SHALL.

1. Establish a Regional respirator program and ensure that each Area Office establishes/implements a consistent program.
2. Examine and evaluate the Area Office's program to determine its effectiveness.
3. Recommend systems for complying with the program and assist in technical requirements.
4. Maintain models and sizes of air-purifying type of respirator available for selection and fitting. These models and sizes will be representative of respirators from major manufacturers.
5. Ensure the purchase of the proper type of equipment in adequate quantities.
6. Establish a respirator program for Regional Office staff as outlined in Area Office requirements of this section.
7. Appoint a Regional coordinator to administer and evaluate the overall program. The Regional coordinator monitors field office adherence to the procedures established in this directive. A written report detailing program effectiveness measures shall be submitted to the Director, Directorate of Technical Support annually.
8. ANNUAL REPORT FORMAT. The following information shall be included in the annual report.
a. Listing by field office by name of those quantitatively fit tested including:
(1) Current test date, quantitative fit testing/ (QNFT) method (Portacount or Photometric), respirator models evaluated and fit factors (FF) derived.
(2) Most recent previous quantitative fit test date, model selected and fit factors (FF) obtained.
b. Resources used to administer the program including:
(1) Staff-years to perform quantitative fit testing including subject time.
(2) Staff-years to administer program which includes training, evaluation and report writing.
c. Comments and suggestions concerning program administration, effectiveness, technical problems relating to equipment and other relevant issues.

C. AREA OFFICE/AREA DIRECTOR SHALL.

1. Assume responsibility for administrating the program in the Area Office.
2. Ensure that the respirator program is adhered to by the CSHOs.
3. Delegate authority for the coordination of the program, or parts of the program, to a person(s) trained in the use and care of specific types of equipment as determined by the Area Director. Responsibility and authority for the respirator program shall be assigned to a single person. This individual will be designated the Respiratory Protection Program Coordinator.
4. Provide an evaluation of the respiratory protection program to the Regional Coordinator annually. The report shall include the elements listed under THE ANNUAL REPORT FORMAT (b.8.) of this chapter.

D. PROGRAM COORDINATOR (REGIONAL AND AREA OFFICES) SHALL:

1. Attend the OSHA Training Institute respiratory protection course.
2. Develop standard operating procedures (SOPs)
3. Be responsible for cleaning, maintenance and storage of all respirators not routinely used, or not individually assigned.
4. Maintain respirator supplies, including spare parts; obtain new equipment and maintain non-individually assigned equipment ready for reissue.
5. Ensure that sufficient quantities of filters and chemical cartridges and canisters for specific contaminants shall be available in each Area Office.
6. Aid CSHOs in respirator fit testing. Each CSHO shall receive respirator fitting instructions and undergo at least annual quantitative fit testing to select the best fitting facepiece. Fit testing shall be performed more frequently to meet the requirements prescribed in specific standards such as asbestos or acrylonitrile.
7. Ensure that each Area Office properly maintains long service life and emergency escape self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBAs). A fully charged spare cylinder shall be available for routine use SCBA. These cylinders will be properly inspected and maintained.
8. Provide additional training and information for CSHOs in the correct use, maintenance, cleaning and care of respirators. Respirators shall be repaired under the direction of the PROGRAM COORDINATOR.
9. Evaluate periodically the effectiveness of the respirator program. The following elements should be considered when evaluating the program's effectiveness:
a. The proper types of respirators are selected.
b. The wearers are properly trained.
c. The correct respirators are issued.
d. The respirators are worn properly.
e. The respirators are properly maintained and cleaned.
f. The respirators are properly stored.
g. Fit testing is conducted properly.
h. All pertinent records are kept.
i. Submit a report to the Regional Coordinator after each evaluation of the program. The report shall include the results of inspection, the respirator program administration, investigating wearer acceptance, any inadequacy of the program and any action taken to correct the deficiency, and target dates for planning implementation. The Regional Coordinator shall prepare a summary of each area office's program to the Regional Administrator.

E. COMPLIANCE SAFETY AND HEALTH OFFICERS.

1. Individuals assigned tasks which require respiratory protective equipment will use the appropriate equipment in accordance with this instruction.
2. Each CSHO shall clean, disinfect and properly store as necessary, the respirator assigned for personal use. Cleaning agents shall be available in each Area Office.
3. Each CSHO shall inspect the respirator before each use and after cleaning and disinfecting. The inspection shall include a check for defects, missing parts and a facepiece leak check. If a respirator is found defective, it shall be returned to the PROGRAM COORDINATOR for repair.
4. Each CSHO shall comply with fit test requirements and all other provisions of this directive.
5. Each CSHO shall attend the OSHA Training Institute respirator course.

F. NATIONAL OFFICE PERSONNEL.

1. Individuals assigned tasks which require respiratory protective equipment shall use the appropriate equipment in accordance with this instruction.
2. Each respirator wearer shall clean, disinfect and properly store as necessary, the respirator assigned for personal use.
3. Each respirator wearer shall inspect the respirator before each use and after cleaning and disinfecting. The inspection shall include a check for defects, missing parts and a facepiece leak check. If a respirator is found defective, it shall be returned to the Directorate of Technical Support for repair.
4. Each respirator wearer shall comply with fit test requirements and all other provisions of this directive.
5. Each respirator wearer shall attend the OSHA Training Institute respirator course.

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Chapter II
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION

A. Respirators and accessories shall be available for OSHA employees at job sites. Respirators shall be worn whenever requested by the employer, as well as during the time an OSHA employee is in a contaminated area performing air sampling, since the possibility of overexposure exists. Even in the event that air sampling is not being performed, and an OSHA employee is in a contaminated area which is likely to exceed the PEL (e.g., a previous citation for overexposure was issued to the company for that area), respirators shall also be worn. Exceptions to this policy may include air samples taken for screening purposes or other situations as individually approved by the supervisor. OSHA personnel are encouraged to wear respirators at any time they feel it is appropriate for their self-protection.

B. Written standard operating procedures (SOP) shall be prepared including all information and guidance necessary for proper respirator selection, use, care, and maintenance. The written SOP shall be provided by the Regional Office and shall be modified to suit the needs of each field location.

C. Respirators shall be selected on the basis of hazards to which the person is exposed with consideration given to both safety and health factors as well as probable risk. Individuals issuing respirators shall be adequately instructed to ensure that the correct respirator is issued and that each respirator is complete. To the extent possible half-mask respirators should be assigned to individual workers for their exclusive use.

D. Before initial use, all new respirators shall be washed, cleaned, sanitized and inspected per respirator manufacturer's instruction. The oxygen content of the SCBA cylinder shall be verified. Each respirator shall be properly fitted and a leakage test performed. Before each use, both positive and negative pressure fit checks shall be conducted. The user shall be instructed and trained in the proper use of respirators and informed about their limitations.

E. Respirators shall be cleaned and disinfected by the wearer after use. Those used by more than one CSHO shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after each use. Respirators shall be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location free of contaminants which may damage the components of a respirator.

F. Respirators used on a regular basis shall be inspected during cleaning. Trained personnel shall replace worn or deteriorated parts with parts designed for the respirator. No attempt shall be made to replace components or to make adjustments or repairs beyond the manufacturer's recommendations. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and emergency escape SCBA shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a month and after each use, and a written record kept of inspection dates and findings. Since the SCBA is complex equipment, service of the device shall be limited to trained personnel certified by the manufacturer.

G. Supervisors and workers shall be instructed and trained in the selection, use, care, and maintenance of respiratory protective devices. Training shall provide each user an opportunity to handle the respirator, to have it fitted properly, to test its facepiece-to-face seal, to wear it in normal air for a familiarization period, and to wear it in a test atmosphere. Retraining will be performed as needed or at least annually to ensure an effective program.

H. There shall be regular inspections and evaluations to determine the continued effectiveness of the program.

I. Clean shaven skin must be in contact with all respirator sealing surfaces. Even a mild growth of whiskers may interfere with this seal. In addition, respirators shall not be worn when conditions such as sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, temple pieces on corrective spectacles or goggles, or the absence of one or both dentures prevent a good facepiece--to-face seal. Therefore, while on duty, all OSHA employees within the scope of this policy must be clean shaven in the areas of the respirator face sealing surface and the face. If hair growth, other than in the clean shaven area of facepiece-to- face seal, interferes with the proper function of the respirator such as the exhalation valve, then it shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference. The Agency's position is to provide negative pressure, half-mask or full-face piece respirators that can be tested with available fit testing equipment. The Agency will also provide tight fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) to CSHO's upon request.

J. Corrective lenses which interfere with the facepiece-to-face sealing area shall not be used with a full facepiece. Contact lenses may be worn with a full facepiece with the approval of the Regional Program Coordinator.

K. Single use, disposable or maintenance free respirators will not be used by OSHA personnel. Since the CSHOs may encounter different air contaminants during an inspection, air-purifying respirators with replaceable cartridges shall be used because these devices provide more flexibility and reduce the number of single respirators which need to be carried by the CSHOs. Furthermore, disposable, maintenance free or single use respirators provide a poorer facepiece seal than multi-sized elastomeric facepieces and often it is difficult to perform an effective negative and/or positive pressure facepiece leakage test. Only "mechanical type" high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters enclosed in cartridges or canisters are acceptable for protection against any particulate exposure because efficiency of these filters does not change with dust loading and ambient conditions.

L. Any respirator may produce undesirable effects on the wearer. Respirators are uncomfortable, and may reduce field of vision, require the individual to carry extra weight, place an additional burden on the respiratory system, cause a feeling of claustrophobia, and may result in a general feeling of anxiety. The two areas of greatest interest as far as physiological effects are concerned are the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.

M. Individuals shall be examined medically before being assigned to use respirators. The examining physician shall be given information about the equipment to be used. He or she should know whether it produces additional inspiratory and expiratory stress, whether it represents an additional weight, such as self-contained breathers, and whether it may cause an increase in the metabolic heat load, such as chemical protective clothing.

1. CSHOs shall not be assigned to tasks requiring use of respirators unless it has been determined by medical authorities that they are physically able to perform their duties while wearing the prescribed respirators and chemical protective clothing. The examining physician shall provide a written opinion which describes the ability of the CSHO to wear the prescribed respirator and recommends limitations on the use of respirators if any. The report and opinion shall be forwarded to the Office of Occupational Medicine, Directorate of Technical Support.
2. The medical status of the respirator user shall be reviewed as part of the examinations required under the agency CSHO physical program. This review shall be performed with the assistance of the Office of Occupational Medicine, Directorate of Technical Support.

Chapter III

RESPIRATOR SELECTION

A. GENERAL.

1. The guidelines outlined in this section provide assistance in the selection of appropriate respiratory protection by OSHA personnel. The Agency shall provide appropriate approved respiratory protective devices and the CSHOs shall use these devices whenever necessary to protect their health due to the nature of the work environment. It is important that the safety and health professional assess the potential hazards and degree of controls which can be exercised over each situation. The respiratory protective devices selected in each situation will depend upon the information from a qualitative and/or quantitative determination of the hazard. The professional judgment is essential to insure appropriate selections of respirators.
2. The nature of respiratory hazard, as it refers to the selection and classification of respirators, depends upon the atmospheric oxygen concentration; a contaminant's physical state, toxicity, and concentration; the presence of other contaminants or stress factors in the working environment; and worker exposure time and susceptibility. Respiratory hazards may be classified as gas and vapor contaminants (immediately or not immediately dangerous to life or health), particulate contaminants (immediately or not immediately dangerous to life or health), and oxygen deficiencies. Each classification requires a different type of respiratory protection.
3. In the selection and use of respiratory protective devices, health and safety factors must be considered, such as nature of the hazard, intended uses and limitations of respiratory protective devices, movement and work rate limitations, emergency escape time and distance requirements, and training requirements.
4. Among additional general considerations in determining the appropriate respirator are sorbet efficiencies, odor warning properties, eye irritation potential, protection factors (PF), lower flammability limit (LFL), and conditions which are immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH -- as defined in 1910.120). Reference materials are also available to assist in determining the general conditions or situations which would indicate the most prudent use of respirator protection (list available at the Directorate of Technical Support).

B. AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS.

1. In general, air-purifying cartridge or canister respirators will be allowed if the contaminant(s) is known, the concentration(s) is known, the air-purifying element provides adequate protection for the air contaminant(s), and the contaminant(s) has good warning properties. Certain specific health standards permit the use of air-purifying respirators even though the chemical has poor or no warning properties. This type of respirator may either be equipped with chemical cartridges or a canister for protection against gases and vapors.
2. With regard to particulate respirators, an increase in breathing resistance (comfortable breathing impaired). occurs as a result of the challenge particulate lodging on the respirator filter. Since this is a subjective indicator, the HEPA filter cartridges should be replaced at least once a week in moderate to dusty workplaces or every three weeks in low dust environments, when contamination of the cartridge surface is noticed, or when the filter has been dropped or subjected to other trauma.
3. A much more insidious problem occurs with regard to end of service life indication for gas and vapor cartridge/canister equipped respirators. End of service life indication is generally based on an individual's ability to detect (e.g., taste, smell) the contaminant within the respirator wearer's facepiece. This guideline is totally subjective and may expose the respirator user to considerable risk.
The basis of the subject detection principle is the assumption that gases/vapors in question have good warning properties. Often the necessary information relative to this liming factor is difficult to obtain or may not exist; i.e., the odor threshold of a particular material. Studies have also shown that certain people have only a moderately developed sense of smell. Olfactory fatigue may occur to individuals acclimatized to the odor.
Some gaseous contaminants will migrate across the adsorbent or absorbent bed while the respirator is not in use, such as overnight. This migration subjects the user to an initial dose of the contaminant when the respirator is again placed in service. Therefore, as a minimum, gas/vapor cartridges shall be disposed of after each day's activities no matter how short those activities were. A day's activities would begin when the plastic seal or bag is removed from the cartridges allowing those cartridges to be exposed to moisture. These cartridges, even if they are not exposed to a contaminated atmosphere, must be discarded. A label must be attached to the cartridge indicating the installation date.
4. Since odor threshold and olfactory fatigue vary among different individuals, the use of chemical cartridge respirators against substances with poor warning properties shall not be permitted unless its use is permitted in specific health standards. In this case, reliable information concerning service life must be available. Since some reactive chemicals cannot be effectively adsorbed by the sorbet, its use should also be restricted. A PARTIAL (not all inclusive) list of air contaminants with poor odor warning properties or short breakthrough time follows:
Acrolein, aniline, arsine, boron hydrides, bromine, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonyls, carbon disulfide, cyanogen dimethylaniline, dimethyl sulfate, fluorine, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen selenide, hydrogen sulfide, isocyanates: HDI, MDI, MIC and TDI, methanol methyl bromide, methyl chloride, methyl iodine, nickel carbonyl, nitrocompounds: nitrobenzene, nitrogen oxides, nitroglycerine, nitromethane, ozone, phosgene, phosphine, phosphorous trichloride, stibine, sulfur chloride, and vinyl chloride.
5. With regard to air-purifying respirators, the fit factor obtained during fit testing has little predictive ability for determining the specific level of protection that will be achieved all of the time in the workplace. Because of this, the respirator assigned protection factors listed in Table I should not be exceeded no matter how high the fit factor during fit testing:

C. ATMOSPHERE SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS.

1. Normally a Compliance Safety and Health Officer, both health and safety will not enter, without prior Regional approval, an area where an atmosphere supplying respirator is required.
Whenever possible, evaluation methods, i.e., sampling strategies, will be applied which will not require entry into an extremely hazardous area. In those situations where entry must be made into potentially oxygen deficient environments or contaminated atmospheres which are immediately dangerous to life or health, an appropriate approved atmosphere supplying respirator must be used. Some situations which may require the use of such respiratory protective equipment include entry into confined spaces, hazardous substance spill/waste disposal areas, employer requirement for specific atmosphere supplying respiratory protection and emergency investigations requiring entry into potentially IDLH atmospheres. The Regional Administrator may delegate to the Area Director the approval authority for use of SCBA in non IDLH situations.
2. An SCBA must not be used in IDLH or potentially IDLH atmospheres unless a second or a standby CSHO is present and also equipped with a SCBA. The CSHO must be in communication (visual, vocal or signal) with the other CSHO at all times. The second CSHO will be present to provide any needed assistance or rescue. A fully charged spare air cylinder must always be available. Additionally, consideration for other than respiratory protection needs must be given in situations where skin absorption/irritation potential may be present. The standby CSHO shall have the necessary training and equipment to perform a rescue if needed.
3. Learning and "hands on" experience with SCBA must be ongoing and continuous. Compliance Safety and Health Officers who are designated to use SCBA are to be trained in the operation and use of the devices and are to follow the manufacturers' directions and the Regional/Area Office respiratory protection program. The training must be on a regular basis (i.e., annually) and include the actual wearing and use of SCBA during exercise situations (e.g., walking). All SCBA wearers must be trained and certified by OSHA recognized training facilities. A list is available from Directorate of Technical Support.
4. The Assistant Regional Administrator for Technical Support (ARA-TS) will be consulted for assistance in determining the appropriateness of SCBA use in a specific situation. Any planned entry involving the use of SCBA shall be coordinated with the ARA-TS.
5. Since a respirator used non-routinely is principally used for hazardous situations or emergencies that occur only occasionally, routine inspection and proper maintenance are essential to assure that the designated degree of protection and useful service time are provided. Review of non-routine use respirators (i.e., SCBA) should be consistent with the recommendations of the manufacturer, the requirements of appropriate regulatory standards (e.g., 29 CFR 1910.134) and existing Regional/Area policies. Depending on the specific SCBA available for use at a location, the items included in the maintenance program may require slight modifications to encompass additional considerations as suggested by the appropriate SCBA manufacturer(s). (Refer to Appendices I and II, or user warning notices issued by NIOSH).

D. EMERGENCY ESCAPE RESPIRATORS.

1. These devices constitute another class of non-routine use respirators. Any respirator that protects adequately against a hazardous atmosphere that has occurred suddenly may be used for escape purposes. However, these devices shall not be used for entry into this type of atmosphere even if that entry is for rescue purposes. Escape respirators shall be provided and carried by all individuals when there exists a potential for exposure to toxic materials at IDLH levels. Section F.8. of this directive shall be followed for maintenance of emergency escape respirators. Examples of these types of situations may exist in portions of refineries, chemical plants, sewage treatment plants, and hazardous waste sites etc. All emergency escape devices have limitations and these limitations must be taken into account when selecting one of these respirators. When entering a potential IDLH atmosphere, the CSHO shall assess the egress route to ensure that the emergency egress time does not exceed the capacity of the escape SCBA.
a. If the toxic materials in question would cause eye irritation, then a full facepiece or hood must be used.
b. Even full facepiece air-purifying emergency eqress respirators such as gas masks are contaminant(s) specific and will fail to provide adequate protection at certain concentrations. In addition, those units will not provide a breathing atmosphere and therefore cannot be used in oxygen- deficient atmospheres. Since the conditions of most emergencies are unknown, OSHA emergency escape devices shall be of the atmosphere supplying variety.
c. If it is available, only the continuous flow escape SCBA with an air flow of 70 liters per minute shall be used. If the anticipated escape time is in excess of the capacity of the continuous flow SCBA, mouthpiece SCBA shall be used. It is available on loan from the OSHA Cincinnati Laboratory (OCL).

Figure III-1

RESPIRATOR SELECTION

TYPE FACEPIECE MAXIMUM USE PRESSURE CONCENTRATION (MUC) IN MULTIPLES OF PEL

_________________________________________________________________

Half-mask - 10 X

Full Facepiece - 50 X

Powered air-purifying: Half-mask + 250 X Full facepiece + 500 X

Pressure Demand Supplied Air Respirator (PDSAR):

Half-mask + 250 X Full facepiece + 500 X Full facepiece w/escape prov. + 1,000 X

SCBA:

Entry and escape: Full facepiece pressure + IDLH and unknown Demand Concentrations

Escape only: Continuous flow + IDLH Mouthpiece _ IDLH

NOTES:

1. Only a half-mask with interchangeable cartridges is acceptable.

2. Respirator assigned for higher concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

3. Full facepiece is required if eye irritation is experienced.

4. A minimum service life of 60 minutes is required for sorbet cartridges and canisters to provide adequate protection against air contaminants having poor odor warning properties. The maximum use concentration

(MUC) of a respirator for protection against gases or vapors is limited by the service life of the sorbet. For example, if the cartridges used for protection against compound X have only a service life of 60 minutes at a concentration of 50 times the PEL, then the MUC for a full facepiece PAPR equipped with these cartridges is only 50 times rather than 500 times the PEL listed in the respirator selection table.

5. If it is available, compressed air having higher purity than Grade D, such as Grade H, or I should be used for the SAR and the SCBA.

6. Goggles supplied with the mouthpiece escape SCBA shall be used when eye irritation is experienced.

7. Pressure demand supplied air respirators equipped with an auxiliary self-contained air supply may be used under IDLH conditions when the anticipated use time is longer than the service life of the SCBA and the auxiliary air cylinder provides sufficient time for escape.

8. If it is available, the continuous flow escape SCBA having an air flow of 70 liters per minutes shall be used.

9. Air-purifying respirators may not be used in oxygen deficient or IDLH atmosphere.

10. Tight fitting PAPRs with a minimum flow rate of 170 liters per minute shall be used.

Chapter IV

TRAINING

A. Selecting the respirator appropriate to a given hazard is important, but equally important is using the selected device properly. Proper use can be ensured by carefully training both supervisors and CSHOs in selection, use, fit testing and maintenance of respirators. Unless the reasons for the use of respiratory protective devices and instructions on proper use and maintenance are thoroughly understood and ongoing training provided, the devices will not be used or may not work properly. Minimum training activities shall include:

1. Instruction in the nature of the hazard and a discussion of what the results may be if the respirator is not used.
2. A discussion of why a certain type of respirator is used in a particular environment. The purpose of using respirators must be presented as well as a description of respirator capabilities and limitations.
3. Periodic instruction and training in actual respirator use including fit testing. Wearers of SCBAs and emergency escape devices must be retrained every year. This training will include actual full service time operations of the unit. End of service life indicator recognition will also be covered.
4. Recognition of emergency situations and methods to deal with such situations must be covered. Cleaning and maintenance of respirators will also be covered.
5. All supervisors and CSHOs shall attend the OSHA Training Institute course on Respiratory Protection.

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Chapter V

FIT TESTING

A. GENERAL.

There are two methods available for fit testing respirators, quantitative fit testing (QNFT) and qualitative fit testing (QLFT). QNFT shall be used for fit testing all CSHOs. QLFT may used to meet the requirements for a specific standard such as asbestos or acrylonitrile.

The qualitative and quantitative fit test procedures in this section shall be incorporated into all Regional and Area Office programs.

B. QUANTITATIVE RESPIRATOR FIT TEST (QNFT).

1. PURPOSE - Quantitative fit testing is performed to select the best fitting respirator for CSHOs. Fit factors far exceeding practical field use needs are generally obtained from QNFT. The fit factor is only significant in terms of selecting the respirator providing the highest factor.
2. DEFINITIONS.
a. "Quantitative Fit Test" means the use of instrumentation and appropriate procedures to measure respirator effectiveness. Effectiveness refers to the respirator's ability to conform to the wearers face minimizing face to seal leakage.
b. "Challenge Agent" means the testing agent introduced into a test chamber for photometric based systems. Ambient air is the challenge agent, when employing condensation nuclei counter (CNC) devices.
3. APPARATUS.
Instrumentation. Two systems are currently available OSHA-wide:
a. Photometric - Employs the generation of a known concentration of corn oil, sodium chloride or other aerosol in a test chamber.
b. Condensation Nuclei Counter (CNC) - Ambient air serves as the challenge agent, no test chamber is necessary.
c. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.
(1) Test chamber. The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to freely perform all required exercises without distributing the challenge agent concentration or the measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the challenge agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber. When ambient air is used as the challenge agent, quantitative fit testing shall be conducted in an area relatively free of air contaminants (including tobacco products). The minimum ambient air particle count shall be 10,000 per c.c. before testing begins.
(2) When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high-efficiency particular air filter supplied by the same manufacturer.
(3) When applicable, the sampling instrument shall be selected so that a strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of challenge agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 5,000, When utilizing systems that perform automatic programmed calculations, the strip chart must record the calculated average fit factor for each exercise period.
(4) The combination of substitute air-purifying elements (if any), challenge agent, and challenge agent concentration in the test chamber shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of the permissible exposure limit to the challenge agent at any time during the testing process.
(5) The sampling port on the probed specimens respirator shall be placed and constructed so that there is no detectable leak around the port. A free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times and so there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator.
(6) The test chamber and test set-up shall permit the person administering the test to observe one test subject inside the chamber during the test.
(7) The equipment generating the challenge atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of challenge agent constant within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.
(8) The time lag (interval between an event and its being recorded on the strip chart) of the instrumentation may not exceed 2 seconds.
(9) The tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be the same diameter, length and material. It shall be kept as short as possible. The smallest diameter tubing recommended by the manufacturer shall be used.
(10) The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through a high-efficiency filter before release to the room.
(11) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent.
4. PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS.
a. The fitting of half-mask respirators should be started with those having multiple sizes and a variety of interchangeable cartridges and canisters such as the MSA Comfo elite-M, North-M, Survivair-M. Use either of the tests outlined below to assure that the facepiece is promptly adjusted.
(1) Positive pressure test. With the exhaust port(s) blocked, the positive pressure upon slight exhalation should remain constant for several seconds.
(2) Negative pressure test. With the intake port(s) blocked, the negative pressure upon slight inhalation should remain constant for several seconds.
(3) After a facepiece is adjusted, the test subject shall wear the facepiece for at least 5 minutes before conducting an abbreviated qualitative fit test by using either of the methods described below and using the exercises a., b., c. and d. described in C.5. below. If the test subject wears eye glasses or safety glasses when performing his/her duties, the fit test must be performed when these glasses are worn.
(a) Isoamyl acetate test. When using organic vapor cartridges, the test subject who is capable of smelling the odor should be unable to detect the odor of isoamyl acetate in the air near the most vulnerable portion of the facepiece seal such as the nose bridge. A combination cartridge or canister with organic vapor and high-efficiency filters shall be used when available for the particular mask being tested. The test subject shall be given an opportunity to smell the odor of isoamyl acetate before the test is conducted in a location which is separated from the test area.
(b) Irritant fume test. When using high-efficiency filters, the test subject should be unable to detect the irritant fume (stannic chloride ventilation smoke tubes) squirted into the air near the most vulnerable portions of the facepiece seal. The test subject shall be instructed to close her/his eyes during the test period. Unless the test subject cannot smell the odor of isoamyl acetate, the irritant fume test should not be performed due to the irritant nature of the fume.
(c) A QNFT may be conducted only when the test subject has obtained a satisfactory fit on either of the tests above.
THE FOLLOWING THREE PARAGRAPHS APPLY ONLY TO QNFT UTILIZING PHOTOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY.
(d) Before the subject enters the test chamber, a reasonably stable challenge agent concentration shall be obtained in the test chamber.
(e) Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the challenge agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half-mask and 1 percent for a full facepiece.
(f) A stable challenge agent concentration shall be established prior to the actual start of testing.
5. EXERCISE REGIME.
Prior to entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given complete instructions as to her/his part in the test procedures. The test subject shall perform the following exercises, in the order given, for each independent test.
a. NORMAL BREATHING (NB). In the normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for at least one minute.
b. DEEP BREATHING (DB). In the normal standing position the subject shall do deep breathing for at least one minute pausing so as not to hyperventilate.
c. TURNING HEAD SIDE TO SIDE (SS). Standing in place the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side between the extreme positions to each side. The head shall be held at each extreme position for at least five seconds. Perform for at least one minute.
d. MOVING HEAD UP AND DOWN (UD). Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down between the extreme position straight up and the extreme position straight down. The head shall be held at each extreme position for at least five seconds. Perform for at least one minute.
e. READING (R). The subject shall read out slowly and loud so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor or monitor. The test subject shall read the "rainbow passage".

RAINBOW PASSAGE
When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.
f. GRIMACE (G). The test subject shall grimace, smile, frown, and generally contort the face using the facial muscles. Continue for at least 15 seconds. The test is use to check the reseal of the respirator after seal is broken.
g. BEND OVER AND TOUCH TOES (B). The test subject shall bend at the waist and touch toes and return to upright position. Repeat for at least one minute.
h. JOGGING IN PLACE (J). The test subject shall perform jog in place for a least one minute.
i. NORMAL BREATHING (NB). Same as exercise (a) above.
j. The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds five percent for half-masks and one percent for full facepieces. The test subject may be refitted and retested. If two of the three required tests are terminated, the fit shall be deemed inadequate.
6. CALCULATION OF FIT FACTORS.
a. The fit factor determined by the quantitative fit test is expressed as the ratio of challenge concentration outside the respirator to the concentration inside the respirator.
b. The average test chamber concentration is the arithmetic average of the test chamber concentration at the beginning and of the end of the test.
c. The average peak concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be the arithmetic average peak concentrations for each of eight exercises of the test which are computed as the arithmetic average of the peak concentrations found for each breath during the exercise.
d. The average peak concentration for an exercise may be determined graphically if there is not a great variation in the peak concentrations during a single exercise.
e. When fit factors are calculated by a computer the average concentration, instead of average peak concentration, may be used.

B. QUALITATIVE RESPIRATOR FIT TEST (QLFT).

1. PURPOSE - The Qualitative Respirator Fit Test procedures in this section shall be performed to supplement quantitative fit testing to meet the semi- annual fit testing requirement for a specific standard such as asbestos or acrylonitrile.
2. RESPIRATOR SELECTION.
a. The test will be performed using the respirator which was determined to be the most effective during the last quantitative fit test. Isoamyl acetate will be the agent used. Individuals must be tested to ensure that they can detect, isoamyl acetate. It may be necessary to use the irritant smoke test, when an individual cannot detect isoamyl acetate.
b. The fitting process shall be conducted in a room separate from the fit-test room to prevent odor fatigue. Both rooms shall be well ventilated and separated by a distance for enough to avoid cross contamination. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension, and how to assess a "comfortable" respirator. A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning of the respirator. This will not constitute his/her formal training on respirator use, only a review.
c. Assessment of comfort shall include reviewing the following points with the test subject:
-Chin properly placed -Positioning of mask on nose -Strap tension -Fit across nose bridge -Room for safety glasses -Distance from nose to chin -Room to talk -Tendency to slip -Cheeks filled out -Self-observation in mirror -Adequate time for assessment.
d. The test subject shall conduct the conventional negative and positive-pressure fit checks (e.g., see American National Standards Practices for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2-1980). Before conducting the negative or positive-pressure checks, the subject shall be told to "seat" the mask by rapidly moving the head side-to-side and up and down, taking a few deep breaths.
e. The test subject is now ready for fit testing.
f. After passing the fit test, the test subject shall be questioned again regarding the comfort of the respirator. If it has become uncomfortable, another model of respirator shall be tried.
3. FIT TEST PROCEDURE.
a. Each respirator used for fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors. The cartridges shall be changed at least weekly.
b. After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room.
c. Each test subject shall wear her/his respirator for at least five minutes before starting the fit test.
d. EXERCISE REGIMEN.
(1) NORMAL BREATHING (NB). In the normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for at least one minute.
(2) DEEP BREATHING (DB). In the normal standing position the subject shall do deep breathing for at least one minute pausing so as not to hyperventilate.
(3) TURNING HEAD SIDE TO SIDE (SS). Standing in place the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side between the extreme position to each side. Perform for at least one minute.
(4) MOVING HEAD UP AND DOWN (UD). Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down between the extreme position straight up and the extreme position straight down. The head shall be held at each extreme position for at least five seconds. Perform for at least one minute.
(5) READING (R). The subject shall read out slowly and loud so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor or monitor. The test subject shall read the "rainbow passage."

RAINBOW PASSAGE
When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.
(6) BEND OVER AND TOUCH TOES. The test subject shall bend at the waist and touch toes and return to upright position. Repeat for at least one minute.
(7) JOGGING IN PLACE (J). The test subject shall perform jog in place for at least one minute.
(8) NORMAL BREATHING (NB). Same as exercise (1) above.
e. If at anytime during the test, the subject detects the odor of the testing agent, she/he shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area.
f. If the entire test is completed without the test subject detecting the odor of the testing agent, the test is passed and the respirator selected is judged adequate.

C. OTHER REQUIREMENTS:

a. An analysis of the fit test records of our CSHOs in the past shows the median fit factor to be 3,000 for a half-mask. Therefore, the test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half-mask or full facepiece respirator if the minimum fit factor of 500 or 3,000, respectively, cannot be obtained. If hair growth or apparel interferes with a satisfactory fit, then they shall be altered or removed so as to eliminate interference and allow a satisfactory fit. If a satisfactory fit is still not attained, the test subject must use a positive-pressure respirator such as a powered air-purifying respirator, supplied air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus.
b. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface.
c. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician trained in respirator disease or pulmonary medicine to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.
d. The test subject shall be given the opportunity to wear the assigned respirator for one month. If the respirator does not provide a satisfactory fit during actual use, the test subject may request another quantitative fit test which shall be performed as soon as possible.
e. A respirator fit factor card shall be issued to the test subject with the following information:
(1) Name. (2) Date of fit test. (3) Make and model of QNFT equipment. (4) Fit factors obtained through each manufacturer, model and approval number (such as TC-21C-XXX) of the respirator tested.
(5) Name and signature of the person who conducted the test.
(6) Filters used for qualitative or quantitative fit testing shall be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media. Organic vapor cartridges/canisters shall be replaced whenever there is any indication of breakthrough by the test agent. Each fresh filter or sorbet cartridge shall be dated when it is installed.
NOTE: The fit test card, OSHA Form 187 is available from the Directorate of Technical Support.
f. 1926.58(h)(4)(ii) requires that employees who are wearing negative pressure respirators be fit tested at least every six months.
g. In addition, because the sealing of the respirator may be affected, qualitative fit testing shall be repeated immediately and quantitative fit testing as soon as possible when the test subject has:
(1) Weight change of 20 pounds or more, (2) Significant facial scarring in the area of the facepiece seal, (3) Significant dental changes, i.e., multiple extractions without prosthesis, or acquiring endures, (4) Reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or (5) Any other condition that may interfere with facepiece sealing.

D. RECORDKEEPING.

A summary of all test results shall be maintained in Regional Office for seven years (see OSHA Instruction ADM 12-7.2A). These records shall be considered as EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE RECORDS. A copy of the summary shall include:
1. Name of test subject.
2. Date of testing.
3. Name of the test conductor.
4. Fit factors obtained from every respirator tested (indicate manufacturer, model, size and approval number).
5. Name and type of facepiece(s) which has failed during the qualitative test or has yielded a fit factor less than those prescribed in paragraph F.7.c.(1).
6. When applicable, the strip chart for fit testing shall also be maintained for seven years (see OSHA Instruction ADM 12-7.2A), and should contain the following information:
a. Date and time b. Name of test subject c. Name of test conductor d. Manufacturer name and model of QNFT equipment e. Respirator (type, brand, style, size and TC number) f. Chart scale (e.g. 1 percent-full scale) g. Chart speed h. Initial ambient i. Initial base line estimate j. Individual exercise (mark beginning and end) k. Final base line l. Calculation of penetration for each exercise m. Overall fit factor (average of all exercises) n. Notes (eyeglasses, dentures, scars, etc.)
Copies of all records shall be forwarded to Directorate of Technical Support annually in the form of computer diskette (s), with the Regional Program Evaluation report.

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Chapter VI

MAINTENANCE

A. A program for respirator cleaning and care shall be established as a part of the standard operating procedures (SOP) by all Regional and Area Offices. The purpose of this element of a respirator program is to assure that all respirators are properly maintained. If they are modified in any way, their protection may be reduced. The Program Coordinators shall be trained to inspect, clean, repair, and store respirators. The program should be based on the number and types of respirators, working conditions, and hazards involved.

In general, the program should include: inspection, cleaning, repair and storage.
1. All respirators shall be inspected before and after each use. The cleaning of respirators is the responsibility of the CSHO who is using the respirator, not the Program Coordinator.
2. SCBAs and all Emergency Egress Respirators shall be inspected on a monthly basis and before or after each use to assure they will perform satisfactorily. Inspection records shall be maintained for each SCBA/Emergency Egress for seven years (see OSHA Instruction ADM 12-7.2A). At a minimum, these records will include: date, inspector, and any unusual conditions or findings. Any repairs or modification to these units shall be documented in detail.
3. Air-purifying respirators:
a. Thoroughly check all connections, gaskets and valves for proper fit and tightness. Check the condition of the facepiece and all its parts, and all connecting air tubes and head bands. Inspect parts, and all connecting air tubes and head bands. Inspect rubber or elastomer parts for pliability and signs or deterioration.
b. Clean and disinfect respirators as follows:
(1) Remove all cartridges, canisters, and filters, plus gaskets or seals not affixed to their seats. Cartridges will be discarded.

(2) Remove elastic head bands.

(3) Remove exhalation cover.
(4) Remove speaking diaphragm or speaking diaphragm-exhalation valve assembly.

(5) Remove inhalation valves.
(6) Wash facepiece and breathing tube in cleaner/sanitizer recommended by the manufacturer with warm water, use manufacturers' recommended temperature. Wash components separately from the facepiece, as necessary. Remove heavy soil from surfaces with a hand brush.
c. After respirators have been inspected, cleaned, sanitized, and repaired, store them so as to protect against dust, excessive moisture, damaging chemicals, extreme temperatures and direct sunlight.
d. Each unit shall be sealed in a plastic bag, placed in a separate box, and tagged for immediate use.
e. Cartridges and canisters shall always be stored in their sealed plastic bags until ready for use. Canisters will be stored with original seals intact in the upright position.
4. Examples of inspection procedures for the commonly used Mine Safety Appliance (MSA) and the Survivair SCBAs are listed in Appendices A and B.

APPENDIX A

SAMPLE CHECKLIST AND INSPECTION FORM
FOR MSA SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

Video tapes reviewing proper inspection and maintenance procedures for MSA and other SCBAs are available at the Regional office.

I. BACKPACK AND HARNESS ASSEMBLY

A. VISUALLY INSPECT
1. Straps and buckles -- in place and not worn.
2. Back plate and cylinder lock -- not cracked or broken.

II. CYLINDER AND VALVE ASSEMBLY

A. PRESSURE GAUGE
1. Leaks.
2. Broken lens or needle.
3. If gauge reads less than 90 percent of rated capacity have the cylinder refilled.
B. CYLINDER VALVE
1. If present, make sure lock is functional. Cylinder lock is no longer required, and may be absent on some units.

III. REGULATOR AND HOSE ASSEMBLY

A. HOSE AND CONNECTOR
1. CONNECTOR
a. Inspect "O-Ring" seal (in place and in good condition).

b. Connection tight on cylinder.
2. HOSE

a. No leaks (cylinder valve open).
b. No bubbles in outer coating (cylinder valve open).
B. REGULATOR
1. Mainline valve (gold color) CLOSED.
2. Bypass valve (red color) CLOSED.
3. Open cylinder valve (Audi-Larm should ring).
4. Cover regulator outlet with palm of hand and open mainline valve (gold).
5. Check pressure reading on regulator pressure gauge.
NOTE: Cylinder should be full (2216 psig) or contain a sufficient quantity of air to perform the anticipated task. Cylinders containing 90 percent of rated capacity or less air pressure MUST BE REFILLED.
6. In rapid succession, remove and replace the palm of hand over the regulator outlet. Air flow should be present when hand is removed from outlet, and should be completely stopped when outlet is covered.
7. Keep regulator outlet covered and close cylinder valve.
8. Slowly remove hand from regulator outlet and observe the needle on the regulator pressure gauge. Audi-Larm should ring between 500 and 600 psig.
9. Check the integrity of the regulator diaphragm by exhaling into the regulator outlet. If the diaphragm is seated properly and has no defects, it WILL NOT be possible to force the exhaled air through the regulator. In addition, a negative pressure test on the regulator should be performed.
10. Close main-line (gold) valve
11. Open cylinder valve
12. Making SURE there are NO OBSTRUCTIONS at the regulator outlet, gently open the bypass (red) valve. Air should easily flow from the regulator outlet, thus assuring that the bypass valve is functional
NOTE: During this portion of the checkout procedure, there will be no indication of pressure on the regulator pressure gauge. This condition is due to the fact that the mainline valve is closed, and NO PACK PRESSURE on the regulator outlet may be applied when the bypass valve is opened
13. Allow all residual air to escape through the bypass valve, then close the bypass (red) valve. Audi-Larm should ring at 500 to 600 psig, but there will be no indication of pressure on the gauge as previously discussed

IV. FACEPIECE ASSEMBLY

A. BREATHING TUBE AND CONNECTOR
1. Breathing tube
a. Stretch and visually inspect for holes or deterioration
2. CONNECTOR

a. Check threads for damage
b. Check rubber gasket (in place and in good condition)
B. FACEPIECE
1. Head Harness
a. Inspect end stops and serration for damage and deterioration

b. Check all rubber for deterioration
2. LENS
a. Inspect for scratches, cracks and proper mounting in the facepiece.
3. EXHALATION VALVE
a. Locate exhalation valve stem, inside respirator at the bottom. With index finger, press down on valve stem. This action will free the valve if it has become stuck in the closed position during storage.
4. OVERALL FACEPIECE

a. Inspect for deterioration or holes.

GENERAL

A. Ascertain all straps are straight and functional, and buckles and snaps are in operating condition. Then don backpack.

SIGN-OFF

A. Date, sign, mark psig, and findings on inspection sticker.

B. Forward one (1) copy of completed form to AA-TS.

(Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory)

SAMPLE SCBA INSPECTION FORM AREA OFFICE __________________

DATE _________________________
SCBA IDENTIFICATION __________

Place a check mark in appropriate space and note any defects:

INSPECTION POINT: SATISFACTORY UNSATISFACTORY COMMENTS _________________________________________________________________

1. Straps and Buckles _________________________________________________________________

2. Back Plate and Cylinder Lock _________________________________________________________________

3. Pressure Gauge (Cylinder) _________________________________________________________________

4. Cylinder Pressure _________________________________________________________________

5. Cylinder Valve Lock _________________________________________________________________

6. High Pressure Hose _________________________________________________________________

7. High Pressure Hose Connector _________________________________________________________________

8. By-Pass Valve _________________________________________________________________

9. Main-Line Valve _________________________________________________________________

10. Pressure Gauge (Regulator) _________________________________________________________________

11. Pak-Alarm _________________________________________________________________

12. Breathing Tube _________________________________________________________________

13. Breathing Tube Connector _________________________________________________________________

14. Breathing Tube Gasket _________________________________________________________________

15. Facepiece Body _________________________________________________________________

16. Head Harness _________________________________________________________________

17. Lens _________________________________________________________________

18. Exhalation Valve _________________________________________________________________

Inspected by: ________________

Forward one (1) copy of completed form to AA-TS. (Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory)

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APPENDIX B
          SAMPLE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
                               FOR
          SURVIVAIR SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

The SCBA should be inspected for defects before and after each use, and at least once monthly if it not used. Units that are used for Emergency Response should be inspected and functional tested daily. The SCBA should be repaired as necessary, cleaned and disinfected, and then stored properly to assure that is it maintained in satisfactory working condition. A record should be kept of inspection dates and findings.

VISUAL INSPECTION

The following is a recommended checklist for visually inspecting the Mark 2 SCBA.

I. FACEPIECE

A. FACEPIECE LENS - WATCH FOR:
1. Nicks, scratches, or abrasion which would impair outward visibility.
2. Deep gouges or cracks which would reduce impact resistance.
B. HEADSTRAP BUCKLES
1. Crushed, bent, or corroded buckles. 2. Damaged or loosened rivets securing buckles to facepiece.
C. MASK RIMS
1. Tightness of the rim screws. 2. Deformation or broken rim.
D. INLET NOZZLE
1. Screws securing the nozzle cover. 2. Clamp securing the low pressure hose to the nozzle.
3. Exhalation valve seat (in nozzle). 4. Heat damage to the nozzle body (warping, cracking, etc.) 5. Nozzle spring. 6. Exhale through the exhalation valve, no sticking should be evident.
E. FACEPIECE SKIRT
1. Cuts, gouges, or punctures. 2. Tears or nicks in sealing lips. 3. Age or heat induced damage to the rubber. 4. Pull out of attaching rivets.
F. CONVOLUTED LOW PRESSURE HOSE
1. Cuts, nicks or punctures in the hose. 2. Age or heat induced cracking, crazing, or hardening of the rubber.
3. Crushed, broken, or cracked quick connect.
G. HEADSTRAP SPIDER
1. Abrasion or nicking of headstrap legs. 2. Age or heat induced hardening of the rubber.

II. SECOND STAGE REGULATOR

1. Case and Cover - Dents or heat damage. 2. Silicone "Trap Door" valve assembly. 3. "O" ring in low pressure air outlet. 4. Smooth operation of bypass valve. 5. Damaged threads and worn out slots on "quick on"
adaptor. 6. Pressure gauge - lens clarity, pointer to zero, deformation of needle.
7. Pressure gauge hose and fittings.

III. AUDIO ALARM, FIRST STAGE REGULATOR, AND INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE HOSE

1. Debris or water under the bell. 2. Tightness of the socket head screws securing bell to body.
3. Dents or deformation of bell. 4. Hose and end connectors. 5. Retaining rings secure on end connectors. 6. Abrasion of hose. 7. Condition of female threads on C.G.A. handwheel. 8. Condition of o-ring and groove on C.G.A. nipple.

IV. BACKPACK AND AIR CYLINDER

A. BACKPACK
1. Proper function of cylinder - securing band and latch.
2. Cylinder secure in frame and band. 3. Frame bent or broken. 4. Stitching of webbing. 5. Buckles - shoulder straps and waist belt.
B. AIR CYLINDER
1. External inspection - dents, gouges, blisters, or discolored paint.
2. Internal inspection - every three years inspect interior of cylinder.
3. Last hydrostatic test date - every three years. 4. External damage to cylinder valve. 5. Smooth operation of valve handwheel and ratchet mechanism.
6. Tightness of screws securing rubber guard on cylinder valve.
7. Condition of threads on valve outlet. 8. Cylinder pressure - gauge needle in the green area.

NOTE
IF ANY DEFECTS ARE FOUND OR IF ANYTHING APPEARS TO BE DIFFERENT OR UNUSUAL FROM THE NORM, DO NOT USE THE EQUIPMENT UNTIL IT HAS BEEN CHECKED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPAIR TECHNICIAN.

FUNCTIONAL TESTING
PERFORMANCE AFTER CLEANING AND PRIOR TO RETURNING TO SERVICE

I. FACEPIECE

1. Don the facepiece. 2. Block inlet of low pressure hose with palm of hand. 3. Inhale gently - facepiece should "collapse." 4. Exhale through the exhalation valve, no sticking should be evident.

II. REGULATOR

1. Attach regulator to fully charged cylinder. 2. Close bypass valve and slowly open cylinder valve. 3. Check that cylinder valve and regulator pressure gauge show the same.
4. Attach facepiece and inhale - regulator should deliver on inhalation without excessive effort, free flow, or fluttering.
5. Slowly open bypass valve. A steady flow of air should enter the facepiece. No delay in air flow.
6. Turn "Quick-On" fitting all the way to the left - no air should flow when the facepiece is off.

III. LEAK TEST

1. Open cylinder valve to fully pressurize the regulator - close cylinder valve.
2. Wait 15 seconds. While looking at the regulator gauge, open the cylinder valve. Any movement indicates a leak.

IV. AUDIO ALARM TEST

1. Remove the facepiece from the regulator. 2. Open cylinder valve to fully pressurize the regulator -
close cylinder valve. 3. Slowly open bypass valve and watch the regulator pressure gauge. Alarm should begin ringing when the gauge reads 1/4 full.
4. Bleed all residual air from the system using bypass valve, the close valve completely. Complete inspection record.

CLEANING

1. For sanitary reasons, the facepiece should be cleaned and disinfected after each use, even if it does not look dirty.

2. Make a cleaning solution by mixing water with any detergent that contains effective disinfectants (such as quaternary ammonium compounds.)

3. Heat the solution to 140-160 F.

4. Immerse the facepiece in the cleaning solution.

5. Using a soft brush, gently clean the facepiece.

6. Rinse the facepiece in a fresh-water bath and allow it to air dry. Mild heat (less than 160 F) may be used to speed up the drying. Use of a towel to dry the facepiece is not recommended unless a clean, lint-free towel is used.

7. Use caution when cleaning the facepiece lens. Although the outer surface of the lens has a proprietary anti-scratch coating, it can be damaged through careless or abusive handling. Do not attempt to "polish out" scratches with any abrasive agent as this will only cause further damage to the remaining coating. Warm, soapy water (using Joy, Mr. Clean, Simple Green, Lestoil, etc.) is usually adequate to remove adhering grime. Stubborn deposits may require the use of denatured or isopropyl alcohol or other mild solvents. Do not allow any solvent to come into contact with rubber or plastic parts. Use solvents only in a well-ventilated area.

8. Apply Survivair anti-fog PN 9510-15 to the inside of the lens.

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Archive Notice - OSHA Archive

NOTICE: This is an OSHA Archive Document, and may no longer represent OSHA Policy. It is presented here as historical content, for research and review purposes only.

Directives - (Archived) Table of Contents

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