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Emergency Response to Oil Spill Initial Sampling Strategy

Page last updated: 08/04/2010

Samples will be collected to characterize all work operations involved in the Oil Spill remediation effort. Currently, all job categories have been identified and will be separated into 3 general zones of activities. These zones are identified as:

  1. Work activities in the off-shore remediation operations;
  2. Work activities in the near-shore remediation operations and;
  3. Work activities in the on-shore remediation operations.

These activities are listed in the attached spread sheet with a notation about the personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements identified for each task. Sampling will be identified as Personal Samples, Area Samples, Bulk Sample, Direct Reading Sample or Noise sampling. If Possible bulk samples will be taken at each location sampled. Bulk samples will be taken with a glass vile. The range with the number of results and the appropriate mean value for each category will be listed in the column labeled as results next to the appropriate sample type. GPS coordinates of samples taken will be identified, including state if possible. Results will be compared to the lowest known Occupational Exposure Limit for the listed contaminant for purposes of risk assessment and PPE recommendations.

Summary of Air Sampling

Oil

Media Analyte(s) Sampling time and flow rate Method
SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler or charcoal tube Benzene, cyclohexane, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, trimethylbenzes
  • 4 hour for SKC 575-002,
  • 4 hour at 0.05 L/min for charcoal tube
Charcoal tube Petroleum distillates 4 hour at 0.05 L/min OSHA Method 48
ULTRA I Passive Sampler containing Tenax TA Heavy aliphatics and aromatics Minimum of 4 hours, maximum of 16 hours OSHA Maries Project Study
Assay Technology ChemDisk Aldehyde Monitor Formaldehyde 4 hour (TWA) OSHA Method 1007

Dispersants

Media Analyte(s) Sampling time and flow rate Method
SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler or charcoal tube 2-butoxyethanol
  • 4 hour for SKC 575-002,
  • 4 hour at 0.05 L/min for charcoal tube
OSHA Method 83 (must be separate sample from other analytes due to different extracting solvent)
OVS-7 tube Propylene glycol 2 hour at 1 L/min OSHA Method PV2051

Acid Gases/Mist

Media Analyte(s) Sampling time and flow rate Method
Silica Gel Tube with pre-filter Acid Gases and Mists 0.2 L/Min for eight hours OSHA Method ID-165SG
Sampling for Aromatics

Sample side by side with charcoal tubes and SKC 575-002 badges to establish the correspondence in exposure levels between the two samplers and the levels of exposure to the following chemicals:

  • Cyclohexane
  • Benzene
  • Toluene
  • Ethyl benzene
  • Xylene
  • Petroleum Distillates
  1. SKC 575-002 Diffusive Sampler collect for 4 hours, and request analysis for cyclohexane, benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene and Q115 (Q115 is a qualitative/quantitative analysis of any chemicals found on the sampler which were not requested by the industrial hygienist).
  2. Charcoal tubes collect at 0.05 L/min for 4 hours and request cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, petroleum distillates, and Q115 (Q115 is a qualitative/quantitative analysis of any chemicals found on the sampler which were not requested by the industrial hygienist). (If there is correspondence between the charcoal tubes and the 575-002 Passive Samplers, then the charcoal tube sampling will be discontinued).
Sampling for Dispersants
  1. In areas where the dispersant has been sprayed collect with SKC 575-002 Passive Sampler for 4 hours and request analysis for 2-butoxyethanol
  2. In areas where the dispersant has been sprayed collect with OVS-7 tubes at 1 L/min for 2 hours and request analysis for propylene glycol
Sampling for Heavy Aliphatics and Aromatics
  1. To characterize the low levels of less volatile chemicals and heavy aliphatics in the exposures collect with ULTRA I Tenax TA Passive Sampler for up to 16 hours (minimum time of 4 hours) and request analysis for Mass spec (IMIS code M125). Once the chemicals are characterized the less volatile chemicals, sampling with this sampler will be discontinued.
Sampling for Formaldehyde
  1. In areas where there is potential exposure to combustion products of burning of oil, collect with ChemDisk Aldehyde Passive Sampler for 4 hours. Submit at least one blank for each set of samples. Keep samplers cool before and after sampling. Follow manufacturer’s instructions.
Sampling for Acid Gases

In areas where there is potential exposure to combustion products of burning of oil and other contaminants collect representative samples with pre-filtered silica gel tubes for acid gases . Submit at least one blank for each set of samples. Keep samplers cool before and after sampling. Follow manufacturer’s instructions.

Since the method analyte is the acid ion, any other sources for the ion will be a positive interference. The main concern along the Gulf coast and on the water would be salt spray interfering with the hydrogen chloride analysis. A large part of this could be mitigated through the use of a pre-filter which would capture any spray before the air enters the sampling tube.

The sampling strategy may change due to the results found.

OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center is getting the Reporting IDs for this emergency response.

Special sample handling:

  1. Store samples in a cooler with plastic ice packet after sampling.
  2. Try to avoid sprays of water on samplers during sampling
  3. Use the Reporting ID of this emergency response on Form 91a so the results can be tracked.
Emergency Response to Oil Spill
Additional Direct Reading Sampling:

Noise dosimeter measurements will be collected on job tasks where noise screening indicates levels greater than 85 dba.

Direct reading instruments will be utilized as required to screen and or sample for Ozone, Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Monoxide and VOC’s as indicated by job characteristics.

Characteristics and OELs for Oil

In characterizing worker exposure we are relying on new recommended protective limits set by organizations such as the ACGIH, NIOSH and AIHA , and not on the older, less protective PELS. Results will be compared to the lowest known Occupational Exposure Limit for the listed contaminant for purposes of risk assessment and PPE recommendations.

Oil Components and Dispersants
Analyte OSHA PEL ACGIH TLV NIOSH REL AIHA
WEEL
Vapor Pressure Odor Threshold CAS # IMIS
anthracene             120-12-7 0227
benzene
  • 1 ppm TWA
  • 5 ppm STEL
  • 0.5 ppm Action Level
  • 0.5 ppm TWA
  • 2.5 ppm STEL
  • 0.1 ppm TWA
  • 1 ppm STEL
  10 kPa @ 20°C 4.68 ppm 71-43-2 0320
benzo-alpha-pyrene             50-32-8 0726
butoxyethanol, 2- 50 ppm TWA 20 ppm TWA 5 ppm TWA     0.001 ppm 111-76-2 0435
chrysene             218-01-9 0629
Cyclohexane 300 ppm TWA 100 ppm TWA 300 ppm TWA   12.9 kPa @ 20°C 25 ppm 110-82-7 0810
cyclohexane, methyl- 500 ppm TWA
  • 400 ppm TW
  • 500 ppm TLV
400 ppm TWA   37 mm Hg @ 20°C 498 ppm 108-87-2 1740
decane         0.17 kPa @ 25°C   124-18-5 D166
ethanol 1000 ppm TWA 1000 ppm TWA 1000 ppm TWA   59.3 mm Hg @ 20°C 0.136 ppm 64-17-5 1060
ethyl acetate 400 ppm TWA 400 ppm TWA 400 ppm   76 mm Hg @ 20°C 0.61 ppm 141-78-6 1040
Ethyl Benzene 100 ppm TWA
  • 100 ppm TWA
  • 125 ppm STEL
  • 100 ppm TWA
  • 125 ppm STEL
  0.9 kPa @ 20° 140 ppm 100-41-4 1080
naphthalene 10 ppm TWA
  • 10 ppm TWA
  • 15 ppm STEL
  • 10 ppm TWA
  • 15 ppm STEL
    0.038 ppm 91-20-3 1810
n-hexane 500 ppm TWA 50 ppm TWA 50 ppm TWA   160 mbar @ 20°C   110-54-3 1380
octane 500 ppm TWA 300 ppm TWA
  • 75 ppm TWA
  • 385 ppm C
  14 mm Hg @ 25°C 5.75 ppm 111-65-9 1957
pentane 1000 ppm TWA 600 ppm TWA
  • 120 ppm TWA
  • 610 ppm C
    31.6 ppm 109-66-0 1990
Petroleum Distillates 2000 mg/m3 TWA  
  • 350 mg/m3 TWA
  • 1800 mg/m3 Ceiling
      8002-05-9 2037
phenanthrene             85-01-8 2038
Propylene Glycol       50 ppm 0.08 mm Hg @ 20°C   57-55-6 P108
pyrene             129-00-0 2217
Toluene
  • 200 ppm TWA
  • 300 ppm Ceiling
  • 500 ppm Peak
20 ppm TWA
  • 100 ppm TWA
  • 150 ppm STEL
  3.8 kPA @ 25°C 1.6 ppm 108-88-3 2460
undecane         0.1 kPa @ 20°C   1120-21-4 U106
Xylene 100 ppm TWA
  • 100 ppm TWA
  • 150 ppm STEL
  • 100 ppm TWA
  • 150 ppm STEL
  9 mm Hg @ 20°C 0.62 ppm 1330-20-7 2590

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