- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart Z
- Subpart Title:Toxic and Hazardous Substances
- Standard Number:
- Title:Coke oven emissions.
- GPO Source:
Scope and application. This section applies to the control of employee exposure to coke oven emissions, except that this section shall not apply to working conditions with regard to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards affecting occupational safety and health.
Definitions. For the purpose of this section:
Authorized person means any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the opportunity to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under paragraph (n) of this section.
Beehive oven means a coke oven in which the products of carbonization other than coke are not recovered, but are released into the ambient air.
Coke oven means a retort in which coke is produced by the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal.
Coke oven battery means a structure containing a number of slot-type coke ovens.
Coke oven emissions means the benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter present during the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal for the production of coke.
Director means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, or his or her designee.
Emergency means any occurance such as, but not limited to, equipment failure which is likely to, or does, result in any massive release of coke oven emissions.
Existing coke oven battery means a battery in operation or under construction on January 20, 1977, and which is not a rehabilitated coke oven battery.
Rehabilitated coke oven battery means a battery which is rebuilt, overhauled, renovated, or restored such as from the pad up, after January 20, 1977.
Secretary means the Secretary of Labor, U.S. Department of Labor, or his or her designee.
Stage charging means a procedure by which a predetermined volume of coal in each larry car hopper is introduced into an oven such that no more than two hoppers are discharging simultaneously.
Sequential charging means a procedure, usually automatically timed, by which a predetermined volume of coal in each larry car hopper is introduced into an oven such that no more than two hoppers commence or finish discharging simultaneously although, at some point, all hoppers are discharging simultaneously.
Pipeline charging means any apparatus used to introduce coal into an oven which uses a pipe or duct permanently mounted onto an oven and through which coal is charged.
Green plush means coke which when removed from the oven results in emissions due to the presence of unvolatilized coal.
Permissible exposure limit. The employer shall assure that no employee in the regulated area is exposed to coke oven emissions at concentrations greater than 150 micrograms per cubic meter of air (150 µg/m3), averaged over any 8-hour period.
Exposure monitoring and measurement—
Redetermination. Whenever there has been a production, process, or control change which may result in new or additional exposure to coke oven emissions, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect an increase in employee exposure, the employer shall repeat the monitoring and measurements required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section for those employees affected by such change or increase.
Accuracy of measurement. The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of 95%) of not less than plus or minus 35% for concentrations of coke oven emissions greater than or equal to 150 µg/m3.
Methods of compliance. The employer shall control employee exposure to coke oven emissions by the use of engineering controls, work practices and respiratory protection as follows:
Priority of compliance methods—
Existing coke oven batteries.
The employer shall institute the engineering and work practice controls listed in paragraphs (f)(2), (f)(3) and (f)(4) of this section in existing coke oven batteries at the earliest possible time, but not later than January 20, 1980, except to the extent that the employer can establish that such controls are not feasible. In determining the earliest possible time for institution of engineering and work practice controls, the requirement, effective August 27, 1971, to implement feasible administrative or engineering controls to reduce exposures to coal tar pitch volatiles, shall be considered. Wherever the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall nonetheless use them to reduce exposures to the lowest level achievable by these controls and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.
New or rehabilitated coke oven batteries.
Charging. The employer shall equip and operate existing coke oven batteries with all of the following engineering controls to control coke oven emissions during charging operations:
Drafting from two or more points in the oven being charged, through the use of double collector mains, or a fixed or moveable jumper pipe system to another oven, to effectively remove the gases from the oven to the collector mains;
Coking. The employer shall equip and operate existing coke oven batteries with all of the following engineering controls to control coke oven emissions during coking operations;
Work practice controls—
Charging. The employer shall operate existing coke oven batteries with all of the following work practices to control coke oven emissions during the charging operation:
The oven charged in accordance with the following sequence of requirements:
The aspiration system turned on;
Coal charged through the outermost hoppers, either individually or together depending on the capacity of the aspiration system to collect the gases involved;
The charging holes used under paragraph (f)(3)(i)(b)(3)(ii) of this section relidded or otherwise sealed off to prevent leakage of coke oven emissions;
If four hoppers are used, the third hopper discharged and relidded or otherwise sealed off to prevent leakage of coke oven emissions;
The final hopper discharged until the gas channel at the top of the oven is blocked and then the chuck door opened and the coal leveled;
When the coal from the final hopper is discharged and the leveling operation complete, the charging hole relidded or otherwise sealed off to prevent leakage of coke oven emissions; and
The aspiration system turned off only after the charging holes have been closed.
Coking. The employer shall operate existing coke oven batteries pursuant to a detailed written procedure established and implemented for the control of coke oven emissions during coking, consisting of at least the following elements:
Pushing. The employer shall operate existing coke oven batteries with the following work practices to control coke oven emissions during pushing operations:
Maintenance and repair. The employer shall operate existing coke oven batteries pursuant to a detailed written procedure of maintenance and repair established and implemented for the effective control of coke oven emissions consisting of the following elements:
The employer shall provide standby pulpits on the battery topside, at the wharf, and at ther screening station, equipped with positive-pressure, temperature controlled filtered air.
Emergencies. Whenever an emergency occurs, the next coking cycle may not begin until the cause of the emergency is determined and corrected, unless the employer can establish that it is necessary to initiate the next coking cycle in order to determine the cause of the emergency.
If, after implementing all controls required by paragraph (f)(2)-(f)(4) of this section, or after January 20, 1980, whichever is sooner, or after completion of a new or rehabilitated battery the permissible exposure limit is still exceeded, the employer shall develop a detailed written program and schedule for the implementation of any additional engineering controls and work practices necessary to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.
Training in compliance procedures. The employer shall incorporate all written procedures and schedules required under this paragraph (f) in the information and training program required under paragraph (k) of this section and, where appropriate, post in the regulated area.
Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit.
Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with §1910.134(b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
Protective clothing and equipment—
Provision and use. The employer shall provide and assure the use of appropriate protective clothing and equipment, such as but not limited to:
Face shields or vented goggles which comply with §1910.133(a)(2) of this part;
Safety shoes which comply with §1910.136 of this part; and
Protective helmets which comply with §1910.135 of this part
Cleaning and replacement.
The employer shall provide the protective clothing required by paragraphs (h)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly.
The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothing required by paragraphs (h)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.
The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
Hygiene facilities and practices—
Change rooms. The employer shall provide clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipment whenever employees are required to wear protective clothing and equipment in accordance with paragraph (h)(1) of this section.
The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with §1910.141(d)(3) of this part.
Lunchrooms. The employer shall provide lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled, positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible to employees working in the regulated area.
The employer shall provide lavatory facilities in accordance with §1910.141(d) (1) and (2) of this part.
Prohibition of activities in the regulated area.
The employer shall assure that in the regulated area, food or beverages are not present or consumed, smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except that these activities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showers required under paragraphs (i)(1)-(i)(3) of this section.
Initial examinations. At the time of initial assignment to a regulated area or upon the institution of the medical surveillance program, the employer shall provide a medical examination for employees covered under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section including at least the following elements:
A 14- by 17-inch or other reasonably-sized standard film or digital posterior-anterior chest X-ray;
The employer shall provide the examinations specified in paragraphs (j)(2)(i) and (iii) through (vi) of this section at least annually for employees covered under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section.
The employer must provide the examinations specified in paragraphs (j)(2)(i) and (iii) through (vii) of this section at least annually for employees 45 years of age or older or with five (5) or more years employment in the regulated area.
Whenever an employee who is 45 years of age or older or with five (5) or more years employment in a regulated area transfers or is transferred from employment in a regulated area, the employer must continue to provide the examinations specified in paragraphs (j)(2)(i) and (iii) through (vii) of this section at least annually as long as that employee is employed by the same employer or a successor employer.
Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information to the examining physician:
Physician's written opinion.
Employee information and training—
Access to training materials.
Hazard communication—general. The employer shall include coke oven emissions in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of chemicals and substances associated with coke oven processes and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and paragraph (k) of this section. The employer shall ensure that at least the following hazard is addressed: Cancer.
COKE OVEN EMISSIONS
MAY CAUSE CANCER
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
NO SMOKING OR EATING
CONTAMINATED WITH COKE EMISSIONS
MAY CAUSE CANCER
DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING
CLOTHING CONTAMINATED WITH COKE EMISSIONS
DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING
Exposure measurements. The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to coke oven emissions required in paragraph (e) of this section.
Name and job classification of the employees monitored;
Medical surveillance. The employer shall establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by paragraph (j) of this section.
The name and description of duties of the employee;
Transfer of records.
Observation of monitoring—
Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their representatives an opportunity to observe any measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to coke oven emissions conducted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.
Whenever observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to coke oven emissions requires entry into an area where the ues of protective clothing or equipment is required, the employer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of such equipment and shall require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
Appendices. The information contained in the appendixes to this section is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, 41 FR 46784, Oct. 22, 1976, as amended at 42 FR 3304, Jan. 18, 1977; 45 FR 35283, May 23, 1980; 50 FR 37353, 37354, Sept. 13, 1985; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996; 63 FR 1290, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33468, June 18, 1998; 70 FR 1142, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16672, 16673, Apr. 3, 2006; 71 FR 50189, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75585, Dec. 12, 2008; 76 FR 33608, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17782, Mar. 26, 2012; 84 FR 21490, May 14, 2019]