Synonyms: Zinc Chloride; Zinc dichloride fume
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2611
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7646-85-7
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: ZH1400000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2331 154
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Zinc chloride fume: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 50 mg/m3
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; conjunctivitis; cough, copious sputum; dyspnea, chest pain, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); pneumonitis; pulmonary fibrosis; cor pulmonale; headache, sore throat, fever; cyanosis; tachypnea; skin burns, pain, redness; eye pain, redness, severe deep burns
Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Acute lung damage---Acute respiratory distress syndrome (HE11); Mutagen (HE2)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, cardiovascular system
- Zinc chloride fume is generated during ignition of smoke bombs containing zinc oxide, hexachloroethane, calcium silicate, as well as some minor components. In an aqueous environment, zinc chloride, in turn, also generates other corrosive chemicals, hydrochloric acid and zinc oxychloride.
- As an essential element, zinc is a cofactor for over 200 biologically important enzymes and has a recommended daily adult allowance of 15 mg.
- Zinc chloride is listed by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe nutrient when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice (21 CFR 182.8985).
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Zinc chloride fume.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Zinc chloride.
- Barceloux, D.G.: Zinc. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 37(2): 279-292, 1999.
- Pettilä, V., Takkunen, O. and Tukiainen, P.: Zinc chloride smoke inhalation: a rare cause of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 26(2): 215-217, 2000.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Zinc chloride. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2354-2356.
- Zerahn, B., et al.: Pulmonary damage after modest exposure to zinc chloride smoke. Respir. Med. 93(12): 885-890, 1999.
Date Last Revised: 08/26/2004
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
analytical solvent: Deionized Water
maximum volume: 960 Liters
minimum volume: 480 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (TWA)
maximum volume: 30 Liters
maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (STEL)
current analytical method: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; AAS
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-121)
method classification: Validated
note: If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period. Analytical method does not distinguish between dust and fume. When analysis of a compound is requested, an elemental analysis is performed and reported as the compound. Analysis is for water soluble compounds and reported as ZnCl2.
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