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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: 1,1-Dichloroethene; 1,1-Dichloroethylene; 1,1-DCE; VDC; Vinylidene chloride monomer; Vinylidene dichloride

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2583

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-35-4

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KV9275000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1303 130P (inhibited)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Vinylidene Chloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 ppm TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [59 KB PDF, 18 pages]

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, throat, skin; headache, nausea, dyspnea; dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; liver, kidney disturbance; pneumonitis; conjunctivitis; dermatitis with drying and cracking; [potential occupational carcinogen] INGES ACUTE: Abdominal pain; sore throat.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Explosive, Flammable (HE18).

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys.

Notes:

  1. OSHA does not have a PEL for vinylidene chloride, a compound used in shrink-wrap copolymers such as Saran®.
  2. Lung (Clara cell), liver and kidney damage and tumors in mice given vinylidene chloride are thought to be due to a reactive epoxide metabolite produced mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1, an oxidase found in several mouse tissues, including the kidneys of males, as well as in human lung and liver, but not in human kidney.
  3. Extremely flammable; vapor/air mixtures are explosive.

Date Last Revised: 12/02/2004

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Vinylidene Chloride.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Vinylidene chloride.
  • Forkert, P.G.: Mechanisms of 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced cytotoxicity in lung and liver. Drug Metab. Rev. 33(1): 49-80, 2001.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Vinylidene Chloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2329-2331.
  • Speerschneider, P. and Dekant, W.: Renal tumorigenicity of 1,1-dichloroethene in mice: the role of male-specific expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the renal bioactivation of 1,1-dichloroethene. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130(1): 48-56, 1995.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 19)
    method classification: Fully Validated
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