Synonyms: 1,1-Dichloroethene; 1,1-Dichloroethylene; 1,1-DCE; VDC; Vinylidene chloride monomer; Vinylidene dichloride
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2583
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-35-4
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KV9275000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1303 130P (inhibited)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Vinylidene Chloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 ppm TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [59 KB PDF, 18 pages]
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, throat, skin; headache, nausea, dyspnea; dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; liver, kidney disturbance; pneumonitis; conjunctivitis; dermatitis with drying and cracking; [potential occupational carcinogen] INGES ACUTE: Abdominal pain; sore throat.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Explosive, Flammable (HE18).
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys.
- OSHA does not have a PEL for vinylidene chloride, a compound used in shrink-wrap copolymers such as Saran®.
- Lung (Clara cell), liver and kidney damage and tumors in mice given vinylidene chloride are thought to be due to a reactive epoxide metabolite produced mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1, an oxidase found in several mouse tissues, including the kidneys of males, as well as in human lung and liver, but not in human kidney.
- Extremely flammable; vapor/air mixtures are explosive.
Date Last Revised: 12/02/2004
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Vinylidene Chloride.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Vinylidene chloride.
- Forkert, P.G.: Mechanisms of 1,1-dichloroethylene-induced cytotoxicity in lung and liver. Drug Metab. Rev. 33(1): 49-80, 2001.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Vinylidene Chloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2329-2331.
- Speerschneider, P. and Dekant, W.: Renal tumorigenicity of 1,1-dichloroethene in mice: the role of male-specific expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the renal bioactivation of 1,1-dichloroethene. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130(1): 48-56, 1995.
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
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- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
maximum volume: 3 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 19)
method classification: Fully Validated
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