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General Description

  • Synonyms: Vinyl trichloride; beta-Trichloroethane
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2495
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-00-5
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ3150000
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 55 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose; dermatitis; CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; headache, nausea; shortness of breath; liver, kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]
  • Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys
  • Notes:
    1. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane is absorbed through the skin. The percutaneous LD-25 in guinea pigs was 0.25 milliliter, and the LD-100 was 0.5 milliliter.
    2. The major urinary metabolites of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents are S-carboxy-methylcysteine (free and conjugated), chloroacetic acid, and thiodiacetic acid. Another metabolite, carbon dioxide, is eliminated in expired air, along with unchanged 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
    3. A single dose of radiolabeled 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents caused covalent labeling of DNA, RNA and protein in the organs tested (liver, kidney, lung, stomach), indicating the formation of reactive metabolites.
    4. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: evidence of genotoxicity from short-term tests. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77(6): 532-539, 1986.
    • Mitoma, C., Steeger, T., Jackson, S.E., Wheeler, K.P., Rogers, J.H. and Milman, H.A.: Metabolic disposition study of chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats and mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 8(3): 183-194, 1985.
    • No authors listed: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 52: 337-359, 1991.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2248-2250.
  • Date Last Revised: 11/04/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 11)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Charcoal pad
  • note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.

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