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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Vinyl trichloride; beta-Trichloroethane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2495

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-00-5

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ3150000

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 55 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [1 MB PDF, 23 pages]
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose; dermatitis; CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; headache, nausea; shortness of breath; liver, kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]

Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)

Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys

  1. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane is absorbed through the skin. The percutaneous LD-25 in guinea pigs was 0.25 milliliter, and the LD-100 was 0.5 milliliter.
  2. The major urinary metabolites of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents are S-carboxy-methylcysteine (free and conjugated), chloroacetic acid, and thiodiacetic acid. Another metabolite, carbon dioxide, is eliminated in expired air, along with unchanged 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
  3. A single dose of radiolabeled 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents caused covalent labeling of DNA, RNA and protein in the organs tested (liver, kidney, lung, stomach), indicating the formation of reactive metabolites.
  4. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
Date Last Revised: 11/04/2005

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: evidence of genotoxicity from short-term tests. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77(6): 532-539, 1986.
  • Mitoma, C., Steeger, T., Jackson, S.E., Wheeler, K.P., Rogers, J.H. and Milman, H.A.: Metabolic disposition study of chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats and mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 8(3): 183-194, 1985.
  • No authors listed: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 52 [85 KB PDF, 35 pages]: 337-359, 1991.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2248-2250.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 11)
    method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • sampling media: Charcoal pad
    note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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Page last updated: 09/05/2006

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