American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 55 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)
1,1,2-Trichloroethane is absorbed through the skin. The percutaneous LD-25 in guinea pigs was 0.25 milliliter, and the LD-100 was 0.5 milliliter.
The major urinary metabolites of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents are S-carboxy-methylcysteine (free and conjugated), chloroacetic acid, and thiodiacetic acid. Another metabolite, carbon dioxide, is eliminated in expired air, along with unchanged 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
A single dose of radiolabeled 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents caused covalent labeling of DNA, RNA and protein in the organs tested (liver, kidney, lung, stomach), indicating the formation of reactive metabolites.
EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2248-2250.
Date Last Revised: 11/04/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
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