- Synonyms: Vinyl trichloride; beta-Trichloroethane
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2495
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-00-5
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ3150000
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 55 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose; dermatitis; CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; headache, nausea; shortness of breath; liver, kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]
- Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys
- 1,1,2-Trichloroethane is absorbed through the skin. The percutaneous LD-25 in guinea pigs was 0.25 milliliter, and the LD-100 was 0.5 milliliter.
- The major urinary metabolites of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents are S-carboxy-methylcysteine (free and conjugated), chloroacetic acid, and thiodiacetic acid. Another metabolite, carbon dioxide, is eliminated in expired air, along with unchanged 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
- A single dose of radiolabeled 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents caused covalent labeling of DNA, RNA and protein in the organs tested (liver, kidney, lung, stomach), indicating the formation of reactive metabolites.
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: evidence of genotoxicity from short-term tests. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77(6): 532-539, 1986.
- Mitoma, C., Steeger, T., Jackson, S.E., Wheeler, K.P., Rogers, J.H. and Milman, H.A.: Metabolic disposition study of chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats and mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 8(3): 183-194, 1985.
- No authors listed: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 52: 337-359, 1991.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2248-2250.
- Date Last Revised: 11/04/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- maximum volume: 10 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 11)
- method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- Charcoal pad
- note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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