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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: TCA; Trichloroethanoic acid; Amchem grass killer; Konesta; Varitox; Aceto-caustin

OSHA IMIS Code Number: T337

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 76-03-9

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AJ7875000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1839 153 (solid); 2564 153 (solution)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Trichloroacetic Acid: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 ppm, 6.7 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm TWA

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, Not Classifiable as to its Carcinogenicity to Humans [494 KB PDF, 38 pages]

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): Group A3, Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, Possible Human Carcinogen

Potential symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat, respiratory system; cough, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), pulmonary edema (may be delayed); headache; sore throat; eye, skin burns; dermatitis; salivation, vomiting, diarrhea; INGES ACUTE: Burning sensation; abdominal pain; shock or collapse.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Acute lung damage/edema (HE11).

Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, GI tract

Notes:

  1. There is no OSHA PEL for TCA.
  2. TCA is a metabolite of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylchloroform, and the drug, chloral hydrate.
  3. TCA has been measured in the urine, where higher levels were found in urban populations drinking chlorinated water.
  4. TCA is a liver carcinogen in mice (but not in rats) with questionable relevance to humans.

Date Last Revised: 07/14/2004

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Trichloroacetic Acid.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Trichloroacetic acid.
  • Bull R.J., et al.: Contribution of dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate to liver tumor induction in mice by trichloroethylene. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 182(1): 55-65, 2002.
  • Calafat, A.M., Kuklenyik, Z., Caudill, S.P. and Ashley, D.L.: Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water, in a human reference population. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(2): 151-154, 2003.
  • Forkert, P.-G., Lash, L., Tardif, R., Tanphaichitr, N., Vandevoort, C. and Moussa, M.: Identification of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in human seminal fluid of workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Drug Metab. Dispos. 31(3): 306-311, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Trichloroacetic Acid. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp.2239-2241.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Silica Gel Tube (150/75 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Deionized Water
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2017)
    method classification: Partially Validated
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