- Synonyms: Dioxin; Dioxine; TCDBD; TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2326
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 1746-01-6
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: HP3500000
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-Dioxin: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Potential Symptoms: Eye irritation; allergic dermatitis, chloracne; porphyria; headache; weakness; gastrointestinal disturbance; possible reproductive, teratogenic effects. In animals: liver, kidney damage; hemorrhage; endometriosis; developmental neurotoxicity; immunosuppression; endocrine disturbances, reproductive problems; [potential occupational carcinogen].
- Health Effects: Known human carcinogen (HE2); Chronic toxicity---Chloracne, hyperlipidemia (HE3); Irritation-Eyes, nose, throat, skin---Moderate (HE15)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, reproductive system
- The body burden LOAEL for chloracne has been estimated to be 160 ng/kg. A 2001 follow-up study of 12 workers who acquired TCDD-induced chloracne in the late 1960s indicated that two still had it.
- Up to 30 years or more following occupational exposure, high incidences of hyperlipidemia (cholesterol, triglycerides), ischaemic heart disease (atherosclerosis, thicker carotid wall and plaques, hypertension), and neuropsychological complaints (e.g., memory) have been reported.
- TCDD binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and, due to a very slow elimination in humans (half-life >7 years), this can lead to chronic activation of AhR-driven gene expression, including induction of several drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase), which may bind TCDD (e.g., CYP 1A2) but do not metabolize it.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
- Cole, P., Trichopoulos, D., Pastides, H., Starr, T. and Mandel, J.S.: Dioxin and cancer: a critical review. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(3): 378-388, 2003.
- Greene, J.F., Hays, S. and Paustenbach, D.: Basis for a proposed reference dose (RfD) for dioxin of 1-10 pg/kg-day: a weight of evidence evaluation of the human and animal studies. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 6(2): 115-159, 2003.
- Inouye, K., Shinkyo, R., Takita, T., Ohta, M. and Sakaki, T.: Metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) by human cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(19): 5496-5502, 2002.
- Kakeyama, M. and Tohyama, C.: Developmental neurotoxicity of dioxin and its related compounds. Ind. Health 41(3): 215-230, 2003.
- Miller, K.P., Borgeest, C., Greenfeld, C., Tomic, D. and Flaws, J.A.: In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198(2): 111-131, 2004.
- Pelclová, D., et al.: Lipid metabolism and neuropsychological follow-up study of workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 75(Suppl.): S60-S66, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2158-2160.
- Takemoto, K., Nakajima, M., Fujiki, Y., Katoh, Miki, Gonzalez, F.J. and Yokoi, T.: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Cyp 1b1 in the antiestrogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Arch. Toxicol. 78(6): 309-315, 2004.
- Uno, S., et al.: Cyp1a1(-/-) male mice: protection against high-dose TCDD-induced lethality and wasting syndrome, and resistance to intrahypatocyte lipid accumulation and uroporphyria. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 196(3): 410-421, 2004.
- Date Last Revised: 08/13/2004
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Call the Salt Lake Technical Center (SLTC) for sampling procedure.
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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