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Synonyms: 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha, alpha, 4-trimethyl-; p-meth-1-en-8ol; Mixture of alpha, beta & gamma-Terpineol; Terpene alcohol
OSHA IMIS Code Number: T139
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 8006-39-1
Other Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers: 98-55-5 (alpha-Terpineol)
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: WZ6600000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
molecular weight: 154.28
vapor pressure: 10.501 mmHg @ 20°C
molecular formula: C10H18O
boiling point: 214-224°C
melting point: 0-2°C
flash point: 90°C closed cup
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- OSHA does not have a PEL for terpineol.
- Both alpha-terpineol (CAS 98-55-5) and beta-terpineol (CAS 138-87-4) are listed by the FDA as synthetic flavoring substances that are permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption (21 CFR 172.515).
- alpha-Terpineol also is regulated as a denaturant for alcohol (27 CFR 21.106).
- alpha-Terpineol has been studied as a facilitator of drug absorption through the skin.
- Postmortem concentrations of 1-alpha-pineol in blood, urine, and gastric contents of a woman who died of after accidentally drinking PineSol disinfectant cleaner were 11.2 mg/L, 5.76 mg/L and 15.3 g/L, respectively.
- Pine oil having alpha-terpineol as a major component caused death from acute pulmonary edema within 4 minutes of an intravenous injection of 0.1 ml/kg in a horse. Horses given 1/3 that dose showed an apparent half-life in plasma of 12.5 minutes for alpha-terpineol and, after initial respiratory difficulty (1-5 minutes), survived until euthanasia 24 hours later. Necropsy indicated patchy interstitial pneumonia, alveolar congestion and edema with fibrin formation.
- In human volunteers, alpha-terpineol was reported to have an odor threshold of 0.86 mg/m3 and to cause less eye irritation than n-butanol.
- Cording, C.J., Vallaro, G.M., Deluca, R., Camporese, T. and Spratt, E.: A fatality due to accidental PineSol ingestion. J. Anal. Toxicol. 24(7): 664-667, 2000.
- Godwin, D.A. and Michniak, B.B.: Influence of drug lipophilicity on terpenes as transdermal penetration enhancers. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 25(8): 905-915, 1999.
- Mølhave, L., et al.: The eye irritation and odor potencies of four terpenes which are major constituents of the emission of VOCs from Nordic soft woods. Indoor Air 10(4): 315-318, 2000.
- Tobin, T., Swerczek, T.W. and Blake, J.W.: Pine oil toxicity in the horse: drug detection, residues and pathological changes. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 15(2): 291-301, 1976.
Date Last Revised: 05/10/2007
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: (95:5) Carbon disulfide: Isopropanol
alternative analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon disulfide: Dimethyl formamide
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: OSHA (In-House File)
method classification: Not Validated
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