Health Effects: Cumulative liver, kidney and bone marrow damage (HE3) CNS effects (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15).
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, CNS, liver, kidneys, GI tract
Vapor/air mixtures of pyridine may be explosive.
Pyridine is listed among FDA's "food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption" (21 CFR 172.515).
EPA's reference dose (RfD, daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for pyridine is 0.001 mg/kg/day.
Chronic oral ingestion of pyridine by mice in daily doses up to 70 mg/kg caused a dose-related increase in incidence of liver cancer, whereas rats receiving up to 36 mg/kg daily showed liver and kidney damage.
Urinary metabolites of radiolabeled pyridine given orally to two volunteers included pyridine N-oxide (32% of the dose) and N-methylpyridinium ion (6-12% of the dose).
Damani, L.A., Crooks, P.A., Shaker, M.S., Caldwell, J., D'Souza, J. and Smith, R.L.: Species differences in the metabolic C- and N-oxidation, and N-methylation of [14C]pyridine in vivo. Xenobiotica12(8): 527-534, 1982.
National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pyridine (CAS No. 110-86-1) in F344/N rats, Wistar rats, and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). Nat. Toxicol. Program Tech. Rep. Ser. 470: 1-330, 2000.
Nikula, K.J. and Lewis, J.L.: Olfactory mucosal lesions in F344 rats following inhalation exposure to pyridine at threshold limit value concentrations. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.23(4): 510-517, 1994.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Pyridine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1988-1990.
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