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Synonyms: Pyrethrin I or II; Cinerin I or II; Jasmolin I or II [Note: Pyrethrum is a variable mixture of Cinerin, Jasmolin, and Pyrethrin.]
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2216
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 8003-34-7
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: UR4200000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Pyrethrum: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more.
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 5 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 5 mg/m3 TWA
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 5 mg/m3 TWA
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 mg/m3 TWA
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 5,000 mg/m3
Potential Symptoms: Skin erythema, dermatitis, papules, pruritis, paresthesias (abnormal skin sensations); rhinorrhea, sneezing, asthma; headache, nausea, vomiting; INGES. ACUTE: Numbness of tongue and lips; excitation, convulsions; tetanic paralysis; muscular fibrillation; respiratory failure.
Health Effects: Contact and allergic dermatitis (HE3); Irritation-Eye, Skin---Mild (HE16); Nervous system disturbances (HE7)
Affected Organs: Respiratory system, skin, CNS
Date Last Revised: 02/01/2006
- Pyrethrum is a mixture of pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II, which are extracted from plant sources (Chrysanthemum cincerariaefolium).
- Their mechanism of excitatory neurotoxicity appears to involve effects on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in nerve membranes that cause these channels to remain open longer than normal. Mutations of channel protein leading to resistance to neurotoxicity have been identified in various insects.
- The measurement of urinary chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid has been proposed as a method for biomonitoring pyrethrum exposure. Urinary metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides are described in a June 2005 CDC report.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Pyrethrum.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Pyrethrum.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pyrethroids pesticides. In Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, June 2005, DHHS/CDC. Atlanta: National Center for Environmental Health Division of Laboratory Sciences, NCEH Pub. No. 05-0570, pp. 405-415.
- Bass, C., Schroeder, I., Turberg, A., Field, L.M. and Williamson, M.S.: Identification of mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in the para-type sodium channel of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34(12): 1305-1313, 2004.
- Elflein, L., Berger-Preiss, E., Preiss, A., Elend, M., Levsen, K. and Wunsch, G.: Human biomonitoring of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides used indoors: determination of the metabolites E-cis/trans-chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 795(2): 195-207, 2003.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Pyrethrins or Pyrethrum. In Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1986-1988.
- Sonderlund, D.M., et al. Mechanisms of pyrethroid neurotoxicity: implications for cumulative risk assessment. Toxicology 171(1): 3-59, 2002.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- sampling media: OSHA Versatile Sampler (OVS-2) - 13 mm XAD-2 tube (270/140 mg sections, 20/40 mesh) with Glass Fiber filter enclosed
analytical solvent: Toluene
maximum volume: 60 Liters
maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 70)
method classification: Fully Validated
Bulk method: Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.
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