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OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2217
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 129-00-0
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: UR2450000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
Pale yellow or colorless solid in various forms
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles
molecular formula: C16H10
molecular weight: 202.26
boiling point: 399°C
melting point: 158°C
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- See Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Potential symptoms: Redness of skin, eyes; chronic discoloration of skin with exposure to sunlight.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Skin---Mild (HE-16)
Affected organs: Eyes, skin
- Pyrene is metabolized to 1-hydroxy-pyrene by the cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2.
- Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (or its glucuronide conjugate) has been used as a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in various occupations, such as asphalt paving workers, coke oven workers, and highway toll-station workers.
- Pyrene-1,6-dione and pyrene-1,8-dione have recently been identified as pyrene metabolites in urine (rat and human), the former occurring in 4-12-fold greater amounts than 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of pyrene-exposed humans. Measurement of unchanged pyrene in urine has also been reported for exposed workers.
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of pyrene is 0.03 mg/kg/day.
Section Last Revised: 12/07/2005
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Pyrene.
- U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System: Pyrene (CASRN 129-00-0).
- Campo, L., et al.: Biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by determination of unmetabolized compounds in urine. Toxicol. Lett. (Epub Oct. 20), 2005.
- Huang, W., et al.: Comparison of 1-hydroxypyrene exposure in the US population with that in occupational exposure studies. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 77(7): 491-498, 2004.
- Kim, Y.-D., et al.: Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in 1-hydroxylation of pyrene. Environ. Res. 94(3): 262-266, 2004.
- Lai, C.-H., et al.: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide as a biomarker of exposure to various vehicle exhausts among highway toll-station workers in Taipei, Taiwan. Arch. Environ. Health 59(2): 61-69, 2004.
- McClean, M.D., et al.: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure among asphalt paving workers. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 48(6): 565-578, 2004.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Pyrene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1985-1986.
- Ruzgyte, A., Bouchard, M. and Viau, C.: Development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of pyrene-1,6- and 1,8-dione in animal and human urine. J. Anal. Toxicol. 29(6): 533-538, 2005.
- Siwińska, E., Mielżyńska, D. and Kapka, L.: Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 61(3): e10 (7 pp.).
sampling media: Pre-cleaned Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
analytical solvent: Benzene
maximum volume: 960 Liters maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV/FLU
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 58)
method classification: Fully Validated (In conjuction with Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles and Coke Oven Emissions)
note: OSHA personnel can obtain pre-cleaned filters, vials, and Teflon-lined caps from SLTC. After sampling, filter must be transferred to a glass vial with a PTFE-lined cap. Sample must be protected from direct sunlight.
note: Pyrene is a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon that OSHA has identified as one of a number of typical components of the benzene-soluble fraction of coal tar pitch volatiles. Other components include anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, acridine, and chrysene. There is no specific OSHA PEL for pyrene. Pyrene is characteristic of cold tar pitch volatiles (PEL is 0.2 mg/m3) and/or coke oven emissions (PEL is 0.15 mg/m3).
- Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.