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Propane

General Description

  • Synonyms: Dimethyl methane; LPG
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2150
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 74-98-6
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TX2275000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1075 115; 1978 115
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Propane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
  • Related chemical:

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2017): See Appendix F: Minimal Oxygen Content
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1000 ppm (1800 mg/m3) TWA

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 2100 ppm (lower explosive limit)
  • Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, disorientation (confusion), excitation (hallucinations, euphoria); nausea, vomiting; unconsciousness; cardiac arrest (asphyxia); frostbite (contact with liquid); long-term intermittent exposure to high concentrations can cause nosebleeds, rhinitis, oral and nasal ulcerations, conjunctivitis, bloodshot eyes, anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, fatigue and damage to the CNS.
  • Health Effects: Explosive (HE18); CNS effects (HE7); Asphyxiant (HE17)
  • Affected Organs: CNS
  • Date Last Revised: 07/10/2003
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Propane.
    • Fonseca, C.A., Auerbach, D.S. and Suarez, R.V.: The forensic investigation of propane gas asphyxiation. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 23(2): 167-169, 2002.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Two Carbosieve S-III tubes in series (130/65 mg sections)
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • maximum volume: 5.0 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2077)
  • method classification: Partially Validated
  • Combustible Gas Meter
  • method reference: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NIOSH S87)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: AUER/MSA
  • model/type: Propane-200, MSA P/N 804418, AUER P/N 5086-831
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 4000 ppm
  • detection limit: approx. 200 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Dräger
  • model/type: Hydrocarbons 0.1%/b, order no. CH 26101
  • sampling information: 7 to 15 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 1.3 Vol.-%
  • detection limit: approx. 0.5 Vol.-%
  • overall uncertainty: 49%
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 103
  • sampling information: 0.5 to 2 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 2.4%
  • detection limit: 0.05%
  • overall uncertainty: 16%
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-125SA
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 0.5%
  • detection limit: approx. 0.02%
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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