Synonyms: Azacyclohexane; Cyclopentimine; Cypentil; Hexahydropyridine; Hexazane; Pentamethyleneimine; Pentamethylenimine; Pyridine, Hexahydro-
OSHA IMIS Code Number: R269
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 110-89-4
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TM3500000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2401 132
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
colorless liquid with a characteristic odor
molecular weight: 85.17
vapor pressure: 5.3 kPa @ 29.2°C
molecular formula: C5H11N
boiling point: 106°C
melting point: -7°C
flash point: 16°C closed cup
Incompatibilities: Reacts violently with oxidants. Reacts violently with dicyanofurazan, N-nitrosoacetanilide and 1-perchloryl-piperidine, causing explosion hazard.
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory tract; cough, sore throat; dizziness, shortness of breath, labored breathing, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); eye pain, redness, burns, blurred vision; SKIN ABS.: Skin redness, pain, burns; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation, abdominal pain; shock or collapse.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Pulmonary edema (HE4)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- Vapor/air mixtures of piperidine may be explosive.
- Although OSHA does not have a PEL for piperidine, an occupational exposure level of 1 ppm, TWA (with skin absorption designation), was recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association in the early 1980s.
- Piperidine is listed among FDA’s “food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption” (21 CFR 172.515).
- Adverse effects reported for doses of piperidine (as the hydrochloride salt) ranging from 300 to 3,200 mg/day in divided doses given to five schizophrenic patients were limited to nausea and vomiting in one patient and nausea in another patient at the 3,200 mg/day dose.
- Patch testing indicated positive results from piperidine in some patients (medical personnel) with allergic contact dermatitis from rubber gloves.
- Major urinary metabolites of piperidine, from either endogenous or exogenous sources in rats, were reported to be 3-hydroxypiperidine and 4-hydroxypiperidine.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Piperidine.
- Kaniwa, M., et al.: Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber gloves. Contact Dermatitis 31(2): 65-71, 1994.
- Luchins, D.J., et al.: Piperidine in chronic schizophrenic patients: a controlled double-blind study. Biol. Psychiat. 16(1): 91-95, 1981.
- No authors listed: Piperidine. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 43(1): B91-B92, 1982.
- Okano, Y., et al.: Metabolites of piperidine in rat urine. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 28(1): 41-47, 1978.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Piperidine. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1895-1897.
Date Last Revised: 02/02/2007
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (Wisconsin OHL):
- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections)
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: (WOHL)
method classification: Not Validated
analytical condition: SPB-5 Column
** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.