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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Azacyclohexane; Cyclopentimine; Cypentil; Hexahydropyridine; Hexazane; Pentamethyleneimine; Pentamethylenimine; Pyridine, Hexahydro-

OSHA IMIS Code Number: R269

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 110-89-4

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TM3500000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2401 132

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

colorless liquid with a characteristic odor
molecular weight: 85.17
vapor pressure: 5.3 kPa @ 29.2°C
molecular formula: C5H11N
boiling point: 106°C
melting point: -7°C
flash point: 16°C closed cup

Incompatibilities: Reacts violently with oxidants. Reacts violently with dicyanofurazan, N-nitrosoacetanilide and 1-perchloryl-piperidine, causing explosion hazard.

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory tract; cough, sore throat; dizziness, shortness of breath, labored breathing, pulmonary edema (may be delayed); eye pain, redness, burns, blurred vision; SKIN ABS.: Skin redness, pain, burns; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation, abdominal pain; shock or collapse.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Pulmonary edema (HE4)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system

Notes:

  1. Vapor/air mixtures of piperidine may be explosive.
  2. Although OSHA does not have a PEL for piperidine, an occupational exposure level of 1 ppm, TWA (with skin absorption designation), was recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association in the early 1980s.
  3. Piperidine is listed among FDAs food additives permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption (21 CFR 172.515).
  4. Adverse effects reported for doses of piperidine (as the hydrochloride salt) ranging from 300 to 3,200 mg/day in divided doses given to five schizophrenic patients were limited to nausea and vomiting in one patient and nausea in another patient at the 3,200 mg/day dose.
  5. Patch testing indicated positive results from piperidine in some patients (medical personnel) with allergic contact dermatitis from rubber gloves.
  6. Major urinary metabolites of piperidine, from either endogenous or exogenous sources in rats, were reported to be 3-hydroxypiperidine and 4-hydroxypiperidine.

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Piperidine.
  • Kaniwa, M., et al.: Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber gloves. Contact Dermatitis 31(2): 65-71, 1994.
  • Luchins, D.J., et al.: Piperidine in chronic schizophrenic patients: a controlled double-blind study. Biol. Psychiat. 16(1): 91-95, 1981.
  • No authors listed: Piperidine. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 43(1): B91-B92, 1982.
  • Okano, Y., et al.: Metabolites of piperidine in rat urine. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 28(1): 41-47, 1978.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Piperidine. In, Sittigs Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1895-1897.

Date Last Revised: 02/02/2007

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (Wisconsin OHL):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections)
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: (WOHL)
    method classification: Not Validated
    analytical condition: SPB-5 Column

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