- Synonyms: 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic anhydride; 1,2 Benzene-dicarboxylic acid anhydride; 1,3, Dioxophthalan; 1,3 Isobenzoflurandione; PAN; Phthalic acid anhydride
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2110
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 85-44-9
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: TI3150000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2214 156
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Phthalic Anhydride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1992): 1 ppm (6.1 mg/m3) TWA; dermal sensitizer (DSEM); respiratory sensitizer (RSEN); A4
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm (6 mg/m3) TWA
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 60 mg/m3
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, upper respiratory system, conjunctivitis, nasal ulcer bleeding; cough, sore throat, wheezing, bronchitis; bronchial asthma; dermatitis; in animals: liver, kidney damage
- Health Effects: Irritation- Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14) Asthma (HE9); Contact skin irritant and sensitizer (HE3)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for phthalic anhydride is 2.0 mg/kg/day. EPA's provisional reference concentration in air is 0.12 mg/m3.
- Irritation of moist mucosa or wet skin may be due to the conversion of phthalic anhydride to phthalic acid by contact with water.
- The urinary excretion of phthalic acid has been measured to study employee exposure to airborne phthalic anhydride.
- Phthalic anhydride in plastic film and labels used to package meats was reported to be the major cause of "meat wrapper's asthma."
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Phthalic anhydride.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Phthalic anhydride.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Phthalic anhydride. US Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Liss, G.M., Albro, P.W., Hartle, R.W. and Stringer, W.T.: Urine phthalate determinations as an index of occupational exposure to phthalic anhydride and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 11(5): 381-387, 1985.
- Pauli, G., et al.: Meat wrapper's asthma: identification of the causal agent. Clin. Allergy 10(3): 263-269, 1980.
- Pfaffli, P.: Phthalic acid excretion as an indicator of exposure to phthalic anhydride in the work atmosphere. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 58(3): 209-216, 1986.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Phthalic anhydride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1879-1881.
- Date Last Revised: 09/27/2006
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Two Coated Glass Fiber Filters (37 mm) Coating is 10 mg Veratryamine
- analytical solvent: (90:10) Acetonitrile: Dimethylsulfoxide
- maximum volume: 75 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
- current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
- method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 90)
- method classification: Fully Validated
- note: Store filters under refrigeration and use within 1 month. Small interfering peaks start appearing after that time.
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